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Encyclopedia > TGF beta
Transforming growth factor beta-1

Solution Structure Of Tgf-B1, Nmr, Minimized Average Structure Image File history File links TGFbeta1. ...

Other names: TGF-beta-1
Genetic data
Gene code: HUGO code:TGFB1
Protein Structure/Function
Structure: Molecular structure
Protein type: TGF beta family
Functions: cell differentiation, growth, cell proliferation
Other
Taxa expressing: Homo sapiens; homologs: many metazoan phyla
Cell types: many
Subcellular localization: extracellular
Covalent modifications: glycosylation
Medical/Biotechnological data
Diseases: Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) 131300, Modifier of Cystic fibrosis
Transforming growth factor beta-2
Other names: TGF-beta-2, Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, G-TSF, BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor, Polyergin, Cetermin
Genetic data
Gene code: HUGO code:TGFB2
Protein Structure/Function
Structure: Molecular structure
Protein type: TGF beta family
Other
Taxa expressing: Homo sapiens; homologs: many metazoan phyla
Cell types: many
Subcellular localization: extracellular
Covalent modifications: glycosylation
Transforming growth factor beta-3
Other names: TGF-beta-3
Genetic data
Gene code: HUGO code:TGFB3
Protein Structure/Function
Structure: Molecular structure
Protein type: TGF beta family
Functions: cell differentiation, embryogenesis
Domains: TGFB
Other
Taxa expressing: Homo sapiens; homologs: many metazoan phyla
Cell types: many
Subcellular localization: extracellular
Covalent modifications: glycosylation
Medical/Biotechnological data
Diseases: Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia 1

Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF beta) is a biological protein. It is one of a family of proteins known as the TGF-beta superfamily which includes inhibins, activin, anti-müllerian hormone, bone morphogenetic protein, decapentaplegic and Vg-1. TGF beta controls proliferation, differentiation, and other functions in most cell types. It can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Hugo is a masculine name. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a type. The morphology of a cell may change dramatically during differentiation, but the genetic material remains the same, with few exceptions. ... Growth can mean increase in spatial number or complexity for concrete entities in time or increase in some other dimension for abstract or hard-to-measure entities. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... There are about 210 types of human cells. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular means outside the cell. It is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). ... Covalent bonding is a description of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of one or more electrons between two atoms. ... Glycosylation is the process or result of addition of saccharides to proteins and lipids. ... A disease or medical condition is an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Hugo is a masculine name. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... There are about 210 types of human cells. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular means outside the cell. It is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). ... Covalent bonding is a description of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of one or more electrons between two atoms. ... Glycosylation is the process or result of addition of saccharides to proteins and lipids. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Hugo is a masculine name. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a type. The morphology of a cell may change dramatically during differentiation, but the genetic material remains the same, with few exceptions. ... Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ... Within a protein, a structural domain (domain) is an element of overall structure that is self-stabilizing and often folds independently of the rest of the protein chain. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... There are about 210 types of human cells. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular means outside the cell. It is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). ... Covalent bonding is a description of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of one or more electrons between two atoms. ... Glycosylation is the process or result of addition of saccharides to proteins and lipids. ... A disease or medical condition is an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Activin is a peptide that enhances FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors belonging to the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) super family with a strong ability to induce new bone and/or cartilage formation. ... Autocrine signalling is a form of signalling in which the target cell is the secretory cell itself. ...

Contents

Role in apoptosis

TGF beta induces apoptosis in numerous cell types. TGF beta can induce apoptosis in two ways: The SMAD pathway or the DAXX pathway. A cell undergoing apoptosis. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ... SMADs are a class of proteins that modulate the activity of transforming growth factor beta ligands. ...



The SMAD pathway is the classical signaling pathway that TGF beta family members signal through. In this pathway TGF beta dimers binds to a type II receptor which recruits and phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor then recruits and phosphorylates a receptor regulated SMAD (R-SMAD). SMAD3, an R-SMAD, is implicated in inducing apoptosis. The R-SMAD then binds to the common SMAD (coSMAD) SMAD4 and forms a heteromeric complex. This complex then enters the cell nucleus where it activates the Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 pathway. This then triggers apoptosis. The Transforming growth factor (TGF) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. ... R-Smads or receptor regulated Smads are a class of proteins that include SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD5, and SMAD9. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The eukaryotic cell nucleus. ... In cell biology, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that respond to extracellular stimuli and regulate various cellular activities, such as gene expression, mitosis, differentiation, and cell survival/apoptosis. ...

The SMAD Pathway
The SMAD Pathway
The DAXX Pathway
The DAXX Pathway

TGF beta may also trigger apoptosis via the death associated protein 6 (DAXX adapter protein). DAXX has been shown to associate with and bind to the type II TGF beta receptor kinase. Image File history File links SMAD_apoptosis. ... Image File history File links SMAD_apoptosis. ... Image File history File links DAXX_Pathway. ... Image File history File links DAXX_Pathway. ...


Role in cell cycle

TGF beta plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle.


TGFβ1

Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGFβ1 is a polypeptide member of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ligands. It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions, including: cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF) is one of many characterized growth factors that exist in nature. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a type. The morphology of a cell may change dramatically during differentiation, but the genetic material remains the same, with few exceptions. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ...

Identifiers
Symbol(s) TGFB1 TGFB, DPD1
Entrez 7040
OMIM 190180
RefSeq NM_000660
UniProt P01137
Other data
Locus Chr. 19 q13.1

Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ...

TGFβ2

It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions. It is known to suppress the effects of interleukin dependent T-cell tumors. There are two named isoforms of this protein, created by alternative splicing. Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The name is sort of a relic though; it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of bodily... T cells belong to group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ...

Identifiers
Symbol(s) TGFB2
Entrez 7042
OMIM 190220
RefSeq NM_003238
UniProt P61812
Other data
Locus Chr. 1 q41

Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 1 is, by convention, the designation for the largest human chromosome. ...

TGFβ3

It is involved in cell differentiation and embryogenesis. Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a type. The morphology of a cell may change dramatically during differentiation, but the genetic material remains the same, with few exceptions. ... Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ...


TGFβ4

TGFβ4 precursor was discovered as a gene uprehulated during pre-menstrual phase in the endometrail stroma(Kothapalli et al. 1997) and called EBAF (endometrial bleeding associated factor). Later independently discovered to be involved in vertebrate embryonic left right asymetry determination, and given the famous name lefty2 (also called Lefty A). The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ... The endometrium is the inner uterine membrane in mammals which is developed in preparation for the implantation of a fertilized egg upon its arrival into the uterus. ... Lefty is a class of proteins that belongs to the TGF beta superfamily of proteins. ...

Identifiers
Symbol(s) TGFB3
Entrez 7043
OMIM 190230
RefSeq NM_003239
UniProt P10600
Other data
Locus Chr. 14 q24

Hugo is a masculine name. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 14 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ...

External links

  • Description of the TGF beta producing genes
  • Diagram of the TGF beta signaling pathway



TGF beta signaling pathwayedit
TGF beta superfamily of ligands:
Activin A | Activin B | Anti-müllerian hormone | BMP2 | BMP3 | BMP4 | BMP5 | BMP6 | BMP7 | BMP8a | BMP8b | BMP10| BMP15 | GDF1 | GDF2 | GDF3 | GDF5 | GDF6 | GDF7 | GDF9 | GDF10 | GDF11 | GDF15| Inhibin A | Inhibin B | Myostatin | Nodal | TGFβ1 | TGFβ2 | TGFβ3
Type II receptors: ACVR2A | ACVR2B | AMHR2 | BMPR2 | TGFBR2 | TGFBR3
Type I receptors: ACVR1A | ACVR1B | ACVR1C | ACVRL1 | BMPR1A | BMPR1B | TGFBR1
Signal transducers: SMAD1 | SMAD2 | SMAD3 | SMAD4 | SMAD5 | SMAD6 | SMAD7 | SMAD9
Ligand Inhibitors: Cerberus | Chordin | DAN | Decorin | Follistatin | Gremlin | Lefty | LTBP1 | Noggin | THBS1
Coreceptors: BAMBI | Cripto Other: SARA

The Transforming growth factor (TGF) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. ... Activin is a peptide that enhances FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Activin is a peptide that enhances FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 2 or BMP-2 is a protein that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3) is a polypeptide member of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is a polypeptide belonging to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) is a polypeptide member of the TGFβ superfamily of proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a polypetide that is a member of the TGFβ superfamily of proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7 or BMP7 (also known as Osteogenic Protein-1 or OP-1) is a member of the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 8A (BMP8A) is a polypeptide member of the [[transforming growth factor beta|TGFβ superfamily of proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 8b (BMP8b) is a polypeptide belonging to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) is a polypeptide belonging to the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 15 is a member of the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Myostatin (fomerly known as Growth and Differentiation Factor 8) is a growth factor that limits muscle tissue growth, i. ... Nodal is a polypeptide member of the TGF beta superfamily of polypeptides. ... The Activin type 2 receptors modulate signals for ligands belonging to the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ligands. ... The Activin type 2 receptors modulate signals for ligands belonging to the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ligands. ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II or BMPR2 is a serine/threonine receptor kinase. ... The Activin type I receptors transduce signals for a variety of members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ligands. ... The Activin type I receptors transduce signals for a variety of members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ligands. ... The Activin type I receptors transduce signals for a variety of members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ligands. ... Bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors are single pass, type I transmembrane proteins. ... Bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors are single pass, type I transmembrane proteins. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... SMAD7 or Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 is a polypeptide that, as its name describes, is a homolog of the Drosophila gene: Mothers against decepentaplegic. It belongs to the SMAD family of proteins, which belong to the TGFβ superfamily of ligands. ... SMAD9 or Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 9 is a polypeptide that, as its name describes, is a homolog of the Drosophila gene: Mothers against decepentaplegic. It belongs to the SMAD family of proteins, which belong to the TGFβ superfamily of modulators. ... Chordin is a polypeptide that dorsalizes the developing embryo by binding ventralizing TGFβ proteins such as Bone morphogenetic proteins. ... A protein that binds the 5 7-methyl-Guanisine cap of mRNA and begins degradation in the 3 to 5 direction. ... Decorin is a proteoglycan on average 90 - 140 kilodaltons (kD) in size. ... Follistatin is a single chain gonadal protein that inhibits Follicle-stimulating hormone release. ... Lefty is a class of proteins that belongs to the TGF beta superfamily of proteins. ... Noggin is a polypeptide that binds to members of the TGF-β superfamily of proteins. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Directory of open access journals (222 words)
AIM: To extract and purify the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), and to demonstrate its biological activity in vivo and induction of apoptosis of hepatocytes in vitro.
The extracted TGF beta was injected subcutaneously to mice, and its biological activity in vitro was observed 72 hrs post-injection by HE staining.
TGF beta-treated hepatocytes showed obvious apoptotic morphological changes, including the pyknosis and dense-stained nuclei and cytoplasm, the fragmentary, annular or crescent nuclei, and the "bubbling" cytoplasm.
Directory of open access journals (261 words)
TGF beta1 expression and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer tissue.
AIM: Transforming growth factor TGF beta1 is involved in a variety of important cellular functions,including cell growth and differentiation, angiogenesis, immune function and extracellular matrix formation.
CONCLUSION: TGF beta(1) might be associated with tumor progression by modulating the angiogenesis in colorectal cancer and TGF beta(1) may be used as a possible biomarker.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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