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European Union

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the European Union
Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Image File history File links European_flag. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and intergovernmental union of 25 European states. ...

Three pillars
Pillar I: European Community
Pillar II: Common Foreign and Sec. Policy
Pillar III: Police and Judicial Cooperation

Political Institutions
Commission
President (José Barroso)
Barroso Commission
Council of Ministers & European Council
Presidency (Austria)
Parliament
President (Josep Borrell)
MEPs
Constituencies
Elections (2004 / By country)
Party groups
Committees

Judiciary
Court of Justice
Court of First Instance
Civil Service Tribunal
Patent Tribunal

Advisory bodies
Economic and Social Committee
Committee of the Regions

Financial bodies
European Central Bank
European Investment Bank
European Investment Fund

Decentralised bodies
Agencies of the EU

Law
Acquis communautaire
Procedure
Treaties
Regulations - Directives - Decisions
Recommendations - Opinions

EU-related topics
Economic and Monetary Union
Enlargement
Foreign relations
Pan-European political parties
Table of affiliated parties by country
Party affiliations on the Council

See also:
Politics Portal
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The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993, under the Delors Commission. It led to the creation of the European Union and was the result of separate negotiations on monetary union and on political union. The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP, german Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (GASP), was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... This article needs to be updated. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ... The European Council, informally called the European summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... The European Parliament building in Strasbourg The inside of the building The European Parliament (formerly European Parliamentary Assembly) is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Josep Borrell Josep Borrell Fontelles (born April 24, 1947) is a Spanish politician. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP) is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... In five European Union Member States (Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy and the United Kingdom), the national territory is divided into a number of constituencies for European elections. ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... Party groups in the European Parliament combine the MEPs from European political parties, informal European political blocs, and independents. ... The Standing Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation. ... The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is formally known as the Court of Justice of the European Communities, i. ... The Court of First Instance, created in 1989, is a court of the European Union. ... European Union Civil Service Tribunal, since December 2, 2005 a new specialised tribunal within the European Union institutional framework. ... The European Unions Economic and Social Committee is the consultative assembly of European social and economic partners. This phrase refers mainly to representatives of business, employers and trade unions. ... The Committee of the Regions (CoR) is an institution of the European Union created by the Treaty of Maastricht. ... The ECB building in Frankfurt The European Central Bank (ECB) (French: Banque Centrale Europeénne, German: Europäische Zentralbank) The ECB is one of the worlds largest central banks, being in charge of fiscal and monetary policy for the European Unions official currency, the euro, which is - to... The European Investment Bank (the Banque Européenne dInvestissement) is the European Unions financing institution and was established under the Treaty of Rome (1957) to provide loan finance for capital investment furthering European Union policy objectives, in particular regional development, Trans-European Networks of transport, telecommunications and energy... The European Investment Fund, established in 1994, is a European Union agency for the provision of finance to SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises). ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... The European Union is unique among international organisations in having a complex and highly developed system of internal law which has direct effect within the legal systems of its member states. ... The French term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire) is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... A European Union Directive is the (mutually binding) collective decision made by the member states, acting through their national Government Ministers in the Council of the European Union and the Parliament. ... A European Union decision (defined in Article 249/EC) is one of the three binding instruments provide by secondary EU legislation. ... In European Union Law a recommendation Differs from regulations, directives and decisions, in that they are not binding for Member States. ... // Origins of the EU History of the European Union European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Euratom Single market. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them. ... The European Union (EU) was originally created by the six founding states in 1952, but has grown to its current size of 25 member states. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... The majority of major political parties in Europe have aligned themselves into the pan-European political organisations listed below. ... The member-states of the European Union by the European party affiliations of their leaders, as of April, 2006. ... This is the history of the European Union. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Maastricht (Dutch: Maastricht; Limburgish and city dialect: Mestreech) is a municipality, and capital of the province of Limburg. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Third Delors Commission The Delors Commission was the European Commission that held office from 1985 until 1995, which consists of three terms. ...


The treaty led to the creation of the Euro, and introduced the three-pillar structure (the Economic and Social Policy pillar, the Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP pillar, and the Justice and Home Affairs pillar). The CFSP pillar was built on the foundation of European Political Cooperation (EPC), but brought it under a treaty and extended it. The JHA pillar introduced cooperation in law enforcement, criminal justice, civil judicial matters, and asylum and immigration. The euro (plural euro--but note linguistic issues concerning the euro, symbol: €; banking code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union and single currency for over 300 million Europeans in the following twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP, german Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (GASP), was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... The European political cooperation (EPC) was introduced informally in 1970 in response to the Davignon report and was formalised by the Single European Act with effect from 1987. ...


Originally, the European Community (EC) dealt mainly with economic and trade matters. The European Commission and the European Court of Justice, both independent from the EC governments, had a lot of power within the system. The European Parliament, which was directly elected by the citizens of the EC member states, also had some power. The Governments controlled the remainder of the power, but since the mid-1980s had increasingly been doing so through majority votes. This system was called the Community method, or supranationalism, since international institutions not directly controlled by the governments wielded a lot of power, and members could have decisions they disagreed with imposed upon them through majority votes. The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is formally known as the Court of Justice of the European Communities, i. ... The European Parliament building in Strasbourg The inside of the building The European Parliament (formerly European Parliamentary Assembly) is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, where power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ...


It was desired to add competencies in foreign policy, military and criminal matters to the European Community. However, many member states considered that these areas were too sensitive to be managed by the mechanisms of the European Community, and that the power of governments in relation to these areas had to be stronger than the powers of governments in the European Community. That is, an intergovernmental, as opposed to supranational, system would have to be used. Other member states feared that this might threaten the power of the independent supranational institutions (the European Commission, European Court of Justice and European Parliament) in relation to the economic matters then dealt with by the European Community. The three pillar structure was then developed to isolate the traditional Community responsibilities in the area of the economy (the Community Pillar) from the new competencies in the areas of foreign policy and military matters (the CFSP pillar) and criminal matters (the JHA pillar). The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is formally known as the Court of Justice of the European Communities, i. ... The European Parliament building in Strasbourg The inside of the building The European Parliament (formerly European Parliamentary Assembly) is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ...


The Maastricht treaty was signed on February 7, 1992 at Maastricht in the Netherlands, where the final negotiations had taken place during December 1991. The treaty entered into force November 1, 1993 and has been amended to a degree by later treaties. February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Maastricht (Dutch: Maastricht; Limburgish and city dialect: Mestreech) is a municipality, and capital of the province of Limburg. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


Ratification of the treaty was fraught with difficulties in various states. A referendum in France only narrowly supported it, with 51.05% in favour, and Denmark rejected the original treaty. In the United Kingdom, ratification was done by Parliament, where the Maastricht Rebels nearly defeated John Major's government's policy on the matter. Some believe that this would have brought down the government. The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... In the politics of the United Kingdom, the Maastricht Rebels were MPs of the then governing Conservative Party who refused to support the government of John Major in a House of Commons vote to secure ratification by the United Kingdom of the Maastricht treaty (Treaty on European Union). ... Sir John Major, KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 - 1997. ...


See also

The European Union is unique among international organisations in having a complex and highly developed system of internal law which has direct effect within the legal systems of its member states. ... Subsidiarity is the idea that matters should be handled by the smallest (or, the lowest) competent authority. ...

External links

  • The Treaty on European Union - Online version (original, not the amended version)
    • Download version as PDF (Portable Document Format)
    • For other languages look at the EU page on the European Treaties
    • Currently established version in consolidated form
  • The History of the European Union - The Treaty of Maastricht


Timeline of the Treaties and EU Constitution To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

European Union - EU treaties, structure, history
1952 1958 1967 1993 1999 2003 ?
EC - European Community... E U R O P E A N   U N I O N   ( E U )
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
European Economic
Community
(EEC)
European Community (EC)
...European Communities: ECSC, EEC (EC, 1993), Euratom Justice &
Home Affairs
 
Police & Judicial Co-operation
in Criminal matters (PJCC)
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
Euratom (European Atomic Energy Community)
Treaty of
Paris
Treaties of
Rome
Merger
Treaty
Treaty of
Maastricht
Treaty of
Amsterdam
Treaty of
Nice
European
Constitution
"THREE PILLARS" - European Communities (EC, Euratom), Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal matters (PJCC)
Preceded by:
Single European Act (1986)
EU treaties Succeeded by:
Amsterdam Treaty (1997)

 
 

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