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Encyclopedia > TATA box

A TATA box (also called Goldberg-Hogness box)[1] is a DNA sequence (Cis-regulatory element) found in the promoter region of most genes (it is considered to be the core promoter sequence) in eukaryotes [2]. It is the binding site of either transcription factors or histones (binding of a transcription factor blocks binding of a histone and vice versa) and is involved in the process of transcription by RNA polymerase. It has the core DNA sequence 5'-TATAAA-3' or a variant, which is usually followed by three or more adenine bases and has been highly conserved through evolution. The TATA box is usually located 25 base pairs upstream to the transcription site. part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... A cis-regulatory element or cis-element is a region of DNA or RNA that regulates the expression of genes located on that same strand. ... for disambiguation of the term promoter, see the promoter Wiktionary article In genetics, a promoter is a DNA sequence that enables a gene to be transcribed. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... Schematic representation of the assembly of the core histones into the nucleosome. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


It is normally bound by the TATA Binding Protein (TBP) in the process of transcription, which unwinds the DNA, and bends it through 80°. The AT-rich sequence facilitates easy unwinding (due to 2 hydrogen bonds between bases as opposed to 3 between GC pairs). The TBP is an unusual protein in that it binds the minor groove and binds with a β sheet. Cartoon of the TATA binding protein structure. ... Diagram of β-pleated sheet with H-bonding between protein strands The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins — the first is the alpha helix — consisting of beta strands connected laterally by three or more hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. ...


The TATA box is usually found as the binding site of RNA polymerase II. The transcription factor TFIID binds to the TATA box, followed by TFIIA binding to the upstream part of TFIID. TFIIB can then bind to the downstream part of TFIID. The polymerase can then recognise this multi-protein complex and bind to it, along with various other transcription factors such as TFIIF, TFIIE and TFIIH. Transcription is then initiated, and the polymerase moves along the DNA strand, leaving TFIID and TFIIA bound to the TATA box. These can then facilitate the binding of additional RNA polymerase II molecules. RNA polymerase II (also called RNAP II and Pol II) transcribes DNA to synthesize precursors of mRNA and most snRNA. A 550 kDa complex of 12 subunits, RNAP II is the most studied type of RNA polymerase. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ...


This cluster of RNA polymerase II and various transcription factors is known as a basal transcriptional complex (BTC). In this state, it only gives a low level of transcription. Other factors must stimulate the BTC to increase transcription levels. One such example of a BTC stimulating region of DNA is the CAAT box. In molecular biology, a CAAT box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides that occur upstream by 75-80 bases to the initial transcription site. ...


Many genes lack a TATA box and use an initiator element or downstream core promoter instead. Nevertheless, TBP is always involved and is forced to bind without sequence specificity. Promoters lacking a TATA box are called TATA-less promoters and are suggested to make up 50% of all promoter sequences.

Contents

Binding of histones

The binding of histones involves the N-terminal tail of H4. In biology, an N-terminal tail is a structure found on histones. ... H4 or H-4 can mean: For the 18th century chronometer, see John Harrison. ...


See also

The Pribnow box (also known as the Pribnow-Schaller box) is the sequence TATAAT of six nucleotides (thymine-adenine-thymine-etc. ... The Initiatior (Inr) motif is a DNA transcription promoter that is similar in function to the Pribnow box (for prokaryotes) or the TATA box (for eukaryotes). ...

References

  1. ^ Lifton RP, Goldberg ML, Karp RW, Hogness DS. (1978). The organization of the histone genes in Drosophila melanogaster: functional and evolutionary implications. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 42, 1047-1051. PMID 98262
  2. ^ Smale ST, Kadonaga JT (2003). The RNA polymerase II core promoter. Annu Rev Biochem. 72, 449-479. PMID 12651739 PDF

External Links

Transcription of Eukaryotic DNA - YouTube Video


 
 

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