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Encyclopedia > T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot

Born Thomas Stearns Eliot
26 September 1888(1888-09-26)
St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Died 4 January 1965 (aged 76)
London, England
Occupation Poet, Dramatist, Literary critic
Nationality Born American, became a British subject in 1927
Writing period 1915-1965
Literary movement Modernism
Notable award(s) Nobel Prize in Literature
1948
Signature

Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (26 September 18884 January 1965), was a poet, dramatist, and literary critic. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948. He wrote the poems The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, The Waste Land, The Hollow Men, Ash Wednesday, and Four Quartets; the plays Murder in the Cathedral and The Cocktail Party; and the essay "Tradition and the Individual Talent." Eliot was born in the United States, moved to the United Kingdom in 1914 (at age 25), and became a British subject in 1927 at the age of 39. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ... ... a poem, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, which brought him to prominence. ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... English Renaissance theatre is a English drama written between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642. ... This article is about the literary figure. ... Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... Jules Laforgue (August 16, 1860–August 20, 1887) was a French poet born in Montevideo, Uruguay. ... Yeats redirects here. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born English novelist. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854 - May 7, 1941), a social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion, was born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Thomas Ernest Hulme (September 16, 1883 – 28 September 1917) was an English writer, who during his informal tenure from 1909 as critic for The New Age, edited by A. R. Orage, exerted a notable influence on London modernism. ... Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ... Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ... Yeats redirects here. ... Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 – April 27, 1932) was an American poet. ... Wallace Stevens Wallace Stevens (October 2, 1879 – August 2, 1955) was a major American Modernist poet. ... Marianne Moore photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Marianne Moore (December 11, 1887 - February 5, 1972) was a Modernist American poet and writer. ... William Empson Sir William Empson (27 September 1906 – 15 April 1984) was an English literary critic and poet, reckoned by some to be the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson and William Hazlitt and fitting heir to their mode of witty, fiercely heterodox and imaginatively rich criticism. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... Frederick Louis MacNeice (September 12, 1907 – September 3, 1963) was a British and Irish poet and playwright. ... 1 Aspinall Street, Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire, where Ted Hughes was born. ... for the British aeronautical engineer and professor, see Geoffrey T. R. Hill Geoffrey Hill (born June 18, 1932) is an English poet, professor of English Literature and religion, and co-director of the Editorial Institute at Boston University, Massachusetts, USA. // Geoffrey Hill was born in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, England, in 1932. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock is the poem that marked the start of T. S. Eliots career as one of the twentieth centurys most influential poets. ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line[2] modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ... For other uses, see The Hollow Men (disambiguation). ... Ash-Wednesday (sometimes Ash Wednesday) is the first long poem written by T.S. Eliot after his 1927 conversion to Anglicanism. ... Four Quartets is the name given to four related poems by T. S. Eliot, collected and republished in book form in 1943. ... Becket in a window in Canterbury Cathedral Murder in the Cathedral is a poetic drama by T. S. Eliot that portrays the assassination of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170. ... The Cocktail Party, a play written by T.S. Eliot was first performed at the Edinburgh Festival in 1949. ... “Tradition and the Individual Talent” (1919) is an essay written by poet and literary theorist T.S. Eliot. ... In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ...

Contents

Life

Early life and education

Eliot was born into the prominent Eliot family of St. Louis, Missouri. His father, Henry Ware Eliot (1843–1919), was a successful businessman, president and treasurer of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company in St. Louis; his mother, born Charlotte Champe Stearns (1843–1929), wrote poems and was also a social worker. Eliot was the last of six surviving children; his parents were both 44 years old when he was born. His four sisters were between eleven and nineteen years older than him; his brother was eight years older. Known to family and friends as Tom, he was the namesake of his maternal grandfather, Thomas Stearns. The Eliot family is a distinguished American family as one of the Boston Brahmins, originating in Boston, whose ancestors became wealthy held sway over the American education system. ... St. ... Henry Ware Eliot (November 25, 1843 – January 7, 1919) was an industrialist, philantropist and the father of T. S. Eliot. ... Charlotte Champe Stearns (1843–1929) was a social worker, a poet and the mother of T.S. Eliot. ...


From 1898 to 1905, Eliot was a day student at Smith Academy, a preparatory school for Washington University. At the academy, Eliot studied Latin, Greek, French, and German. Upon graduation, he could have gone to Harvard University, but his parents sent him to Milton Academy (in Milton, Massachusetts, near Boston) for a preparatory year. There he met Scofield Thayer, who would later publish The Waste Land. He studied at Harvard, where he earned a B.A., from 1906 to 1909. During this time, he read Arthur Symons's The Symbolist Movement in Literature, where, by his own admission, he first came across Laforgue, Rimbaud, and Verlaine.[4] The Harvard Advocate published some of his poems, and he became lifelong friends with Conrad Aiken. The next year, he earned a master's degree at Harvard. In the 1910–1911 school year, Eliot lived in Paris, studying at the Sorbonne and touring the continent. Mary Institute & St. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Milton Academy is a private, preparatory, coeducational boarding and day school in Milton, Massachusetts. ... Milton is a suburban Boston town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Boston redirects here. ... Scofield Thayer (12 December 1889 — 1982) was an American poet and publisher, best known as the publisher of the literary magazine The Dial during the 1920s. ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line[2] modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... Arthur Symons (February 28, 1865 - January 22, 1945), was a British poet and critic. ... Jules Laforgue (August 16, 1860–August 20, 1887) was a French poet born in Montevideo, Uruguay. ... Rimbaud can refer to: Arthur Rimbaud, 19th century poet and literary figure Penny Rimbaud, founder and drummer of the anarchist punk rock band Crass This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Paul Verlaine Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: ; March 30, 1844–January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. ... The Harvard Advocate, the premier literary magazine of Harvard College, the undergraduate component of Harvard University, has a particularly rich history, and is the oldest continuously published college literary magazine in the country. ... Conrad Potter Aiken (August 8, 1889 – August 17, 1973) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American author, born in Savannah, Georgia, whose work includes poetry, short stories, novels, and an autobiography. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ...


Returning to Harvard in 1911 as a doctoral student in philosophy, Eliot studied the writings of F. H. Bradley, Buddhism and Indic philology (learning Sanskrit and Pāli to read some of the religious texts).[5] He was awarded a scholarship to attend Merton College, Oxford, in 1914, and, before settling there, he visited Marburg, Germany, where he planned to take a summer program in philosophy. When the First World War broke out, however, he went to London and then to Oxford. In a letter to Aiken late in December 1914, Eliot, aged 26, wrote "I am very dependent upon women (I mean female society)" and then added a complaint that he was still a virgin.[6] Less than four months later, he was introduced by Thayer, then also at Oxford, to Cambridge governess Vivienne Haigh-Wood.[7] Eliot was not happy at Merton and declined a second year there. Instead, on 26 June 1915, he married Vivienne in a register office. After a short visit, alone, to the U. S. to see his family, he returned to London and took a few teaching jobs such as lecturing at Birkbeck College, University of London. He continued to work on his dissertation and, in the spring of 1916, sent it to Harvard, which accepted it. Because he did not appear in person to defend his dissertation, however, he was not awarded his PhD. (In 1964, the dissertation was published as Knowledge and Experience in the Philosophy of F. H. Bradley.) During Eliot's university career, he studied with George Santayana, Irving Babbitt, Henri Bergson, C. R. Lanman, Josiah Royce, Bertrand Russell, and Harold Joachim. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Francis Herbert Bradley (30 January 1846 – 18 September 1924) was a British philosopher. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... , Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... In Roman times, Vestal Virgins were strictly celibate or they were punished by death. ... This article is about the city in England. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In England and Wales, The Register Office is primarily the local office for the registration of births, deaths and marriages (BD&M), and for the conducting of civil marriages. ... Birkbeck, University of London, sometimes referred to by its former name Birkbeck College or by the abbreviation BBK, is a College of the University of London. ... Website http://www. ... Francis Herbert Bradley (30 January 1846 – 18 September 1924) was a British philosopher. ... George Santayana George Santayana (December 16, 1863, Madrid – September 26, 1952, Rome), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. ... Irving Babbitt (August 2, 1865 – July 15, 1933) was an American academic and literary critic, noted for his founding role in a movement that became known as the New Humanism, a significant influence on literary discussion and conservative thought in the period 1910 to 1930. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ... Charles Rockwell Lanman (July 8, 1850 - February 20, 1941) was a American scholar of the Sanskrit language. ... Josiah Royce (November 20, 1855, Grass Valley, California. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Harold Joachim, an idealist philosopher, disciple of Francis Herbert Bradley, Joachim is generally credited with the definitive formulation of the coherence theory of truth, in The Nature of Truth (1906). ...


Bertrand Russell took an interest in Vivien (the spelling she preferred[8]) while the newlyweds stayed in his flat. Some scholars have suggested that Vivien and Russell had an affair (see Carole Seymour-Jones, Painted Shadow), but these allegations have never been confirmed. Eliot, in a private paper, written in his sixties, confessed: "I came to persuade myself that I was in love with Vivienne simply because I wanted to burn my boats and commit myself to staying in England. And she persuaded herself (also under the influence of Pound) that she would save the poet by keeping him in England. To her, the marriage brought no happiness. To me, it brought the state of mind out of which came The Waste Land."[9] Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ...

A plaque at SOAS's Faber Building, 24 Russell Square commemorating T S Eliot's years at Faber and Faber.
A plaque at SOAS's Faber Building, 24 Russell Square commemorating T S Eliot's years at Faber and Faber.

After leaving Merton, Eliot worked as a schoolteacher, most notably at Highgate School where he taught the young John Betjeman, and later at the Royal Grammar School, High Wycombe. To earn extra money, he wrote book reviews and lectured at evening extension courses. In 1917, he took a position at Lloyds Bank in London, where he worked on foreign accounts. In August 1920, Eliot met James Joyce on a trip to Paris, accompanied by Wyndham Lewis. After the meeting, Eliot said he found Joyce arrogant (Joyce doubted Eliot's ability as a poet at the time), but the two soon became friends with Eliot visiting Joyce whenever he was in Paris.[10] In 1925, Eliot left Lloyds to join the publishing firm Faber and Gwyer (later Faber and Faber), where he remained for the rest of his career, becoming a director of the firm. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 239 KB) Summary A plaque at SOASs Faber House for T. S. Eliot. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 239 KB) Summary A plaque at SOASs Faber House for T. S. Eliot. ... School of Oriental and African Studies The School of Oriental and African Studies (often abbreviated to SOAS) was founded in 1916 primarily as an institution to train British administrators for colonial postings, and has grown into one of the worlds foremost institutions for the study of Asia and Africa. ... Russell Square Russell Square is a large garden square in Bloomsbury, London. ... Faber and Faber, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the UK, notable in particular for publishing a great deal of poetry and for its former editor T. S. Eliot. ... Sir Roger Cholmeleys School at Highgate (Highgate School) is a British Independent School in London, England. ... A collection of Betjemans poetry, published by John Murray in January 2006 Sir John Betjeman CBE (28 August 1906 – 19 May 1984) was an English poet, writer and broadcaster who described himself in Whos Who as a poet and hack. He was born to a middle-class family... The Royal Grammar School (or RGS for short) is a selective grammar school situated in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom. ... Lloyds TSB Group plc is a group of financial services companies, based in the United Kingdom, with the registered office in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... This article is about the Vorticist painter and author. ... Faber and Faber is a celebrated publishing house in the UK, notable in particular for publishing the poetry of T. S. Eliot. ... Faber and Faber, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the UK, notable in particular for publishing a great deal of poetry and for its former editor T. S. Eliot. ...


Later life in England

In 1927, Eliot took two important steps in his self-definition. On June 29 he converted to Anglicanism and in November he dropped his American citizenship and became a British subject. In 1928, Eliot summarised his beliefs when he wrote in the preface to his book, For Lancelot Andrewes that "the general point of view [of the book's essays] may be described as classicist in literature, royalist in politics, and anglo-catholic in religion." This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... ...


By 1932, Eliot had been contemplating a separation from his wife for some time. When Harvard University offered him the Charles Eliot Norton professorship for the 1932-1933 academic year, he accepted, leaving Vivien in England. Upon his return in 1933, Eliot officially separated from Vivien. He avoided all but one meeting with his wife between his leaving for America in 1932 and her death in 1947. (Vivien died at Northumberland House, a mental hospital north of London, where she was committed in 1938, without ever having been visited by Eliot, who was still her husband.[11]) Separation may refer to a several different subjects: In chemistry, separation refers to the separation process. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The brothers Charles Benjamin Norton, Frank Henry Norton, and Charles Eliot Norton, between 1853-1855. ...


From 1946 to 1957, Eliot shared a flat with his friend, John Davy Hayward, who gathered and archived Eliot's papers and styled himself Keeper of the Eliot Archive.[12] He also collected Eliot's pre-"Prufrock" verse, commercially published after Eliot's death as Poems Written in Early Youth. When Eliot and Hayward separated their household in 1957, Hayward retained his collection of Eliot's papers, which he bequeathed to King's College, Cambridge in 1965. John Davy Hayward (born 2 February 1905, died 1965) was an English editor, critic, anthologist and bibliophile. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ...


Eliot's second marriage was happy but short. On January 10, 1957, he married Esmé Valerie Fletcher, to whom he was introduced by Collin Brooks. In sharp contrast to his first marriage, Eliot knew Miss Fletcher well, as she had been his secretary at Faber and Faber since August 1949. Like his marriage to Vivien, the wedding was kept a secret to preserve his privacy. The ceremony was held in a church at 6.15 a.m. with virtually no one other than his wife's parents in attendance. Valerie was 37 years younger than her husband. Since Eliot's death she has dedicated her time to preserving his legacy; she has edited and annotated The Letters of T. S. Eliot and a facsimile of the draft of The Waste Land. Valerie Eliot née Esmé Valerie Fletcher is the surviving widow and second wife of the Nobel-prize winning poet Thomas Stearns Eliot. ... William Collin Brooks (22 December 1893 - 1959), frequently known as CB), was a British journalist, writer, and broadcaster. ... Faber and Faber, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the UK, notable in particular for publishing a great deal of poetry and for its former editor T. S. Eliot. ...


Eliot died of emphysema in London on January 4, 1965. For many years, he had health problems owing to the combination of London air and his heavy smoking, often being laid low with bronchitis or tachycardia. His body was cremated and, according to Eliot's wishes, the ashes taken to St Michael's Church in East Coker, the village from which Eliot's ancestors emigrated to America. There, a simple plaque commemorates him. On the second anniversary of his death, a large stone placed on the floor of Poets' Corner in London's Westminster Abbey was dedicated to Eliot. This commemoration contains his name, an indication that he had received the Order of Merit, dates, and a quotation from Little Gidding: "the communication / Of the dead is tongued with fire beyond / the language of the living." Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi and may specifically refer to: Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting several days or weeks Chronic bronchitis, a persistent, productive cough lasting at least three months in two consecutive years. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... East Coker is a village and parish in Somerset, England, situated two miles south of Yeovil in the South Somerset district. ... Poets corner Poets Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey due to the number of poets, playwrights and writers now buried and commemorated there. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... Four Quartets is the name given to four related poems by T. S. Eliot, collected and republished in book form in 1943. ...


Eliot's poetry

For a poet of his stature, Eliot's poetic output was small. Eliot was aware of this early in his career. He wrote to J. H. Woods, one of his former Harvard professors, that "My reputation in London is built upon one small volume of verse, and is kept up by printing two or three more poems in a year. The only thing that matters is that these should be perfect in their kind, so that each should be an event."[13]


Typically, Eliot first published his poems in periodicals or in small books or pamphlets consisting of a single poem (e.g., the Ariel poems) and then adding them to collections. His first collection was Prufrock and Other Observations (1917). In 1920 Eliot published more poems in Ara Vos Prec (London) and Poems: 1920 (New York). These had the same poems (in a different order) except that "Ode" in the British edition was replaced with "Hysteria" in the American edition. In 1925 Eliot collected The Waste Land and the poems in Prufrock and Poems into one volume and added "The Hollow Men" to form Poems: 1909–1925. From then on he updated this work (as Collected Poems). Exceptions are:

Old Possums Book of Practical Cats is a set of whimsical poems by T. S. Eliot about feline psychology and sociology. ... The Harvard Advocate, the premier literary magazine of Harvard College, is the oldest continuously published college literary magazine in the United States. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Christopher Ricks (born 1933) is a British literary critic and scholar. ...

The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

In 1915, Ezra Pound, overseas editor of Poetry magazine, recommended to Harriet Monroe, the magazine's founder, that she publish "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock". Although Prufrock seems to be middle-aged, Eliot wrote most of the poem when he was only 22. Its now-famous opening lines, comparing the evening sky to "a patient etherised upon a table," were considered shocking and offensive, especially at a time when the poetry of the Georgians was hailed for its derivations of the 19th century Romantic Poets. The poem then follows the conscious experience of a man, Prufrock (relayed in the "stream of consciousness" form indicative of the Modernists), lamenting his physical and intellectual inertia, the lost opportunities in his life and lack of spiritual progress, with the recurrent theme of carnal love unattained. Critical opinion is divided as to whether the narrator even leaves his own residence during the course of the narration. The locations described can be interpreted either as actual physical experiences, mental recollections or even as symbolic images from the sub-conscious mind, as, for example, in the refrain "In the room the women come and go." The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock is the poem that marked the start of T. S. Eliots career as one of the twentieth centurys most influential poets. ... Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ... Poetry, published in Chicago, Illinois since 1912, is one of the leading monthly poetry journals in the English-speaking world. ... Harriet Monroe (1860-12-23 – 1936-09-26) was an American editor, scholar, literary critic, and patron of the arts. ... Romantics redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stream of consciousness (psychology) In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique that seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes, either in a loose interior monologue, or in connection to his...


Its mainstream reception can be gauged from a review in The Times Literary Supplement on June 21, 1917: "The fact that these things occurred to the mind of Mr Eliot is surely of the very smallest importance to anyone, even to himself. They certainly have no relation to poetry…"[15][16] The Times Literary Supplement (or TLS) is a weekly literary review published in London by News International, a subsidiary of News Corporation. ...


The poem's structure was heavily influenced by Eliot's extensive reading of Dante Alighieri (in the Italian). References to Shakespeare's Hamlet and other literary works are present in the poem: this technique of allusion and quotation was developed in Eliot's subsequent poetry. Dante redirects here. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... An allusion is a figure of speech that makes a reference/representation of/to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art. ...


The Waste Land

Main article: The Waste Land

In October 1922, Eliot published The Waste Land in The Criterion. Composed during a period of personal difficulty for Eliot—his marriage was failing, and both he and Vivien suffered from disordered nerves —The Waste Land is often read as a representation of the disillusionment of the post-war generation. Even before The Waste Land had been published as a book (December 1922), Eliot distanced himself from the poem's vision of despair: "As for The Waste Land, that is a thing of the past so far as I am concerned and I am now feeling toward a new form and style" he wrote to Richard Aldington on November 15, 1922. Despite the alleged obscurity of the poem—its slippage between satire and prophecy; its abrupt changes of speaker, location, and time; its elegiac but intimidating summoning up of a vast and dissonant range of cultures and literatures--it has become a touchstone of modern literature, a poetic counterpart to a novel published in the same year, James Joyce's Ulysses. Among its famous phrases are "April is the cruellest month"; "I will show you fear in a handful of dust"; and "Shantih shantih shantih," the utterance in Sanskrit which closes the poem. The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line[2] modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ... Richard Aldington in uniform during World War I Richard Aldington (July 8, 1892 – July 27, 1962), name at birth Edward Godfree Aldington, was an English writer and poet. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... Shanti (from Sanskrit शान्तिः śāntiḥ) can mean: Inner peace Shanti Project, a group providing support and guidance for people with life-threatening illnesses Shanti (television series), with Mandira Bedi Shanti/Astangi, a 1998 song by Madonna Shanti (film), 2003 Indian film Shanti (album), by Hitomi Shimatani Category: ...


The Hollow Men

Main article: The Hollow Men

The Hollow Men appeared in 1926, and marked, for Edmund Wilson, 'the nadir of the phase of despair and desolation given such effective expression in "The Waste Land."'[17] It is Eliot's major poem of the late twenties, and, like many of his others, its themes are overlapping and fragmentary; it is, however, widely recognized to be concerned with: post-War Europe under the Treaty of Versailles (which Eliot despised--compare 'Gerontion'); the difficulty of hope and religious conversion; and, as some critics argue, Eliot's failed marriage (Vivienne had been having an affair with Bertrand Russell).[18] For other uses, see The Hollow Men (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Gerontion is a poem by T.S. Eliot, first published in 1920. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...


Allen Tate, reviewing the 1926 volume, perceived a shift in Eliot’s method and noted that, ‘'The mythologies disappear altogether in The Hollow Men’--a striking claim for a poem as indebted to Dante as anything else in Eliot’s early work, to say little of the modern English mythology -- the ‘Old Guy [Fawkes]’ of the Gunpowder Plot--or the colonial and agrarian mythos of Conrad and Frazer, which, at least for reasons of textual history, echoes The Waste Land.[19] The ‘continuous parallel between contemporaneity and antiquity’ that is so characteristic of his mythical method remains in fine form.[20] John Orley Allen Tate (November 19, 1899 - February 9, 1979) was an American poet, essayist, and social commentator, and Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, 1943 - 1944. ... Dante redirects here. ... The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 involved a desperate but failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholic extremists to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in one fell swoop by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during the State Opening. ... Agrarianism is a social and political philosophy. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born English novelist. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854 - May 7, 1941), a social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion, was born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line[2] modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ...


The Hollow Men contains some of Eliot's most famous lines, most notably its conclusion:

This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
This is the way the world ends
Not with a bang but a whimper.

Ash Wednesday

Main article: Ash Wednesday (poem)

Ash Wednesday is the first long poem written by Eliot after his 1927 conversion to Anglicanism. Published in 1930, this poem deals with the struggle that ensues when one who has lacked faith in the past strives to move towards God. Ash-Wednesday (sometimes Ash Wednesday) is the first long poem written by T.S. Eliot after his 1927 conversion to Anglicanism. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... See also: 1929 in literature, other events of 1930, 1931 in literature, list of years in literature. ...


Sometimes referred to as Eliot's "conversion poem", Ash Wednesday, with a base of Dante's Purgatorio, is richly but ambiguously allusive and deals with the aspiration to move from spiritual barrenness to hope for human salvation. The style is different from his poetry which predates his conversion. Ash Wednesday and the poems that followed had a more casual, melodic, and contemplative method. DANTE is also a digital audio network. ...


Many critics were "particularly enthusiastic concerning Ash Wednesday",[21] while in other quarters it was not well received.[22] Among many of the more secular literati its groundwork of orthodox Christianity was discomfiting. Edwin Muir maintained that "Ash Wednesday is one of the most moving poems he has written, and perhaps the most perfect."[23] Edwin Muir (15 May 1887 - 3 January 1959) was an Orcadian [1] poet, novelist and translator born on a farm in Deerness on the Orkney Islands. ...


Four Quartets

Main article: Four Quartets

Although many critics preferred his earlier work, Eliot and many other critics considered Four Quartets his masterpiece and it is the work which led to his receipt of the Nobel Prize.[22] The Four Quartets draws upon his knowledge of mysticism and philosophy. It consists of four long poems, published separately: Burnt Norton (1936), East Coker (1940), The Dry Salvages (1941) and Little Gidding (1942), each in five sections. Although they resist easy characterisation, each begins with a rumination on the geographical location of its title, and each meditates on the nature of time in some important respect—theological, historical, physical—and its relation to the human condition. Also, each is associated with one of the four classical elements: air, earth, water, and fire. They approach the same ideas in varying but overlapping ways, and are open to a diversity of interpretations. Four Quartets is the name given to four related poems by T. S. Eliot, collected and republished in book form in 1943. ... Several ancient Classical Element Greek version of these ideas persisted throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, deeply influencing European thought and culture. ...


Burnt Norton asks what it means to consider things that might have been. We see the shell of an abandoned house, and Eliot toys with the idea that all these "merely possible" realities are present together, but invisible to us: All the possible ways people might walk across a courtyard add up to a vast dance we can't see; children who aren't there are hiding in the bushes.


East Coker continues the examination of time and meaning, focusing in a famous passage on the nature of language and poetry. Out of darkness Eliot continues to reassert a solution ("I said to my soul, be still, and wait without hope").


The Dry Salvages treats the element of water, via images of river and sea. It again strives to contain opposites ("…the past and future/Are conquered, and reconciled").


Little Gidding (the element of fire) is the most anthologized of the Quartets. Eliot's own experiences as an air raid warden in The Blitz power the poem, and he imagines meeting Dante during the German bombing. The beginning of the Quartets ("Houses…/Are removed, destroyed") had become a violent everyday experience; this creates an animation, where for the first time he talks of Love—as the driving force behind all experience. From this background, the Quartets end with an affirmation of Julian of Norwich "all shall be well and/All manner of thing shall be well". ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Julian of Norwich (c. ...


The Four Quartets cannot be understood without reference to Christian thought, traditions, and history. Eliot draws upon the theology, art, symbolism and language of such figures as Dante, St. John of the Cross and Julian of Norwich. The "deeper communion" sought in East Coker, the "hints" and whispers of children, the sickness that must grow worse in order to find healing, and the exploration which inevitably leads us home all point to the pilgrim's path along the road of sanctification. Saint John of the Cross (Juan de la Cruz) was a Spanish Carmelite friar, born on June 24, 1542 at Fontiveros, a small village near Avila. ...


Eliot's plays

With the important exception of his magnum opus, Four Quartets, much of Eliot's creative energies after Ash Wednesday were spent in writing plays in verse, mostly comedies or plays with redemptive endings. He was long a critic and admirer of Elizabethan and Jacobean verse drama (witness his allusions to Webster, Middleton, Shakespeare and Kyd in The Waste Land.) In a 1933 lecture he said: "Every poet would like, I fancy, to be able to think that he had some direct social utility. ... He would like to be something of a popular entertainer, and be able to think his own thoughts behind a tragic or a comic mask. He would like to convey the pleasures of poetry, not only to a larger audience, but to larger groups of people collectively; and the theatre is the best place in which to do it."[24] Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... John Webster (c. ... Thomas Middleton (1580 – 1627) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Thomas Kyd (1558 - 1594) was an English dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama. ...


After writing The Waste Land (1922) Eliot wrote that he was "now feeling toward a new form and style." One item he had in mind was writing a play in verse with a jazz tempo with a character that appeared in a number of his poems, Sweeney. Eliot did not finish it. He did publish two pieces of what he had separately. The two, "Fragment of a Prologue" (1926) and "Fragment of an Agon" (1927) were published together in 1932 as Sweeney Agonistes. Although noted that this was not intended to be a one-act play, it is sometimes performed as one.[25] For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A prologue (Greek πρόλογος, from προ~, pro~ - fore~, and lógos, word), or rarely prolog, is a prefatory piece of writing, usually composed to introduce a drama. ... Look up agon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word Agonistes, found as an epithet following a persons name, means the struggler or the combatant. It is most often an allusion to John Miltons 1671 verse tragedy Samson Agonistes, which recounts the end of Samsons life, when he is a blind captive of the Philistines...


In 1934 a pageant play called The Rock that Eliot authored was performed. This was a benefit for churches in the Diocese of London. Much of the work was a collaborative effort and Eliot only accepted authorship of one scene and the choruses.[26] The pageant would have a sympathetic audience but one largely consisting of the common churchman, a new audience for Eliot who had to modify his style, often called "erudite."


George Bell, the Bishop of Chichester, who was instrumental in getting Eliot to work as writer with producer E. Martin Browne in producing the pageant play The Rock asked Eliot to write another play for the Canterbury Festival in 1935. This play, Murder in the Cathedral, was more under Eliot's control. George Kennedy Allen Bell (born February 4, 1883 in Hayling Island, Hampshire; died October 3, 1958 in Canterbury) was an Anglican theologian, Dean of Canterbury , Bishop of Chichester, member of House of Lords and a pioneer of the Ecumenical Movement. ... Arms of the Bishop of Chichester The Bishop of Chichester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester in the Province of Canterbury. ... Becket in a window in Canterbury Cathedral Murder in the Cathedral is a poetic drama by T. S. Eliot that portrays the assassination of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170. ...


Murder in the Cathedral is about the death of Thomas Becket. Eliot admitted being influenced by, among others, the works of 17th century preacher Lancelot Andrewes. Murder in the Cathedral has been a standard choice for Anglican and Roman Catholic curricula for many years. Becket in a window in Canterbury Cathedral Murder in the Cathedral is a poetic drama by T. S. Eliot that portrays the assassination of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170. ... Saint Thomas Becket, St. ... Lancelot Andrewes (1555 - September 25, 1626) was an English clergyman and scholar. ...


Following his ecclesiastical plays Eliot worked on commercial plays for more general audiences. These were The Family Reunion (1939), The Cocktail Party (1949), The Confidential Clerk (1953) and The Elder Statesman (1958). The Family Reunion is the first season finale of the Disney Channel Original Series, Cory in the House. ... The Cocktail Party, a play written by T.S. Eliot was first performed at the Edinburgh Festival in 1949. ... A comic verse play by T.S. Eliot Sir Claude Mulhammer, a wealthy entrepreneur, decides to smuggle his illegitimate son Colby into the household by employing him as his confidential clerk. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


The dramatic works of Eliot are less well known than his poems.


Eliot as critic

Although best known as a poet, Eliot also made significant contributions to the field of literary criticism. In particular, Eliot strongly influenced the school of New Criticism. While somewhat self-deprecating and minimizing of his work as a critic—he once said his criticism was merely a “by-product” of his “private poetry-workshop”[27]—Eliot is considered by some to be one of the greatest literary critics of the 20th century. The critic William Empson once said, "I do not know for certain how much of my own mind [Eliot] invented, let alone how much of it is a reaction against him or indeed a consequence of misreading him. He is a very penetrating influence, perhaps not unlike the east wind."[28] New Criticism was the dominant trend in English and American literary criticism of the early twentieth century, from the 1920s to the early 1960s. ... William Empson Sir William Empson (27 September 1906 – 15 April 1984) was an English literary critic and poet, reckoned by some to be the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson and William Hazlitt and fitting heir to their mode of witty, fiercely heterodox and imaginatively rich criticism. ...


In his critical essay “Tradition and the Individual Talent,”[29] Eliot argues that art must be understood not in a vacuum, but in the context of previous pieces of art: “In a peculiar sense [an artist or poet]… must inevitably be judged by the standards of the past.” This essay was one of the most important works of the school of New Criticism. Specifically, it introduced the idea that the value of one work of art must be viewed in the context of all previous work—a “simultaneous order” or works.[30] It has also been argued that "Tradition and the Individual Talent" served to keep out the public at large from engaging in literature (or having literature in engage in them): "T. S. Eliot’s insistence in essays such as 'Tradition and the Individual Talent' (1917) that the young poet need only assimilate the (all-male) canon of established authors contributed to public definitions of literary modernism that would exclude mass culture." Conversely, Eliot's work regarding music—particularly his article "Marie Lloyd"—may have actually helped lead to the idea that popular culture could be the subject of criticism.[31] “Tradition and the Individual Talent” (1919) is an essay written by poet and literary theorist T.S. Eliot. ...


Also extremely important to New Criticism was the idea—as articulated in Eliot’s essay "Hamlet and His Problems”[32]—of an “objective correlative,” which posits a connection among the words of the text and events, states of mind, and experiences. This notion concedes that a poem means what it says, but suggests that there can be a non-subjective judgment based on different readers’ different—but perhaps corollary—interpretations of a work.[33] Objective correlative is a literary term popularized by T.S. Eliot in a critique of Hamlet [1], Hamlet and His Problems, in 1919. ...


More generally, New Critics took a cue from Eliot in regards to his “‘classical’ ideals and his religious thought; his attention to the poetry and drama of the early seventeenth century; his deprecation of the Romantics, especially Shelley; his proposition that good poems constitute ‘not a turning loose of emotion but an escape from emotion; and his insistence that ‘poets…at present must be difficult.’” [34]


Eliot’s essays were also a major factor in the revival of interest in the metaphysical poets. Eliot was particularly favorable to the metaphysical poets' ability to show experience as both psychological and sensual, while at the same time infusing this portrayal with—in Eliot's view—wit and uniqueness. Eliot’s essay “The Metaphysical Poets,” along with giving new significance and attention to metaphysical poetry, introduced his now well known definition of “unified sensibility,”[35] which is considered by some to mean the same thing as the term "metaphysical."[36] The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ...


Some have argued that Eliot can be best understood as critic through his poetry--that one reflects the other and that Eliot has a unique perspective as a poet-critic. In his “Four Quartets,” a series of poems, is self-aware in a way that “open the poem up to modern critical movements in which understanding is made contingent on the perspective in which it is installed.”[37] Eliot’s self-examination through poetry reflects his belief in the objective correlative. Eliot’s 1922 poem The Waste Land[38]—which at the time of its publication, many critics believed to be a joke or hoax[39]—also can be better understood in light of his work as a critic. Eliot had argued that a poet must write “programmatic criticism”—or the idea that a poet should write to advance his own interests than to advance “historical scholarship". Viewed from Eliot's own critical lens, The Waste Land likely shows his personal distaste for World War I rather than an objective historical understanding of it.[40] Four Quartets is the name given to four related poems by T. S. Eliot, collected and republished in book form in 1943. ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line[2] modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ...



Some have argued that late in his career, Eliot recanted much of his earlier work as a critic. However, this is disputed. At that time, Eliot stressed the importance of every poet creating his or her own unique personality through his work.[41]


Other works

In 1939, Eliot published a book of light verse, Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats — "Old Possum" being a name Ezra Pound had bestowed upon him. This first edition had an illustration of the author on the cover. In 1954 the composer Alan Rawsthorne set six of the poems for speaker and orchestra, in a work entitled Practical Cats. After Eliot's death, it became the basis of the West End and Broadway hit musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber, Cats. Light poetry, also called light verse, is poetry that is less serious than other poetry to which it could be compared. ... Old Possums Book of Practical Cats is a set of whimsical poems by T. S. Eliot about feline psychology and sociology. ... Alan Rawsthorne (May 2, 1905 – July 24, 1971) was a British composer. ... West End theatre is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre in London, England, or sometimes more specifically for shows staged in the large theatres of Londons Theatreland. Along with New Yorks Broadway theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is a highly successful English composer of musical theatre, and also the elder brother of cellist Julian Lloyd Webber. ... Cats is an award-winning musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber based on Old Possums Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot. ...


In 1958 the Archbishop of Canterbury appointed Eliot to a commission which resulted in "The Revised Psalter" (1963). A harsh critic of Eliot's, C. S. Lewis, was also a member of the commission but their antagonism turned into a friendship.[42] The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ...


Criticism of Eliot

Literature and literary criticism

Eliot's poetry was first criticized as not being poetry at all. Another criticism has been of his widespread interweaving of quotations from other authors into his work. "Notes on the Waste Land," which follows after the poem, gives the source of many of these, but not all. This practice has been defended as a necessary salvaging of tradition in an age of fragmentation, and completely integral to the work, as well adding richness through unexpected juxtaposition. It has also been condemned as showing a lack of originality, and for plagiarism. The prominent critic F. W. Bateson once published an essay called 'T. S. Eliot: The Poetry of Pseudo-Learning'. Eliot himself once wrote ("The Sacred Wood"): "Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different." For other uses, see Plagiarism (disambiguation). ... Frederick (Noel) Wilse Bateson (1901-1978) was an English literary scholar and critic. ...


Canadian academic Robert Ian Scott pointed out that the title of The Waste Land and some of the images had previously appeared in the work of a minor Kentucky poet, Madison Cawein (1865–1914). Bevis Hillier compared Cawein's lines "… come and go/Around its ancient portico" with Eliot's "… come and go/talking of Michelangelo". (This line actually appears in Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", and not in The Waste Land.) Cawein's "Waste Land" had appeared in the January 1913 issue of Chicago magazine Poetry (which contained an article by Ezra Pound on London poets). But scholars are continually finding new sources for Eliot's Waste Land, often in odd places. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Madison Cawein (23 March 1865 - 8 December 1914) was a poet from Louisville, Kentucky, whose poem Waste Land has been linked with T.S.Eliots later The Waste Land. Cawein had a rudimentary education and developed a love for nature as a child. ... Bevis Hillier was born on 28 March 1940 in Redhill, Surrey. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


Many famous fellow writers and critics have paid tribute to Eliot. According to the poet Ted Hughes, "Each year Eliot's presence reasserts itself at a deeper level, to an audience that is surprised to find itself more chastened, more astonished, more humble." Hugh Kenner commented, "He has been the most gifted and influential literary critic in English in the twentieth century." 1 Aspinall Street, Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire, where Ted Hughes was born. ... Hugh Kenner (January 7, 1923 – November 24, 2003), Canadian literary scholar, critic, & professor. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ...


C. S. Lewis, however, thought his literary criticism "superficial and unscholarly". In a 1935 letter to a mutual friend of theirs, Paul Elmer Moore, Lewis wrote that he considered the work of Eliot to be "a very great evil".[42] Although, in a letter to Eliot written in 1943, Lewis showed an admiration for Eliot along with his antagonism toward his views when he wrote: "I hope the fact that I find myself often contradicting you in print gives no offence; it is a kind of tribute to you—whenever I fall foul of some widespread contemporary view about literature I always seem to find that you have expressed it most clearly. One aims at the officers first in meeting an attack!"[42] Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ...


Recognition

The cultural depictions of T. S. Eliot reference his work as a writer as well as his biography. ...

Formal recognition

The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... French Legion of Honor The Légion dhonneur (Legion of Honor ( AmE) or Legion of Honour ( ComE)) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... The Hansischer Goethe-Preis is a German literary and artistic award, given biennially since 1949 to a figure of European stature. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... The Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Order of Arts and Literature) is an Order of France, established on May 2, 1957 by the Minister of Culture, and confirmed as part of lOrdre National du Mérite by President Charles de Gaulle in 1963. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... A doctorate is an academic degree of the highest level. ... What is popularly called the Tony Award® but is formally the Antoinette Perry Award is an annual American award celebrating achievements in theater, including musical theater. ... Cats is an award-winning musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber based on Old Possums Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot. ... Eliot College is the oldest college of the University of Kent. ... Affiliations University Alliance Association of Commonwealth Universities European University Association Website http://www. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This 1998 stamp of the Faroe Islands marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... The St. ...

Bibliography

Poetry

// The Egoist Wilfred Owen, a soldier in World War I, writes Dulce et Decorum Est (published posthumously in 1921). ... The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock is the poem that marked the start of T. S. Eliots career as one of the twentieth centurys most influential poets. ... // The Dial, January 1920 issue Ezra Pound moves from London to Paris where he moved among a circle of artists, musicians and writers who were revolutionising modern art The Dial, a longstanding American literary magazine, is re-established by Scofield Thayer; the publication becomes an important outlet for Modernist poets... Gerontion is a poem by T.S. Eliot, first published in 1920. ... Sweeney Among the Nightingales is a poem by T. S. Eliot (1888-1965), published in his 1920 anthology of poetry, Poems. ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line[2] modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ... // Pulitzer Prize for Poetry established The Criterion appears William Butler Yeats Who goes with Fergus (first published in 1892 is the song James Joyce has his character Stephen Daedalus sing to his mother as she lies dying in the novel Ulysses, published this year (the poem was Joyces favorite... For other uses, see The Hollow Men (disambiguation). ... // T.S. Eliot joins the publishing house of Faber & Gwyer, leaves Lloyds bank. ... T.S. Eliots Ariel Poems are those written for Faber and Fabers series of Ariel Poems. ... // T.S. Eliot enters the Church of England and assumes British citizenship G.K. Chesterton, Collected Poems Robert Desnos, La liberté ou lamour! T.S. Eliot, The Journey of the Magi Allama Iqbal, Zabur-i-Ajam (Persian Psalms) James Weldon Johnson, Gods Promises James Joyce, Pomes Penyeach J... // Robert Creeley founds and edits the Black Mountain Review Jack Kerouac reads Dwight Goddards A Buddhist Bible, which will influence him greatly. ... The Journey of the Magi is a topos of Christian painting and literature. ... // T.S. Eliot enters the Church of England and assumes British citizenship G.K. Chesterton, Collected Poems Robert Desnos, La liberté ou lamour! T.S. Eliot, The Journey of the Magi Allama Iqbal, Zabur-i-Ajam (Persian Psalms) James Weldon Johnson, Gods Promises James Joyce, Pomes Penyeach J... Ash-Wednesday (sometimes Ash Wednesday) is the first long poem written by T.S. Eliot after his 1927 conversion to Anglicanism. ... // Frost Medal inaugurated by the Poetry Society of America John Masefield becomes Poet Laureate T.S. Eliot - Ash Wednesday W. H. Auden, Poems, his first published book (accepted by T.S. Eliot on behalf of Faber & Faber, which remained Audens publisher for the rest of his life) Samuel Beckett... // John Betjeman, Mount Zion Edmund Blunden publishes Wilfred Owens poems Hilda Doolittle (H.D.), Red Roses for Bronze Pulitzer Prize for Poetry: Robert Frost: Collected Poems February 2 — Judith Viorst, American author known for her childrens books and poetry April 19 — Etheridge Knight, (died 1991), an African-American... Old Possums Book of Practical Cats is a set of whimsical poems by T. S. Eliot about feline psychology and sociology. ... // Last issue of The Criterion is published. ... // Last issue of The Criterion is published. ... The Queens Book of the Red Cross was published in November 1939 in a fundraising effort to aid the Red Cross during World War II. The book was sponsored by Queen Elizabeth, and its contents were contributed by fifty British authors and artists. ... Four Quartets is the name given to four related poems by T. S. Eliot, collected and republished in book form in 1943. ... // Benjamin Brittens opera Peter Grimes, based on George Crabbes The Borough Vladimir Nabokov becomes a naturalized citizen of the United States Ezra Pound is arrested for treason at Genoa and imprisoned at Pisa by the U.S. Army W.H. Auden, Collected Poems Elizabeth Smart, By Grand Central...

Plays

Becket in a window in Canterbury Cathedral Murder in the Cathedral is a poetic drama by T. S. Eliot that portrays the assassination of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170. ... The Cocktail Party, a play written by T.S. Eliot was first performed at the Edinburgh Festival in 1949. ... A comic verse play by T.S. Eliot Sir Claude Mulhammer, a wealthy entrepreneur, decides to smuggle his illegitimate son Colby into the household by employing him as his confidential clerk. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Nonfiction

  • The Second-Order Mind (1920)
  • Tradition and the Individual Talent (1920)
  • The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism (1920)
    • Hamlet and His Problems
  • Homage to John Dryden (1924)
  • Shakespeare and the Stoicism of Seneca (1928)
  • For Lancelot Andrewes (1928)
  • Dante (1929)
  • Selected Essays, 1917–1932 (1932)
  • The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism (1933)
  • After Strange Gods (1934)
  • Elizabethan Essays (1934)
  • Essays Ancient and Modern (1936)
  • The Idea of a Christian Society (1940)
  • Notes Towards the Definition of Culture (1948)
  • Poetry and Drama (1951)
  • The Three Voices of Poetry (1954)
  • The Frontiers of Criticism (1956)
  • On Poetry and Poets (1957)

“Tradition and the Individual Talent” (1919) is an essay written by poet and literary theorist T.S. Eliot. ... The Frontiers of Criticism is a lecture given by T. S. Eliot at the University of Minnesota in 1956. ...

Posthumous publications

  • To Criticize the Critic (1965)
  • The Waste Land: Facsimile Edition (1974)
  • Inventions of the March Hare: Poems 1909-1917 (1996)

Further reading

  • Ackroyd, Peter. T. S. Eliot: A Life. (1984)
  • Asher, Kenneth T. S. Eliot and Ideology (1995)
  • Bush, Ronald. T. S. Eliot: A Study in Character and Style. (1984)
  • Christensen, Karen. "Dear Mrs. Eliot," The Guardian Review. (29 January 2005).
  • Crawford, Robert. The Savage and the City in the Work of T. S. Eliot. (1987).
  • Gardner, Helen. The Composition of Four Quartets. (1978).
  • ---The Art of T. S. Eliot. (1949)
  • The Letters of T. S. Eliot. Ed. by Valerie Eliot. Vol. I, 1898-1922. San Diego [etc.] 1988.
  • Gordon, Lyndall. T. S. Eliot: An Imperfect Life. (1998)
  • Julius, Anthony. T. S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism, and Literary Form. Cambridge University Press (1995)
  • Kelleter, Frank. Die Moderne und der Tod: Edgar Allan Poe–T. S. Eliot–Samuel Beckett. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang, 1998.
  • Kenner, Hugh. The Invisible Poet: T. S. Eliot. (1969)
  • ---, editor, T. S. Eliot: A Collection of Critical Essays, Prentice-Hall. (1962)
  • Kirsch, Adam. "Matthew Arnold and T. S. Eliot", The American Scholar. Vol 67, Iss 3. (Summer 1998)
  • Levy, William Turner and Victor Scherle. Affectionately, T. S. Eliot: The Story of a Friendship: 1947-1965. (1968).
  • Maxwell, D.E.S. The Poetry of T. S. Eliot, Routledge and Keagan Paul. (1960).
  • Matthews, T. S. Great Tom: Notes Towards the Definition of T. S. Eliot. (1973)
  • Miller, James E., Jr. T. S. Eliot. The Making of an American Poet, 1888-1922. The Pennsylvania State University Press. 2005.
  • North, Michael (ed.) The Waste Land (Norton Critical Editions). New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.
  • Quillian, William H. Hamlet and the New Poetic: James Joyce and T. S. Eliot. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press (1983).
  • Raine, Craig. T. S. Eliot. Oxford University Press (2006).
  • Ricks, Christopher.T. S. Eliot and Prejudice. (1988).
  • Ronnick, Michele Valerie, "Eliot's 'The Hollow Men'", The Explicator. Vol 56, Iss 2. (1998)
  • Schuchard, Ronald. Eliot's Dark Angel: Intersections of Life and Art. (1999).
  • Seymour-Jones, Carole. Painted Shadow: A Life of Vivienne Eliot. (2001).
  • Sencourt, Robert. T. S. Eliot: A Memoir. (1971).
  • Spender, Stephen. T. S. Eliot. (1975).
  • Sinha, Arun Kumar and Vikram, Kumar. T. S. Eliot: An Intensive Study of Selected Poems, Spectrum Books Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, (2005).
  • Tate, Allen, editor. T. S. Eliot: The Man and His Work, First published in 1966 - republished by Penguin 1971.

Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... Ronald George Bush (b. ... Helen Gardner (1909-1986) was an English literary critic. ... Lyndall Gordon is a South African academic, known for her literary biographies. ... Dr. Anthony Julius Anthony Julius (born 1956) is a prominent British lawyer and academic, best known for his actions on behalf of Diana, Princess of Wales and Deborah Lipstadt. ... Hugh Kenner (January 7, 1923 – November 24, 2003), Canadian literary scholar, critic, & professor. ... Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... Michael North is a professor in the department of English at University of California, Los Angeles and the editor of the Norton Critical Edition of T.S. Eliots The Waste Land. ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line[2] modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ... W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company. ... William H. Quillian is at Mount Holyoke College where he has been a professor (and departmental chair on two occasions) since 1975. ... Craig Raine (3 December 1944 - ) is an English poet and critic born in Bishop Auckland, County Durham. ... Christopher Ricks (born 1933) is a British literary critic and scholar. ... Sir Stephen Harold Spender CBE, (February 28, 1909, London – July 16, 1995) was an English poet, novelist and essayist who concentrated on themes of social injustice and the class struggle in his work. ... John Orley Allen Tate (November 19, 1899 - February 9, 1979) was an American poet, essayist, and social commentator, and Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, 1943 - 1944. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hart Crane (1899-1932)
  2. ^ Influences by Seamus Heaney
  3. ^ Bob Dylan
  4. ^ qtd. in Richard Ellmann's intro. to The Symbolist Movement in Literature (1958)
  5. ^ Perl, Jeffry M. and Andrew P. Tuck "The Hidden Advantage of Tradition: On the Significance of T. S. Eliot's Indic Studies", Philosophy East & West V. 35 No. 2 (April 1985) pp. 116-131. Online at http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/ew33375.htm (March 14, 2007)
  6. ^ Eliot, T. S. The Letters of T. S. Eliot, Volume 1, 1898-192. p. 75
  7. ^ Richardson, John, Sacred Monsters, Sacred Masters, Random House, 2001, page 20. ISBN 0-679-42490-3
  8. ^ Seymour-Jones, Carole. Painted Shadow: A Life of Vivienne Eliot. Constable (2001). p. 17
  9. ^ Eliot, T. S. The Letters of T. S. Eliot, Volume 1, 1898-192, p. xvii, ISBN 0-15-150885-2
  10. ^ Ellmann, Richard James Joyce, p.492-495, ISBN 0-19-503381-7
  11. ^ Seymour-Jones, Carole. Painted Shadow: A Life of Vivienne Eliot. Constable (2001). p. 561
  12. ^ Gordon, Lyndall. T. S. Eliot: An Imperfect Life. Norton. (1998) p. 455
  13. ^ Eliot, T. S. "Letter to J. H. Woods, April 21, 1919." The Letters of T. S. Eliot, vol. I. Valerie Eliot, ed. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1988. 285
  14. ^ http://www.theworld.com/~raparker/exploring/tseliot/works/poems/eliot-harvard-poems.html T. S. Eliot: The Harvard Advocate Poems, accessed February 5, 2007.
  15. ^ Times Literary Supplement 21 June 1917, no. 805, 299 Accessed from www.usask.ca, June 8, 2006. Longer extract and other reviews can be found on this page.
  16. ^ Wagner, Erica (2001) "An eruption of fury" Guardian online, September 4, 2001. Accessed June 8, 2006. This omits the word "very" from the quote.
  17. ^ Wilson, Edmund. 'Review of Ash Wednesday' New Republic (20 August 1930)
  18. ^ See, for instance, the biographically oriented work of one of Eliot's editors and major critics, Ronald Schuchard.
  19. ^ T. S. Eliot: the Critical Heritage. Michael Grant ed. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982
  20. '^ Ulysses, Order, and Myth.' Selected Essays T. S. Eliot (orig 1923)
  21. ^ Untermeyer, Louis "Modern American Poetry" pp. 395-396 (Hartcourt Brace 1950)
  22. ^ a b http://www.britannica.com/nobel/micro/190_21.html Britannica: Guide to the Nobel Prizes: Eliot, T. S. by Dame Helen Gardner and Allen Tate, accessed November 6, 2006.
  23. ^ Untermeyer, Louis "Modern American Poetry" p. 396 (Harcourt Brace 1950)
  24. ^ Eliot, T. S. The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism Harvard University Press, 1933 (penultimate paragraph)
  25. ^ Gallup, Donald. T. S. Eliot: A Bibliography (A Revised and Extended Edition) Harcourt, Brace & World, New York, 1969. Listings A23, C184, C193
  26. ^ Gallup, Donald. T. S. Eliot: A Bibliography (A Revised and Extended Edition) Harcourt, Brace & World, New York, 1969. Listings A25
  27. ^ Tradition and the Individual Talent. Eliot, T. S. 1920. The Sacred Wood
  28. ^ quoted in Roger Kimball, "A Craving for Reality," The New Criterion Vol. 18, 1999
  29. ^ Tradition and the Individual Talent. Eliot, T. S. 1920. The Sacred Wood
  30. ^ http://litguide.press.jhu.edu/cgi-bin/view.cgi?eid=193&query=criticism%20of%20tradition%20and%20the%20individual%20talent
  31. ^ http://litguide.press.jhu.edu/cgi-bin/view.cgi?eid=185&query=Tradition%20and%20the%20Individual%20Talent%22
  32. ^ Hamlet and His Problems. Eliot, T. S. 1920. The Sacred Wood
  33. ^ http://litguide.press.jhu.edu/cgi-bin/view.cgi?eid=193&query=criticism%20of%20tradition%20and%20the%20individual%20talent
  34. ^ Burt, Steven and Lewin, Jennifer. "Poetry and the New Criticism." A Companion to Twentieth-Century Poetry, Neil Roberts, ed. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 2001. p. 154
  35. ^ Project MUSE
  36. ^ http://www.jstor.org/view/00100994/ap020106/02a00020/0
  37. ^ http://litguide.press.jhu.edu/cgi-bin/view.cgi?eid=85&query=t.s.%20eliot%20and%20new%20criticism
  38. ^ Eliot, T. S. 1922. The Waste Land
  39. ^ Draper, R.P. An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Poetry in English, 1999. p. 13
  40. ^ T.S. Eliot :: The Waste Land and criticism - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  41. ^ http://litguide.press.jhu.edu/cgi-bin/view.cgi?eid=85&query=t.s.%20eliot%20and%20new%20criticism
  42. ^ a b c Spruyt, Bart Jan. One of the enemy: C. S. Lewis on the very great evil of T. S. Eliot's work. Lecture delivered at the conference "Order and Liberty in the American Tradition" for the Intercollegiate Studies Institute held 28 July to 3 August 2004 at Oxford. Online at http://www.burkestichting.nl/nl/stichting/isioxford.html (February 25, 2007)

Richard Ellmann (March 15, 1918 – May 13, 1987) was a prominent American/British literary critic and biographer of Irish writers such as James Joyce, Oscar Wilde, and William Butler Yeats. ... Richard Ellmann (March 15, 1918 – May 13, 1987) was a prominent American/British literary critic and biographer of Irish writers such as James Joyce, Oscar Wilde, and William Butler Yeats. ... Lyndall Gordon is a South African academic, known for her literary biographies. ... Louis Untermeyer (1885 - 1977) was a United States author, writer and editor. ... Helen Gardner (1909-1986) was an English literary critic. ... John Orley Allen Tate (November 19, 1899 - February 9, 1979) was an American poet, essayist, and social commentator, and Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, 1943 - 1944. ...

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