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Encyclopedia > T. E. Lawrence
Thomas Edward Lawrence
August 16, 1888(1888-08-16)May 19, 1935 (aged 46)

T. E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca.
Nickname Lawrence of Arabia
Place of birth Tremadog, Caernarfonshire, North Wales
Place of death Bovington Camp, Dorset, England
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army, Royal Air Force
Years of service 1914-1918, 1923-1935
Rank Lieutenant colonel
Awards Companion in the Order of the Bath
Distinguished Service Order
Légion d'Honneur

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, CB, DSO (August 16, 1888[1]May 19, 1935), known professionally as T. E. Lawrence, was a British soldier renowned especially for his liaison role during the Arab Revolt of 1916-18, but whose vivid personality and writings, along with the extraordinary breadth and variety of his activities and associations, have made him the object of fascination throughout the world as "Lawrence of Arabia". Lawrence of Arabia is an award-winning 1962 film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Image File history File links Thomas_Edward_Lawrence-Lawrence_of_Arabia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sayyid. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Tremadog is a village on the outskirts of Porthmadog, Wales. ... Caernarfonshire, also known as Carnarvonshire or, in Welsh, as Sir Gaernarfon, is a maritime traditional county of Wales, bounded N. by the Irish Sea, E. by Denbighshire, S. by Cardigan Bay and Merionethshire, and W. by Caernarfon Bay and the Menai Straits, which separates it from Anglesey. ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ... British Mark V; one of the few WWI tanks still in working order. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... RAF redirects here. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... Lieutenant Colonel (Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grades spelling) is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine corps and air forces of the world, typically ranking above a Major and below a Colonel. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ...


Lawrence's public image was due in part to U.S. traveller and journalist Lowell Thomas's sensationalised reportage of the Revolt, as well as to Lawrence's autobiographical account, Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Lowell Jackson Thomas (April 6, 1892 – August 29, 1981) was an American writer, broadcaster, and traveller best known as the man who made Lawrence of Arabia famous. ... Tooling on the cover of the first public printing, showing twin scimitars and the legend: the sword also means clean-ness + death Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph is the autobiographical account of the experiences of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) while serving as a liaison officer with rebel...

Contents

Early years

Lawrence was born in 1888 in Tremadog, Caernarfonshire, North Wales. His Anglo-Irish father, Sir Thomas Robert Tighe Chapman, seventh Baronet of Westmeath in Ireland, had abandoned his wife, Edith, for his daughters' governess, Sarah Junner. The couple did not marry. Sir Thomas and Sarah had five illegitimate sons, of whom Thomas Edward was the second-eldest. The family later lived at 2 Polstead Road (now marked with a blue plaque) in Oxford, under the names of Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence. Thomas Edward (known in the family as "Ned") attended the City of Oxford High School for Boys, where one of the four houses is now named "Lawrence" in his honour. In about 1905, Lawrence ran away from home and served for a few weeks as a boy soldier with the Royal Garrison Artillery at St Mawes Castle in Cornwall; he was bought out. Tremadog is a village on the outskirts of Porthmadog, Wales. ... Caernarfonshire, also known as Carnarvonshire or, in Welsh, as Sir Gaernarfon, is a maritime traditional county of Wales, bounded N. by the Irish Sea, E. by Denbighshire, S. by Cardigan Bay and Merionethshire, and W. by Caernarfon Bay and the Menai Straits, which separates it from Anglesey. ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ... Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe a ruling class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church. ... For the brush-footed butterfly species, see Euthalia nais. ... County Westmeath (Irish: An Iarmhí) is a county situated in the Irish Midlands, in the western part of the province of Leinster. ... Illegitimacy is the status that was once commonly ascribed to individuals born to parents who were not married. ... Polstead Road is a residential road that runs between Kingston Road to the west and the Woodstock Road to the east, in the suburb of North Oxford, England. ... A blue plaque showing information about The Spanish Barn at Torre Abbey in Torquay. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... The City of Oxford High School for Boys was founded in 1881 in a Victorian stone building designed by Sir Thomas Jackson. ... The House System is a traditional feature of British schools, similar to the collegiate system of a university. ... The Royal Regiment of Artillery, generally known as the Royal Artillery (RA), is, despite its name, a corps of the British Army It is made up of a number of regiments. ... St. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...


From 1907 Lawrence was educated at Jesus College, Oxford. During the summers of 1907 and 1908, he toured France by bicycle, collecting photographs, drawings and measurements of castles dating from the crusader period. Subsequently, in the summer of 1909, he set out alone on a three-month walking tour of crusader castles in Syria, during which he travelled 1,000 miles on foot. Lawrence graduated with First Class Honours after submitting a thesis on The influence of the Crusades on European Military Architecture – to the end of the 12th century; the thesis was based on his own field research in France and the Middle East. At this time, Lawrence and one of his brothers became commissioned officers in the Church Lads' Brigade at St Aldgates. and of the Jesus College College name Jesus College in the University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeths Foundation Named after Jesus Christ Established 1571 Sister college Jesus College, Cambridge Principal The Lord Krebs JCR President Paolo Wyatt Undergraduates 340 MCR President Jahan Zahid Graduates 160 Location Turl Street, Oxford... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


On completing his degree (1910), he commenced postgraduate research in medieval pottery with a Senior Demy at Magdalen College, Oxford, which he abandoned after he was offered the opportunity to become a practising archaeologist in the Middle East. In December 1910 he sailed for Beirut, and on arrival went to Jbail (Byblos), where he studied Arabic. He then went to work on the excavations at Carchemish, near Jerablus in northern Syria, where he worked under D.G. Hogarth and R. Campbell-Thompson of the British Museum. He would later state that everything that he had accomplished, he owed to Hogarth.[2] While excavating ancient Mesopotamian sites, Lawrence met Gertrude Bell, who was to influence him for much of his time in the Middle East. Quaternary education or postgraduate education is the fourth-stage educational level which follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... A demyship is a form of scholarship, specifically at Magdalen College, Oxford. ... College name Magdalen College Latin name Collegium Beatae Mariae Magdalenae Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister college Magdalene College, Cambridge President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Jessica Jones Undergraduates 395 MCR President Eloise Scotford Graduates 230 Location of Magdalen College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced... Location in the Republic of Lebanon Coordinates: , Governorate Government  - Mayor Abdel Mounim Ariss[1] Area  - City 100 km² (31 sq mi) Population (2005)  - City 1,574,397  - Metro 1,792,111 Time zone +2 (UTC)  - Summer (DST) +3 (UTC) Website: City of Beirut This article is about the Lebanese city. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Carchemish (pr. ... Carchemish (pr. ... David George Hogarth (born May 23, 1862 in Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire; died November 6, 1927 in Oxford) was an English archaeologist and scholar, associated with T. E. Lawrence and Arthur Evans. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (July 14, 1868–July 12, 1926) was a British woman who had a major hand in creating the modern state of Iraq. ...


In late summer 1911, Lawrence returned to England for a brief sojourn. By November he was en route to Beirut for a second season at Carchemish, where he was to work with Leonard Woolley. Prior to resuming work there, however, he briefly worked with William Flinders Petrie at Kafr Ammar in Egypt. Location in the Republic of Lebanon Coordinates: , Governorate Government  - Mayor Abdel Mounim Ariss[1] Area  - City 100 km² (31 sq mi) Population (2005)  - City 1,574,397  - Metro 1,792,111 Time zone +2 (UTC)  - Summer (DST) +3 (UTC) Website: City of Beirut This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Carchemish (pr. ... Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880–20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist, best known for his excavations at Ur in Sumerancient Mesopotamia. ... Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 - 28 July 1942) was a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ...


Lawrence continued making trips to the Middle East as a field archaeologist until the outbreak of World War I. In January 1914, Woolley and Lawrence were co-opted by the British military as an archaeological smokescreen for a British military survey of the Negev Desert. They were funded by the Palestine Exploration Fund to search for an area referred to in the Bible as the "Wilderness of Zin"; along the way, they undertook an archaeological survey of the Negev Desert. The Negev was of strategic importance, as it would have to be crossed by any Ottoman army attacking Egypt in the event of war. Woolley and Lawrence subsequently published a report of the expedition's archaeological findings,[3] but a more important result was an updated mapping of the area, with special attention to features of military relevance such as water sources. At this time, Lawrence visited Aqaba and Petra. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Negev (נגב, Standard Hebrew Négev / Nágev, Tiberian Hebrew Néḡeḇ / Nāḡeḇ; Arabic النقب an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel. ... The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society founded in 1865 by a group of Biblical archaeologists. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Zin Desert or Zin Wilderness (Hebrew: מדבר צן, Midbar Tzin) is mentioned in the Torah as one of the places visited by the Israelites during the forty years they spent wandering in the wilderness. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... This article is about the Jordanian site of Petra. ...


From March to May, Lawrence worked again at Carchemish. Following the outbreak of hostilities in August 1914, on the advice of S. F. Newcombe, Lawrence did not immediately enlist in the British Army but held back until October, when he was commissioned on the General List. Carchemish (pr. ... The General Service Corps (GSC) is a corps of the British Army. ...


Arab Revolt

At the outbreak of World War I Lawrence was a British University post-graduate researcher who with, by, and under his own passport and visas had for years entered and travelled extensively within the Ottoman Empire provinces of the Levant (Trans-Jordan & Palestine) and Mesopotamia (Syria & Iraq) under his own name. As such he became known to the Turkish Interior Ministry authorities and their European (German) “friends” and technical advisors with whom he came into contact in order to pass into and then from one province within the Empire to another. As a fellow European, Lawrence came into contact with the Ottoman-German technical advisors as a European himself living, working and operating in a “non-white” country; travelling over the German-designed, -built and -financed railways during the course of his travels and researches. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Thus on the eve of World War I, the Ottoman authorities would have already regarded Lawrence as a relatively well known English foreigner who was also known to have detailed knowledge of Ottoman frontier territories bordering on the British sphere of influence at Suez and in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Once the Ottoman Empire joined the war as a co-belligerent with Germany, the Ottoman Interior Ministry would have regarded Lawrence and men like him as presumptively suspect enemy aliens who very likely would be spies working for their governments. The Ottoman authorities, either on their own or under the tutelage of their German advisors, would have been on the lookout for all such persons, who might attempt re-enter their Empire and re-establish contacts with their friends and or dissidents that they had met during their travels before the war.


Even if Lawrence had not volunteered, the British would probably have drafted him as a reserve officer for his detailed first-hand knowledge of the Levant, Syria and Mesopotamia. His posting to Cairo on the Intelligence Staff of the GOC Middle East was therefore inevitable. It is against this backdrop that Lawrence's actions should be viewed.


Contrary to later myth, it was not Lawrence or the Army that conceptualised a campaign of internal insurgency against the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East: it was the Arab Bureau of Britain's Foreign Office. The Arab Bureau had long felt it likely that a campaign instigated and financed by outside powers, supporting the break-away-minded tribes and regional challengers to the Turkish government's centralised rule of their empire, would pay great dividends in the diversion of effort that would be needed to meet such a challenge. The Arab Bureau was the first to recognise what is today called the "asymmetry" of such conflict. The Ottoman authorities would have to devote a hundred or a thousand times the resources to contain the threat of such an internal rebellion, as would be the Allies' cost of sponsoring it. Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ...


At that point in the British Foreign Office’s thinking they were not considering the region as candidate territories for formal incorporation and addition to the British Empire, but only as an extension of the range of British Imperial influence, and the weakening and destruction of a German ally, the Ottoman Empire.


During the war, Lawrence fought with Arab irregular troops under the command of Emir Faisal, a son of Sherif Hussein of Mecca, in extended guerilla operations against the armed forces of the Ottoman Empire. Lawrence's major contribution to World War I was convincing Arab leaders to co-ordinate their revolt to aid British interests.[citation needed] He persuaded the Arabs not to drive the Ottomans out of Medina, thus forcing the Turkish army to tie up troops in the city garrison. The Arabs were then able to direct most of their attention to the Hejaz railway that supplied the garrison. This tied up more Ottoman troops, who were forced to protect the railway and repair the constant damage. Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hussein bin Ali (1852-1931) (حسین بن علی; Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī) was the Sharif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king of Hejaz, which received international recognition. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... al Hejaz Station in Damascus, starting point of the railroad The 1050mm gauge Hejaz Railway (also Hedjaz, etc. ...


In 1917, Lawrence arranged a joint action with the Arab irregulars and forces under Auda Abu Tayi (until then in the employ of the Ottomans) against the strategically located port city of Aqaba. He was promoted to major in the same year. On July 6, after an overland attack, Aqaba fell to Arab forces. Some 12 months later, Lawrence was involved in the capture of Damascus in the final weeks of the war and was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in 1918. Auda ibu Tayi (also: Auda Abu Tayi, etc. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-ʻAqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Lieutenant Colonel (Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grades spelling) is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine corps and air forces of the world, typically ranking above a Major and below a Colonel. ...


As was his habit when travelling before the war, Lawrence adopted many local customs and traditions (many photographs show him in the desert wearing white Arab garb and riding camels), and he soon became a confidant of Prince Faisal. For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... The confidant character is usually someone the lead character confides in and trusts. ...


During the closing years of the war he sought to convince his superiors in the British government that Arab independence was in their interests, with mixed success.


In 1918 he co-operated with war correspondent Lowell Thomas for a short period. During this time Thomas and his cameraman Harry Chase shot much film and many photographs, which Thomas used in a highly lucrative film that toured the world after the war. A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone. ... Lowell Jackson Thomas (April 6, 1892 – August 29, 1981) was an American writer, broadcaster, and traveller best known as the man who made Lawrence of Arabia famous. ... Harry Chase is an Alberta MLA first elected, as a Liberal, in the 2004 Alberta provincial election, in the Calgary-Varsity riding. ...


Lawrence was made a Companion in the Order of the Bath and awarded the Distinguished Service Order and the French Légion d'Honneur, though in October 1918 he refused to be made a Knight Commander of the British Empire. Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in decreasing order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand...


Post-war years

Emir Faisal's party at Versailles, during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Left to right: Rustum Haidar, Nuri as-Said, Prince Faisal, Captain Pisani (behind Faisal), T. E. Lawrence, Faisal's black slave (name unknown), Captain Hassan Khadri.
Emir Faisal's party at Versailles, during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Left to right: Rustum Haidar, Nuri as-Said, Prince Faisal, Captain Pisani (behind Faisal), T. E. Lawrence, Faisal's black slave (name unknown), Captain Hassan Khadri.

Immediately after the war, Lawrence worked for the Foreign Office, attending the Paris Peace Conference between January and May as a member of Faisal's delegation. ImageMetadata File history File links FeisalPartyAtVersaillesCopy. ... ImageMetadata File history File links FeisalPartyAtVersaillesCopy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ... Emir Faisals party at Versailles, during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... Paris 1919 redirects here. ...


Lowell Thomas's film was seen by four million people in the post-war years, giving Lawrence great publicity.[citation needed] Until then, Lawrence had little influence, but soon newspapers began to report his opinions. Consequently he served for much of 1921 as an advisor to Winston Churchill at the Colonial Office. Churchill redirects here. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ...


Lawrence was ambivalent about Thomas's publicity, calling him a "vulgar man," though he saw Thomas's show several times.[citation needed] Starting in 1922, Lawrence attempted to join the Royal Air Force as an airman under the name John Hume Ross. He was soon exposed and subsequently forced out of the RAF. He changed his name to T.E. Shaw and joined the Royal Tank Corps in 1923. He was unhappy there and repeatedly petitioned to rejoin the RAF, which finally admitted him in August 1925. A fresh burst of publicity after the publication of Revolt in the Desert (see below) resulted in his assignment to a remote base in British India in late 1926, where he remained until the end of 1928. At that time he was forced to return to the UK after rumours began to circulate that he was involved in espionage activities. RAF redirects here. ... The Royal Tank Regiment is a unit of the British Army (formerly the Tank Corps and Royal Tank Corps). ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858...


He purchased several small plots of land in Chingford, built a hut and swimming pool there, and visited frequently. This was demolished in 1930 when the Corporation of London acquired the land. Chingford is a town in London Borough of Waltham Forest. ... Coat of arms of the City of London as shown on Blackfriars station. ...


He continued serving in the RAF, specialising in high-speed boats and professing happiness, and it was with considerable regret that he left the service at the end of his enlistment in March 1935.


Lawrence was a keen motorcyclist, and, at different times, had owned seven Brough Superior motorcycles.[4] His seventh motorcycle is on display at the Imperial War Museum. Brough Superior (pr. ... The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ...


Death

Lawrence on a Brough Superior motorcycle at Cranwell, ca. 1925-26.

A few weeks after leaving the service, aged 46, he was fatally injured in a motorcycle accident in Dorset, close to his cottage, Clouds Hill, near Wareham (now run by the National Trust and open to the public). The accident occurred because of a dip in the road that obstructed his view of two boys on their bicycles; he swerved to avoid them, lost control and was thrown over the handlebars of his motorcycle. He died six days later.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Brough Superior (pr. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... Cranwell (The name means the spring where the cranes are found) is a village with a population of approximately 3,000 inhabitants (part of the Civil Parish of Cranwell and Byards Leap), situated in the North Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England, on the B1429 road approximately 7km north-west... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Clouds Hill is an isolated cottage in the county of Dorset in South West England which was purchased by T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) in 1925. ... Wareham is a historic market town in the Purbeck district of Dorset, England. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ...


Some sources mistakenly claim that Lawrence was buried in St Paul's Cathedral; in reality, only a bust of him was placed in the crypt. His final resting place is the Dorset village of Moreton. Moreton Estate, which borders Bovington Camp, was owned by family cousins, the Frampton family. Lawrence had rented and subsequently purchased Clouds Hill from the Framptons. He had been a frequent visitor to their home, Okers Wood House, and had for many years corresponded with Louisa Frampton. This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery or graveyard is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Moreton is a village in Dorset, England, situated in the Piddle valley six miles east of Dorchester. ... Clouds Hill is an isolated cottage in the county of Dorset in South West England which was purchased by T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) in 1925. ...


On Lawrence's death, his mother wrote to the Framptons asking whether there was space for him in their family plot at Moreton Church. At his funeral there, attendees included Winston and Clementine Churchill and Lawrence's youngest brother, Arnold (who demonstrated the Lawrencian dry humour in speaking with reporters), and T.E. Lawrence's coffin was transported on the Frampton estate bier. For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... Churchill redirects here. ... Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill (April 1, 1885 - December 12, 1977) (née Clementine Ogilvy Hozier) was the wife of Sir Winston Churchill. ... A bier from Grendon church A bier is a flat frame, traditionally wooden but sometimes made of other materials, used to carry a corpse for burial in a funeral procession. ...


Writings

Throughout his life, Lawrence was a prolific writer. A large proportion of his output was epistolary; he often sent several letters a day. Several collections of his letters have been published. He corresponded with many notable figures, including George Bernard Shaw, Edward Elgar, Winston Churchill, Robert Graves and E.M. Forster. He met Joseph Conrad and commented perceptively on his works. The many letters that he sent to Shaw's wife, Charlotte, offer a revealing side of his character.[6] An epistolary novel is a book written using a literary technique in which a novel is composed as a series of letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... Sir Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... Edward Morgan Forster (January 1, 1879 - June 7, 1970) was an English novelist. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad Nałęcz-Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. ...


In his lifetime, Lawrence published four major texts. Two were translations: Homer's Odyssey, and The Forest Giant – the latter an otherwise forgotten work of French fiction. He received a flat fee for the second translation, and negotiated a generous fee plus royalties for the first. Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ...


Seven Pillars

14 Barton Street, London S.W.1, where Lawrence lived while writing Seven Pillars.

Lawrence's major work is Seven Pillars of Wisdom, an account of his war experiences. In 1919 he had been elected to a seven-year research fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford, providing him with support while he worked on the book. In addition to being a memoir of his experiences during the war, certain parts also serve as essays on military strategy, Arabian culture and geography, and other topics. Lawrence re-wrote Seven Pillars of Wisdom three times; once "blind" after he lost the manuscript while changing trains in Reading. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Tooling on the cover of the first public printing, showing twin scimitars and the legend: the sword also means clean-ness + death Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph is the autobiographical account of the experiences of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) while serving as a liaison officer with rebel... College name All Souls College Collegium Omnium Animarum Named after Feast of All Souls Established 1438 Sister College Trinity Hall, Cambridge Warden Dr. John Davis JCR President None Undergraduates None MCR President None Graduates 8 (approx. ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ...


The accusation that Lawrence repeatedly exaggerated his feats has been a persistent theme among commentators.[citation needed] The list of his alleged "embellishments" in Seven Pillars is long, though many such allegations have been disproved with time, most definitively in Jeremy Wilson's authorised biography. Jeremy Wilson is the author of Lawrence of Arabia: The Authorised Biography of T.E. Lawrence, published in 1989. ...


Lawrence acknowledged having been helped in the editing of the book by George Bernard Shaw. In the preface to Seven Pillars, Lawrence offered his "thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Shaw for countless suggestions of great value and diversity: and for all the present semicolons." George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... A semicolon (  ;  ) is a punctuation mark. ...


The first edition was to be published in 1926 as a high-priced private subscription edition. Lawrence was afraid that the public would think that he would make a substantial income from the book, and he stated that it was written as a result of his war service. He vowed not to take any money from it, and indeed he did not, as the sale price was one third of the production costs.[citation needed] This left Lawrence in substantial debt.


Revolt

Revolt in the Desert was an abridged version of Seven Pillars, also published in 1926. He undertook a needed but reluctant publicity exercise, which resulted in a best-seller. Again he vowed not to take any fees from the publication, partly to appease the subscribers to Seven Pillars who had paid dearly for their editions. By the fourth reprint in 1927, the debt from Seven Pillars was paid off. As Lawrence left for military service in India at the end of 1926, he set up the "Seven Pillars Trust" with his friend D.G. Hogarth as a trustee, in which he made over the copyright and any surplus income of Revolt in the Desert. He later told Hogarth that he had "made the Trust final, to save myself the temptation of reviewing it, if Revolt turned out a best seller." Tooling on the cover of the first public printing, showing twin scimitars and the legend: the sword also means clean-ness + death Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph is the autobiographical account of the experiences of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) while serving as a liaison officer with rebel... David George Hogarth (born May 23, 1862 in Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire; died November 6, 1927 in Oxford) was an English archaeologist and scholar, associated with T. E. Lawrence and Arthur Evans. ...


The resultant trust paid off the debt, and Lawrence then invoked a clause in his publishing contract to halt publication of the abridgment in the UK. However, he allowed both American editions and translations, which resulted in a substantial flow of income. The trust paid income either into an educational fund for children of RAF officers who lost their lives or were invalided as a result of service, or more substantially into the RAF Benevolent Fund set up by Air-Marshal Trenchard, founder of the RAF, in 1919. RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... Bust depicting Marshal of the Royal Air Force the Viscount Trenchard Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard (February 3, 1873 - February 10, 1956) was the British Chief of the Air Staff during World War I, and was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force...


Posthumous

He also authored The Mint,[7] a memoir of his experiences as an enlisted man in the Royal Air Force. Lawrence worked from a notebook that he kept while enlisted, writing of the daily lives of enlisted men and his desire to be a part of something larger than himself: the Royal Air Force. The book is stylistically very different from Seven Pillars of Wisdom, using sparse prose as opposed to the complicated syntax found in Seven Pillars. It was published posthumously, edited by his brother, Prof. A.W. Lawrence. The Mint – 352087 A/C Ross, by T E Lawrence. ... RAF redirects here. ... RAF redirects here. ... Tooling on the cover of the first public printing, showing twin scimitars and the legend: the sword also means clean-ness + death Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph is the autobiographical account of the experiences of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) while serving as a liaison officer with rebel...


After Lawrence's death, his brother inherited all Lawrence's estate and his copyrights as the sole beneficiary. To pay the inheritance tax, he sold the U.S. copyright of Seven Pillars of Wisdom (subscribers' text) outright to Doubleday Doran in 1935. Doubleday still controls publication rights of this version of the text of Seven Pillars of Wisdom in the USA. He then in 1936 split the remaining assets of the estate, giving "Clouds Hill" and many copies of less substantial or historical letters to the nation via the National Trust, and then set up two trusts to control interests in Lawrence's residual copyrights. To the original Seven Pillars Trust he assigned the copyright in Seven Pillars of Wisdom, as a result of which it was given its first general publication. To the Letters and Symposium Trust, he assigned the copyright in The Mint and all Lawrence's letters, which were subsequently edited and published in the book T. E. Lawrence by his Friends (edited by A.W. Lawrence, London, Jonathan Cape, 1937). For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Doubleday is one of the largest book publishing companies in the world. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ...


A substantial amount of income went directly to the RAF Benevolent Fund or for archaeological, environmental, or academic projects. The two trusts were amalgamated in 1986, and, on the death of Prof. A.W. Lawrence, also acquired all the remaining rights to Lawrence's works that it had not owned, plus rights to all of Prof. Lawrence's works.


Sexuality

Writers working to elucidate the history of same-sex erotic relationships identify a strong homoerotic element in Lawrence's life, while scholars, including his official biographer, have been accused of "attempt[ing] to defend Lawrence against 'charges' of homosexuality."[8] Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...

Selim Ahmed ("Dahoum"), before World War I, at Carchemish. Photograph by T.E. Lawrence.
Selim Ahmed ("Dahoum"), before World War I, at Carchemish. Photograph by T.E. Lawrence.

Lawrence did not discuss his sexual orientation or practices. There is one clearly homoerotic passage in the Introduction, Chapter 2, of Seven Pillars of Wisdom: "quivering together in the yielding sand, with intimate hot limbs in supreme embrace." Image File history File links Dahoum_-_Selim_Ahmed_2. ... Image File history File links Dahoum_-_Selim_Ahmed_2. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Carchemish (pr. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... Tooling on the cover of the first public printing, showing twin scimitars and the legend: the sword also means clean-ness + death Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph is the autobiographical account of the experiences of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) while serving as a liaison officer with rebel...


The book is dedicated to "S.A." with a poem that begins:

"I loved you, so I drew these tides of men into my hands
and wrote my will across the sky in stars
To gain you Freedom, the seven-pillared worthy house,
that your eyes might be shining for me
When I came."[9]

It is unclear whether "S.A." identifies a man, a woman, a nation, or some combination of the above. Lawrence himself maintained that "S.A." was a composite character.[citation needed] Lawrence himself once said: "I liked a particular Arab, and thought that freedom for the race would be an acceptable present."[10] If "S.A." does refer to a particular person, a likely possibility is Selim Ahmed, nicknamed "Dahoum" ("Dark One"), a 14-year-old Arab with whom Lawrence is known to have been close. The two met while working at a pre-war archaeological dig at Carchemish; Lawrence had the boy move in with him, carved a nude sculpture of him which he placed on the roof of the house in Greco-Roman style, and brought Ahmed on holiday to England. The two parted in 1914, never to see each other again, as Dahoum died of typhus in 1918. Boston University Professor Matthew Parfitt (who never met Lawrence) maintains that "in Seven Pillars, and more explicitly in his correspondence, Lawrence suggests that his distaste for the entire exploit (i.e., the Arab Campaign) in its last triumphant days was largely owing to news of his friend's death." Selim Ahmed Photo: TE Lawrence Selim Ahmed (ca. ... Carchemish (pr. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...


In Seven Pillars, Lawrence claims that, while reconnoitering Deraa in Arab disguise, he was captured, beaten, and sexually molested.[11] Modern biographers have questioned whether the incident ever occurred: there are problems with the chronology of Lawrence's account, whose subsequent sex-life revolved around male flagellation, while the Ottoman commander whom Lawrence accuses of whipping and sodomising him went on to lead a blameless post-war life without a hint of scandal. Lawrence's own statements and actions concerning the incident have contributed to the confusion: he removed the page from his war diary which would have covered the November 1917 week in question. Daraa (fortress, compare Dura-Europos) (Arabic: درعا) is a city in southwestern Syria, near the border with Jordan. ...


It is true that Lawrence hired a man to beat him, making it clear he had unconventional tastes, notably masochism.[12] Also, years after the Deraa incident, Lawrence embarked on a rigid programme of physical rehabilitation, including diet, exercise, and swimming in the North Sea. During this time he recruited men from the service and told them a story about a fictitious uncle who, because Lawrence had stolen money from him, demanded that he enlist in the service and that he be beaten. Lawrence wrote letters purporting to be from the uncle ("R." or "The Old Man") instructing the men in how he was to be beaten, yet also asking them to persuade him to stop this. This treatment continued until his death.[13] Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


Discussion about Lawrence's sexuality began with Richard Aldington's scathingly critical Lawrence of Arabia: A Biographical Inquiry (1955). Richard Meinertzhagen wrote in his Middle East Diary that upon meeting Lawrence, he asked himself, "Boy or girl?" – though historians widely consider this to have been added after the fact. The play Ross (1960) by Terence Rattigan, as well as the famous film Lawrence of Arabia, helped introduce the idea into popular culture. Richard Aldington in uniform during World War I Richard Aldington (July 8, 1892 – July 27, 1962), name at birth Edward Godfree Aldington, was an English writer and poet. ... Richard Henry Meinertzhagen (March 3, 1878 - June 17, 1967) was a British soldier and intelligence officer with an interest in birds, bird lice and Zionism. ... Ross is a 1960 play by British playwright Terence Rattigan. ... Terence Rattigan — British Playwright Sir Terence Mervyn Rattigan (June 10, 1911 – November 30, 1977) was one of Englands most important 20th century dramatists. ... Lawrence of Arabia is an award-winning 1962 film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. ...


In a letter to a homosexual man, Lawrence wrote that he did not find homosexuality morally wrong, yet he did find it distasteful.[14] In the book T.E. Lawrence by His Friends, many of Lawrence's friends are adamant that he was not homosexual but simply had little interest in the topic of sex. Not one of them suspected him of homosexual inclinations. Like many men of the time, T.E. Lawrence had little pressure to pursue women. Unlike most men of his time, he also had little inclination. E.H.R. Altounyan, a close friend of Lawrence, wrote the following in T.E. Lawrence by His Friends: This article is about the sexual orientation in humans. ...

"Women were to him persons, and as such to be appraised on their own merits. Preoccupation with sex is (except in the defective) due either to a sense of personal insufficiency and its resultant groping for fulfilment, or to a real sympathy with its biological purpose. Neither could hold much weight with him. He was justifiably self sufficient, and up to the time of his death no woman had convinced him of the necessity to secure his own succession. He was never married because he never happened to meet the right person; and nothing short of that would do: a bald statement of fact which cannot hope to convince the perverse intricacy of the public mind."

Vision of Middle East

Lawrence's post-World War I vision of the Levant.
Lawrence's post-World War I vision of the Levant.

A map of the Middle East that belonged to Lawrence has been put on exhibit at the Imperial War Museum in London. It was drafted by him and presented to Britain's War Cabinet in November 1918. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x769, 152 KB) Summary From Lawrence of Arabia, The Life, The Legend, Imperial War Museum, London, 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x769, 152 KB) Summary From Lawrence of Arabia, The Life, The Legend, Imperial War Museum, London, 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ...


The map provides an alternative to present-day borders in the region, based on the sensibilities of the local populations. It includes a separate state for the Armenians and groups the people of present-day Syria, Jordan and parts of Saudi Arabia in another state, based on tribal patterns and commercial routes. Tribal refers to a culture or society based on tribes or clans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Trivia

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Military

  • The RAF Recruitment Office where Lawrence enlisted was run by Captain W. E. Johns, who was later to become the famous writer and creator of the Biggles character. He reported in his autobiography that Lawrence initially submitted false papers indicating that his name was Shaw, which resulted in his initial rejection. Within an hour Lawrence had returned to the office, with a directive from the War Office indicating that he was to be taken on, regardless of any discrepancy in his papers or medical condition. Johns accepted him, and sent a warning to the induction centre that a new recruit who had strong establishment influence, and who 'dined with Cabinet Ministers on his weekends' was arriving.
  • According to Lawrence's RAF enlistment medical file of March 12, 1923, he was 5 ft 5.5 in (1.66 m) tall, weighed 130 lb (59 kg), had "scars on his buttocks", "three superficial scars on lower part of his back" and "four superficial scars left side." He was also circumcised.
  • One of his favourite weapons was a Colt Peacemaker revolver. As recounted in Thomas's With Lawrence In Arabia, Lawrence, while on a pre-war archaeological trip to Mesopotamia, was attacked by an Arab bandit intent on stealing his gun. However, the Arab did not understand the revolver's firing mechanism, and was forced to leave Lawrence unconscious but alive. After this incident, Lawrence's preferred weapon was the Peacemaker, and he almost always carried one for good luck. Lawrence was also known to carry a Broomhandle Mauser, and later, a Colt M1911 semi-automatic.
  • His SMLE Mk III rifle, given to him by Emir Feisal, is on display in the Imperial War Museum, London.

W. E. Johns (February 5, 1893 - 21 June 1968) was an English pilot and writer of adventure stories, best known as the creator of the ace pilot and adventurer Biggles. ... The dust jacket of an early 1970s edition of Johns Biggles, Pioneer Air Fighter James Bigglesworth, better known in flying circles as Biggles, is a fictional pilot and adventurer created by W. E. Johns. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Modern copy of the Colt Single Action Army handgun Also known as the Colt Peacemaker or Single Action Army, the most exotic of which being the Black Powder model, the Colt Single Action Army handgun is a single action revolver holding 6 rounds of ammunition, that was designed for the... The C96, or Broomhandle Mauser, was the first semi-automatic pistol to see widespread use. ... The M1911 is a single-action, semiautomatic handgun chambered for the . ... Lee-Enfield No4 Mk1 with bayonet, scabbard attached The Lee-Enfield was the British armys standard bolt action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle from 1895 until 1956. ...

Film

Lawrence of Arabia film poster (1962).
Lawrence of Arabia film poster (1962).

This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Lawrence of Arabia is an award-winning 1962 film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... Lawrence of Arabia is an award-winning 1962 film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. ... Ralph Nathaniel Fiennes, (IPA: ), born 22 December 1962) is a Tony Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated and Genie Award-nominated British actor. ... Sir Alec Guinness CH, CBE (2 April 1914 – 5 August 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor. ... The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles is an Emmy Award-winning American television series that ran from 1992 to 1996. ... Joseph Bentley Bennett (April 21, 1859 - November 7, 1923) was a U.S. Representative from Kentucky. ... Douglas James Henshall (born 19 November 1965), sometimes credited as Dougie Henshall, is a Scottish actor. ... Judson Earney Scott (July 15, 1952) is an American stage, television, and film actor. ... Voyagers! is a time travel-based television series broadcast in the 1982-1983 season on NBC, starting on October 3, 1982. ...

Theatre

  • Lawrence was also the subject of Terrence Rattigan's controversial play Ross, which explored Lawrence's alleged homosexuality. Ross ran in 1960-61, starring Alec Guinness, an admirer of Lawrence's. The play had originally been written as a screenplay, but the planned film was never made.
  • Alan Bennett's Forty Years On (1968) includes a satire on Lawrence; known as "Tee Hee Lawrence" because of his high-pitched, girlish giggle. "Clad in the magnificent white silk robes of an Arab prince ... he hoped to pass unnoticed through London. Alas he was mistaken." The section concludes with the headmaster confusing him with D.H. Lawrence.
  • The character of Private Napoleon Meek in George Bernard Shaw's 1931 play Too True to Be Good was inspired by Lawrence. Meek is depicted as thoroughly conversant with the language and lifestyle of tribals. He repeatedly enlists with the army, quitting whenever offered a promotion.
  • T.E. Lawrence’s first year back at Oxford after the Great War to write his Seven Pillars of Wisdom was portrayed by Tom Rooney in a play, The Oxford Roof Climbers Rebellion, written by Canadian playwright Stephen Massicotte (premiered Toronto 2006). The play explores Lawrence's political, physical and psychological reactions to war, and his friendship with poet Robert Graves. Urban Stages presented the American premiere in New York City in October 2007; Lawrence was portrayed by actor Dylan Chalfy.
  • Lawrence's final years are portrayed in a one-man show by Raymond Sargent, "The Warrior and the Poet."[15]

Terence Mervyn Rattigan (June 10, 1911-November 30, 1977) was one of Britains most important dramatists. ... Ross is a 1960 play by British playwright Terence Rattigan. ... Sir Alec Guinness CH, CBE (2 April 1914 – 5 August 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor. ... Published by Faber/Profile Books in 2005 Alan Bennett (born May 9, 1934) is an English author and actor noted for his work, his boyish appearance and his sonorous Yorkshire accent. ... Forty Years On is a 1968 play by Alan Bennett. ... D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was one of the most important, certainly one of the most controversial, English writers of the 20th century, who wrote novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, and letters. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ...

Travel

  • Jordanian attempts to promote the Hejaz railway as a tourist attraction with a Lawrence Special running from Aqaba to Wadi Rum were derailed in September 2006 when a freight train ran off the track close to one of Lawrence's detonation points, causing similar damage to the permanent way.
  • A road in the Mount Batten area of Plymouth, where Lawrence was stationed, has been named Lawrence Road in his honour.

al Hejaz Station in Damascus, starting point of the railroad The 1050mm gauge Hejaz Railway (also Hedjaz, etc. ... Mount Batten is a 24-metre-tall outcrop of rock on a 600-metre peninsula at Plymouth Sound in England. ... This article is about the city of Plymouth in England. ...

Other

  • Oxford legend holds that, while an undergraduate at Jesus College, Lawrence crept into the deer park of Magdalen at night and stole a deer; by the morning, he had managed to transfer the deer to the front quad of All Souls, the college which is normally off limits for undergraduates.
  • At the time Lawrence was going under the name Shaw, and signing himself, for example in the guest book at Philip Sassoon's Port Lympne estate, as "338171 A/C Shaw". Noel Coward in a letter to him asked "May I call you 338?"[16]
  • An evergreen practical joke of London newspapers is to place a notice in the Lost and Found column: "FOUND IN PADDINGTON STATION: manuscript of Arabian adventures. Will the author please call &c. &c.".[citation needed]

and of the Jesus College College name Jesus College in the University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeths Foundation Named after Jesus Christ Established 1571 Sister college Jesus College, Cambridge Principal The Lord Krebs JCR President Paolo Wyatt Undergraduates 340 MCR President Jahan Zahid Graduates 160 Location Turl Street, Oxford... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... College name Magdalen College Latin name Collegium Beatae Mariae Magdalenae Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister college Magdalene College, Cambridge President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Jessica Jones Undergraduates 395 MCR President Eloise Scotford Graduates 230 Location of Magdalen College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced... All Souls College (in full: The College of All Souls of the Faithful Departed, of Oxford) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... Sir Philip Sassoon Bt. ... Gorilla in the Garden of the Apes at Port Lympne Wild Animal Park View of animal enclosure and surroundings Port Lympne Wild Animal Park near the town of Ashford in Kent, England is set in 600 acres and incorporates the historic mansion and landscaped gardens designed by architect Sir Herbert... Noël Peirce Coward (December 16, 1899 – March 26, 1973) was an Academy Award winning English actor, playwright, and composer of popular music. ...

See also

Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, commonly called Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. ... National motto: Allahu Akbar (English: God is Great) Official languages Arabic, Kurdish1 Spoken languages Arabic, Kurdish, Assyrian, Turkmen, Armenian Capital Baghdad2 President Jalal Talabani Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari Area - Total - % water Ranked 57th 437,072 km2 1. ... // This is a list of fictional stories in which assassinations feature as an important plot element. ...

Bibliography

  • Seven Pillars of Wisdom, an account of Lawrence's part in the Arab Revolt. (ISBN 0-8488-0562-3)
  • Revolt in the Desert, an abridged version of Seven Pillars of Wisdom. (ISBN 1-56619-275-7)
  • The Mint, an account of Lawrence's service in the Royal Air Force. (ISBN 0-393-00196-2)
  • Crusader Castles, Lawrence's Oxford thesis. (ISBN 0-19-822964-X)
  • The Odyssey of Homer, Lawrence's translation from the Greek. (ISBN 0-19-506818-1)
  • The Forest Giant, by Adrien Le Corbeau, novel, Lawrence's translation from the French, 1924.
  • Lawrence of Arabia and His World, by Richard Perceval Graves.
  • The Letters of T.E. Lawrence, selected and edited by Malcolm Brown. (ISBN 0-460-04733-7)
  • The Letters of T.E. Lawrence, edited by David Garnett. (ISBN 0-88355-856-4)
  • Lawrence of Arabia: The Battle for the Arab World, directed by James Hawes. PBS Home Video, October 21, 2003. (ASIN B0000BWVND)
  • T.E. Lawrence by His Friends, insights about Lawrence by those who knew him. Doubleday Doran, 1937.
Cover of authorised biography of T.E. Lawrence by Jeremy Wilson.
Cover of authorised biography of T.E. Lawrence by Jeremy Wilson.

Tooling on the cover of the first public printing, showing twin scimitars and the legend: the sword also means clean-ness + death Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph is the autobiographical account of the experiences of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) while serving as a liaison officer with rebel... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Tooling on the cover of the first public printing, showing twin scimitars and the legend: the sword also means clean-ness + death Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph is the autobiographical account of the experiences of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) while serving as a liaison officer with rebel... The Mint – 352087 A/C Ross, by T E Lawrence. ... RAF redirects here. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... Malcolm Brown was an Australian politician, elected as a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. ... See also David S. Garnett (science fiction writer) David Garnett (1892 – 1981) was a British writer and publisher, and a prominent member of the Bloomsbury group. ... James Hawes is a British television director, who has worked on a variety of the most popular series on British television since the early 1990s. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1274x1904, 159 KB) This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by the publisher of the book. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1274x1904, 159 KB) This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by the publisher of the book. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jeremy Wilson is the author of Lawrence of Arabia: The Authorised Biography of T.E. Lawrence, published in 1989. ...

References

General references:

  • Desmond Stewart, T. E. Lawrence, New York, Harper & Row Publishers, 1977
  • Flora Armitage, The Desert and the Stars: a Biography of Lawrence of Arabia, illustrated with photographs, New York, Henry Holt, 1955.
  • Victoria K. Carchidi, Creation Out of the Void: the Making of a Hero, an Epic, a world: T.E. Lawrence, 1987 diss., U. Pennsylvania (Ann Arbor, MI University Microfilms International).
  • Robert Graves, Lawrence and the Arabian Adventure, New York, Doubleday, Doran, 1928.
  • George Amin Hoffman, T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) and the M1911.
  • John E. Mack, A Prince of Our Disorder: The Life of T. E. Lawrence, Boston, Little, Brown, 1976, ISBN 0-316-54232-6.
  • Victoria Ocampo, 338171 T.E. (Lawrence of Arabia), 1963.
  • Charles M. Stang, editor, The Waking Dream of T. E. Lawrence: Essays on His Life, Literature, and Legacy, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002
  • Desmond Stewart, Lawrence von Arabien: Magier und Abenteurer (Lawrence of Arabia: Magician and Adventurer), Munich, Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, 1991 (ISBN 3-453-55093-5).
  • Jeremy Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia: The Authorised Biography of T.E. Lawrence, 1989, ISBN 0-689-11934-8.
  • Guy Penaud, Le Tour de France de Lawrence d'Arabie (1908), Editions de La Lauze (Périgueux, France), 336 pages, 2007/2008

Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... John Edward Mack, M.D. (October 4, 1929 – September 27, 2004) was an American Psychiatrist and Professor at Harvard Medical School. ... Victoria Ocampo (April 7, 1890? - January 27, 1979) was an Argentine intellectual, described by Jorge Luis Borges as la mujer más argentina (the most Argentine woman). Best known as an advocate for others and as publisher of the magazine Sur, she was also a writer and critic in her... Jeremy Wilson is the author of Lawrence of Arabia: The Authorised Biography of T.E. Lawrence, published in 1989. ...

Notes

  1. ^ His official birth record, according to his father's statement, lists August 15, 1888 as birth date (no time of birth). However, his mother stated he was born in the early hours of August 16, and according to extant documents it was on this date his birthday was celebrated.
  2. ^ telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1927/271207_d_knowles.htm.
  3. ^ www.pef.org.uk/Pages/WildZin.htm.
  4. ^ Title: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Motorcycles, Editor: Erwin Tragatsch, Publisher: New Burlington Books, Copyright: 1979 Quarto Publishing, Edition: 1988 Revised, Page 95, ISBN 0-906286-07-7
  5. ^ Paul Harvey, The Rest of the Story, KGO 810AM, August/September 2006.
  6. ^ Author: T. E. Lawrence, Title: Correspondence with Bernard and Charlotte Shaw, 1922-1926, vol. 1, Editor: Jeremy and Nicole Wilson, Publisher: Castle Hill Press, Copyright: 2000, Foreword by Jeremy Wilson
  7. ^ Doubleday,Doran &Co, New York,1936; rprnt Penguin,Harmondsworth,1984 ISBN 0140045058
  8. ^ T. E. Lawrence on glbtq.com.
  9. ^ Some editions of Seven Pillars give the last line of this stanza as "When we came." The 1922 Oxford text, however, has "When I came."
  10. ^ GayHeroes.com. Retrieved on April 12, 2007.
  11. ^ Seven Pillars of Wisdom by T.E. Lawrence, Book VI
  12. ^ John E. Mack, A Prince of Our Disorder
  13. ^ Mack, 1976.
  14. ^ The Letters of T.E. Lawrence.
  15. ^ www.ray-sargent.net/w&p.html.
  16. ^ London Review of Books, 7 August 2003, page 13

For the Stuckist artist, see Paul Harvey (artist). ... The Rest of the Story is a weekday radio segment told by Paul Harvey. ... glbtq. ... John Edward Mack, M.D. (October 4, 1929 – September 27, 2004) was an American Psychiatrist and Professor at Harvard Medical School. ...

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