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Encyclopedia > Systems scientists

Systems science is a term in use since the 1960s that refers to the field of science surrounding systems theory, cybernetics, the science of complex systems. As an interdisciplinary science, it is applicable in a variety of areas, such as engineering, biology, medicine and social sciences. Systems theory is a transdisciplinary/multiperspectual scientific domain that seeks to derive and formulate those principles that are isomorphic to all fields of scientific inquiry. ... Cybernetics is the study of communication and control, typically involving regulatory feedback in living organisms, machines and organisations, as well as their combinations. ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ...

Systems sciences deals with self-organization, autopoiesis, emergence, multi-agent systems, open systems, closed systems, feedback loops and related phenomena. Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ... Look up Autopoiesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... In computer science, a multi-agent system (MAS) is a system composed of several agents, capable of mutual interaction. ... An open system may refer to: Open system (computing), one of a class of computers that provides some combination of interoperability, portability and open software standards, particularly Unix and Unix-like systems Open system (computer science), in the computer sciences a collection of interacting software, hardware, and human components with... In thermodynamics, a closed system, as contrasted with an isolated system, can exchange heat and work, but not matter, with its surroundings. ... For other uses, including Audio feedback, see Feedback (disambiguation) In cybernetics and control theory, feedback is a process whereby some proportion or in general, function, of the output signal of a system is passed (fed back) to the input. ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ...

Notable contributors to the field include Jay Forrester, Humberto Maturana, Stuart Kauffman, Norbert Wiener, William Ross Ashby, Heinz von Foerster and Charles François as the founding editor of the Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics. Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918 Climax, Nebraska) is an American pioneer of computer engineering. ... Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928 in Santiago) is a Chilean biologist whose work crosses over into philosophy and cognitive science. ... Stuart Alan Kauffman (born September 28, 1939) is a theoretical biologist and complex systems researcher, who has given much thought to the origin of life on Earth. ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 - March 18, 1964) was a U.S. mathematician and applied mathematician, especially in the field of electronics engineering. ... William Ross Ashby (September 6, 1903, London, England - November 15, 1972) was a British psychiatrist and a pioneer in the study of complex systems. ... He is a twat He was born in Vienna and died in Pescadero, California. ... Charles François is a Belgian citizen, born 1922 and retired from the Belgian Foreign Service since 1987. ...

Scientifically the field is organized and maintained by the body in charge of all systems science societies, the International Federation for Systems Research.

See also

Systems theory is a transdisciplinary/multiperspectual scientific domain that seeks to derive and formulate those principles that are isomorphic to all fields of scientific inquiry. ... Systems engineering (or systems design engineering) as a field originated around the time of World War II. Large or highly complex engineering projects, such as the development of a new airliner or warship, are often decomposed into stages and managed throughout the entire life of the product or system. ...


  • Xu, Li D. "The contributions of Systems Science to Information Systems Research", Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 17, 2000, pp. 105–116.
  • Warfield, John N. "A proposal for Systems Science", Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 20, 2003, pp. 507–520.
  • Bailey, Kenneth D. "Fifty Years of Systems Science:Further Reflections", Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 22, 2005, pp. 355–361.

External links

  • Principia Cybernetica Web
  • International Society for the System Sciences

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Expert systems are of two n s: (a) those t at model the way human beings behave or solve problems and (b) those that solve problems in the optimal way regardless of whether their logical processes are like human thinking.
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