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Encyclopedia > Systems of measurement

A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured and were historically important, regulated and defined because of trade and internal commerce. Scientifically, when later analyzed, some quantities are designated as fundamental units meaning all other needed units can be derived from them, whereas in the early and most historic eras, the units were given by fiat (See Statuate law) by the ruling entities and were not necessarily well inter-related or self-consistent. It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ...

Although we might suggest that the Egyptians had discovered the art of measurement, it is really only with the Greeks that the science of measurement begins to appear. The Greeks' knowledge of geometry, and their early experimentation with weights and measures, soon began to place their measurement system on a more scientific basis. By comparison, Roman science, which came later, was not as advanced...
(Quoted from the Canada Science and Technology Museum website)


The French revolution gave rise to a scientific system, and there has been steady significant pressure since to convert to a scientific basis since from so called customary units of measure. In most systems, length (distance), weight, and time are fundamental quantities; or as has been now accepted as better in science and engineering, the substitution of mass for weight, as a better more basic parameter. Some systems have changed to recognize the improved relationship, notably the 1824 legal changes to the imperial system. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured. ... Look up length, width, breadth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Weight (disambiguation). ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Weight (disambiguation). ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about post-1824 Imperial units, please see also English unit, U.S. customary unit or Avoirdupois. ...

Later science developments showed that either electric charge or electric current must be added to complete the minimum set of fundamental quantities by which all other metrological units may be defined. Other quantities, such as power, speed, etc. are derived from the fundamental set; for example, speed is distance divided by time. Historically a wide range of units were used for the same quantity; for example, in several cultural settings, length was measured in inches, feet, yards, fathoms, rods, chains, furlongs, miles, nautical miles, stadia, leagues, with conversion factors which are not simple powers of ten or even always simple fractions within a given customary system. Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... Metrology (from Greek metron (measure), and -logy) is the science of measurement. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transferred. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the yard. ... A fathom is the name of a unit of length in the Imperial system (and the derived U.S. customary units). ... A rod is a unit of length, equal to 5. ... As a unit of measurement within the Imperial system, the chain (surveyors chain, Gunters chain) is defined as 22 yards, 66 feet, or four rods. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... Introduction Many systems of weights and measures have existed throughout history in different civilisations. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Nor were they necessarily the same units (or equal units) between different members of similar cultural backgrounds, the British Empire no longer owned the United States, and of the later British derived societies about half repudiated the British Crown just like the United States did a century-and-a-half earlier. It must be understood by the modern reader that historically, measurement systems were perfectly adequate within their own cultural milieu, and the understanding that a better more universal system (based on more rationale and fundamental units) only gradually spread with the maturation and appreciation of the rigor characteristic of Newtonian physics. Moreover, changing one's measurement system has real fiscal and cultural costs. This topic differs from units of measurement, which see. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... The social environment is the direct influence of a group of individuals and their contributions to this environment, as both groups and individuals who are in frequent communication with each other within their cultural or socio-economical strata, which create role identity(-ies) and guide the individuals self (sociology... Classical mechanics is a model of the physics of forces acting upon bodies. ...


Once the analysis tools within that field were appreciated and came into widespread use in the nascent sciences, especially in the utilitarian subfields of applied science like civil and mechanical engineering, conversion to a common basis had no impetus. It was only after the appreciation of these needs and the appreciation of the difficulties of converting between numerous national customary systems became widespread could there be any serious justification for an international effort of standardization. Credit the French Revolutionary spirit for taking the first significant and radical step down that road. For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


In antiquity, systems of measurement were defined locally, the different units were defined independently according to the length of a king's thumb or the size of his foot, the length of stride, the length of arm or per custom like the weight of water in a keg of specific size, perhaps itself defined in hands and knuckles. The unifying characteristic is that there was some definition based on some standard, however egocentric or amusing it may now seem viewed with eyes used to modern precision. Eventually cubits and strides gave way under need and demand from merchants and evolved to customary units. Cubit is the name for any one of many units of measure used by various ancient peoples. ... A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


In the metric system and other recent systems, a single basic unit is used for each fundamental quantity. Often secondary units (multiples and submultiples) are used which convert to the basic units by multiplying by powers of ten, i.e., by simply moving the decimal point. Thus the basic Metric unit of length is the metre or meter; a distance of 1.234 m is 1234.0 millimetres, or 0.001234 kilometres. The decimal separator is used to mark the boundary between the integer and the fractional parts of a decimal numeral. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ...


Metric system

A baby bottle that measures in three measurement systems—imperial (U.K.), U.S. customary, and metric.

Metric systems of units have evolved since the adoption of the first well-defined system in France in 1791. During this evolution the use of these systems spread throughout the world, first to the non-English-speaking countries, and more recently to the English speaking countries. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1066 pixel, file size: 221 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A baby bottle that displays in all three measurement systems--Metric, Imperial, and U.S. Customary. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1066 pixel, file size: 221 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A baby bottle that displays in all three measurement systems--Metric, Imperial, and U.S. Customary. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Multiples and submultiples of metric units are related by powers of ten; the names for these are formed with prefixes. This relationship is compatible with the decimal system of numbers and it contributes greatly to the convenience of metric units. An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ...


In the early metric system there were two fundamental or base units, the metre and the gram, for length and mass. The other units of length and mass, and all units of area, volume, and compound units such as density were derived from these two fundamental units. ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


Mesures usuelles (French for customary measurements) were a system of measurement introduced to act as compromise between the metric system and traditional measurements. It was used in France from 1812 to 1839. Mesures usuelles (French for customary measurements) were a system of measurement introduced to act as compromise between metric system and traditional measurements. ... Various meters Measurement is an observation that reduces an uncertainty expressed as a quantity. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


A number of variations on the metric system have been in use. These include gravitational systems, the centimetre-gram-second systems (cgs) useful in science, the metre-tonne-second system (mts) once used in the USSR and the metre-kilogram-second system of units (mks) most commonly used today. The deprecated unit kilogram-force (kgf) or kilopond (kp) is the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in standard Earth gravity (defined as exactly 9. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The metre-tonne-second or mts system of units is a system of physical units introduced in the Soviet Union in 1933, but abolished in 1955. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The current international standard metric system is the International System of Units (Système international d'unités or SI) It is an mks system based on the metre, kilogram and second as well as the kelvin, ampere, candela, and mole. Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Current can be measured by a galvanometer, via the deflection of a magnetic needle in the magnetic field created by the current. ... Photopic (black) and scotopic [1] (green) luminosity functions. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ...


The SI includes two classes of units which are defined and agreed internationally. The first of these classes are the seven SI base units for length, mass, time, temperature, electric current, luminous intensity and amount of substance. The second of these are the SI derived units. These derived units are defined in terms of the seven base units. All other quantities (e.g. work, force, power) are expressed in terms of SI derived units. Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The SI system of units defines seven SI base units: physical units defined by an operational definition. ... SI derived units are part of the SI system of measurement units and are derived from the seven SI base units. ... SI derived units are part of the SI system of measurement units and are derived from the seven SI base units. ...


Imperial and U.S. customary units

Both the Imperial units and U.S. customary units derive from earlier English units. Imperial units were mostly used in the British Commonwealth and the former British Empire. They are still used in common household applications to some extent and so are also sometimes called common units, but have now been mostly replaced by the metric system in commercial, scientific, and industrial applications. The Imperial units or the Imperial system is a collection of English units, first defined in the Weights and Measures Act of 1824, later refined (until 1959) and reduced. ... U.S. customary units, also known in the United States as English units[1] (but see English unit) or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the USA, in some cases alongside units from SI (the International System of Units — the modern metric system). ... English unit is the American name for a unit in one of a number of systems of units of measurement, some obsolete, and some still in use. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ...


Contrarily, however, U.S. customary units are still the main system of measurement in the United States. While some steps towards metrication have been made (mainly in the late 1960s and early 1970s), the customary units have a strong hold due to the vast industrial infrastructure and commercial development. The effort is proceeding slowly due to the overwhelming financial cost of converting the existing infrastructure. U.S. companies which trade internationally are more likely to use the metric system due to international standards and certifications such as ISO9000. The metric system is preferred in certain fields such as science, medicine and technology. The building profession uses US customary units, though architects working internationally are increasingly adapting to the metric system. Metrication or metrification refers to the introduction of the SI metric system as the international standard for physical measurements—a long-term series of independent and systematic conversions from the various separate local systems of weights and measures. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 9000 specifies requirements for a Quality Management System overseeing the production of a product or service. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


These two systems are closely related. There are, however, a number of differences between them. Units of length and area (the inch, foot, yard, mile etc.) are identical except for surveying purposes. The Avoirdupois units of mass and weight differ for units larger than a pound (lb.). The Imperial system uses a stone of 14 lb., a long hundredweight of 112 lb. and a long ton of 2240 lb. The stone is not used in the U.S. and the hundredweights and tons are short being 100 lb. and 2000 lb. respectively. Both the Imperial and U.S. customary systems of measurement derive from earlier English systems. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... The avoirdupois (IPA: ; French:) system is a system of weights (or, properly, mass) based on a pound of sixteen ounces. ... Officially the pound is the name for at least three different units of mass: The pound (avoirdupois). ... Hundred weight or hundredweight is a unit of measurement for mass in both the system of measurement used in the United Kingdom (and previously throughout the British Commonwealth), and in the system used in the United States. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Where these systems most notably differ is in their respective units of volume. A U.S. fluid ounce (fl. oz.) is slightly larger than its Imperial equivalent (the former being approximately 29.6 millilitres (ml) and the latter 28.4 ml). However, as there are 16 U.S. fl. oz. to a U.S. pint as opposed to the 20 Imperial fl. oz. per Imperial pint, these pints are quite different in volume. The same is true of quarts, gallons, etc. Six U.S. gallons are a little less than five Imperial gallons. A fluid ounce is a unit of volume in both the Imperial system of units and the U.S. customary units system. ... The millilitre is the equivalent of a cubic centimetre. ... The pint is a unit of volume or capacity. ... For other uses, see Quart (disambiguation). ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ...


Mentioned above was the Avoirdupois system which has served as the general system of mass and weight. In addition to this there are the Troy and the Apothecaries' systems. Troy weight was customarily used for precious metals, black powder and gemstones. The troy ounce is the only unit of the system in current use; it is used for precious metals. Although the troy ounce is larger than its Avoirdupois equivalent, the pound is smaller. The obsolete troy pound was divided into twelve ounces opposed to the sixteen ounces per pound of the Avoirdupois system. The Apothecaries' system; traditionally used in pharmacology, now replaced by the metric system; shares same pound and ounce as the troy system but with different further subdivisions. The avoirdupois (IPA: ; French:) system is a system of weights (or, properly, mass) based on a pound of sixteen ounces. ... Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals, black powder, and gemstones. ... The apothecaries system of mass is an obsolete system formerly used by apothecaries (now called pharmacists or chemists) in English-speaking countries. ... A gold nugget A precious metal is a rare metallic chemical element of high economic value. ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... A selection of gemstone pebbles made by tumbling rough rock with abrasive grit, in a rotating drum. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ...


Natural units

Natural units are physical units of measurement defined in terms of universal physical constants in such a manner that some chosen physical constants take on the numerical value of one when expressed in terms of a particular set of natural units. Natural units are natural because the origin of their definition comes only from properties of nature and not from any human construct. Various systems of natural units are possible. Below are listed some examples. In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement defined in terms of universal physical constants in such a manner that some chosen physical constants take on the numerical value of one when expressed in terms of a particular set of natural units. ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... The former Weights and Measures office in Middlesex, England. ... In science, a physical constant is a physical quantity whose numerical value does not change. ... “Natural” redirects here. ...

In physics, especially in the general theory of relativity, geometrized units or geometric units constitute a physical unit system in which all physical quantities are identified with geometric quantities such as areas, lengths, dimensionless numbers, path curvatures, or sectional curvatures. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... “Lightspeed” redirects here. ... According to the law of universal gravitation, the attractive force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ... In physics, Planck units are physical units of measurement defined exclusively in terms of the five universal physical constants shown in the table below in such a manner that all of these physical constants take on the numerical value of one when expressed in terms of these units. ... The Boltzmann constant (k or kB) is the physical constant relating temperature to energy. ... Coulombs torsion balance In physics, Coulombs law is an inverse-square law indicating the magnitude and direction of electrostatic force that one stationary, electrically charged object of small dimensions (ideally, a point source) exerts on another. ... Plancks constant, denoted h, is a physical constant that is used to describe the sizes of quanta. ... In physics, free space is a concept of electromagnetic theory, corresponding roughly to the vacuum, the baseline state of the electromagnetic field, or the replacement for the electromagnetic aether. ... In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement defined in terms of universal physical constants in such a manner that some chosen physical constants take on the numerical value of one when expressed in terms of a particular set of natural units. ... The elementary charge (symbol e or sometimes q) is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negative of the electric charge carried by a single electron. ... In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement defined in terms of universal physical constants in such a manner that some chosen physical constants take on the numerical value of one when expressed in terms of a particular set of natural units. ... Atomic units (au) form a system of units convenient for electromagnetism, atomic physics, and quantum electrodynamics, especially when the focus is on the properties of electrons. ... Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems comprised of electrons and an atomic nucleus. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Properties The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle which carries a negative electric charge. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The Bohr model of the atom The Bohr Model is a physical model that depicts the atom as a small positively charged nucleus with electrons in orbit at different levels, similar in structure to the solar system. ... A Hartree (symbol Eh) is the atomic unit of energy and is named after physicist Douglas Hartree. ... In the Bohr model of the structure of an atom, put forward by Niels Bohr in 1913, electrons orbit a central nucleus. ... In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement defined in terms of universal physical constants in such a manner that some chosen physical constants take on the numerical value of one when expressed in terms of a particular set of natural units. ... Properties The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle which carries a negative electric charge. ... In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement defined in terms of universal physical constants in such a manner that some chosen physical constants take on the numerical value of one when expressed in terms of a particular set of natural units. ... // For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ...

Non-standard units

Non-standard measurement units, sometimes found in books, newspapers etc., include: Unusual units of measurement are sometimes used by scientists, especially physicists and mathematicians, and other technically-minded people such as engineers and programmers, as bits of dry humor combined with putative practical convenience. ...


Area

  • The (American) football field, which has a playing area 120 yards long by 53 1/3 yards wide. This is often used by the American public media for the sizes of large buildings or parks: easily walkable but non-trivial distances. Note that it is used as a unit of length (120 yards) or area (6,400 sq yd).
  • British media also frequently uses the football pitch for equivalent purposes, although Association Football (Soccer) pitches are not of a fixed size, but instead can vary within defined limits (100-130 yards long, and 50-100 yards wide, giving an area of 5,000 to 13,000 sq yd). Example: HSS vessels are aluminium catamarans about the size of a football pitch... - Belfast Telegraph 23 June 2007
  • In the U.S. a small circular area is often described as "the size of a dime". Example: The "brain scope" developed at Duke University is inserted into a dime-sized hole in the skull... -Science Daily

United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A football field is the playing surface for the game of football (soccer). ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... The dime is a coin worth ten cents, or one tenth of a United States dollar. ...

Energy

R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... A gigaton (or gigatonne) is a Metric Unit of mass, equal to 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) Metric tons, 1,000,000,000,000 (1 trillion) kilograms, or 1 quadrillion grams. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998. ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ... The joule (symbol J, also called newton metre, or coulomb volt) is the SI unit of energy and work. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western HonshÅ«, the largest of Japans islands. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The public media is the sum of the public mass distributors of news and entertainment: the newspapers, and television and radio broadcasting, and suchlike. ... [1]#redirect Book ...

Mass

Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Binomial name Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a raptor that is indigenous to North America, and is the national symbol of the United States of America. ...

Vertical distance

  • The "height of a London Bus" is used by British media to describe height. Example: ... tsunami three times the height of a London bus that battered the north coast of New Guinea, wiping out four villages and killing more than 3,000 people - Guardian Unlimited

Volume

Units of currency

A unit of measurement that applies to money is called a unit of account. This is normally a currency issued by a country or a fraction thereof; for instance, the U.S. dollar and U.S. cent (1/100 of a dollar), or the euro and euro cent. For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... A unit of account is a standard numerical unit of measurement for the market value of goods, services, and other transactions. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... “EUR” redirects here. ...


ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


Historical systems of measurement

Prior to the widespread adoption of the metric system many different systems of official measurement had been in use, many of these remain today, at least in part, in traditional or customary use. Many of these were related to some extent or other. Often they were based on the dimensions of the human body. When the world turned to trade between city-states better systems were needed to enable that mercantile activity. Over time, the evolution continued as transportation continued to shrink the world, and so what was once an artifact of a pocket kingdom matured into something that was at least workable. Despite the growth and adoption of modern systems like SI around the world for business and governance, such customary systems are still commonly used in day to day life for everyday ordinary household tasks around the world, most notably, in cooking and cookbooks. Some human-referenced units of measurement Units of measurement were among the earliest tools invented by humans. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... A cookbook is a book that contains information on cooking, and a list of recipes. ...


Throughout the history of measurement, many of the units that have been used in Europe and around the Mediterranean are variations on older systems originating in the ancient Near East. Some human-referenced units of measurement Units of measurement were among the earliest tools invented by humans. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise...


Middle Eastern systems of measurements

The Arabic system of measurement is based on the Persian system. ... Weight Reduced to English troy-weight, the Hebrew weights were: Gerah (Lev. ... Originally Ancient Mesopotamian weights and measures came from a collection of city states loosely organized by family, tribe and occupation. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

South Asian systems of measurement

This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Old Indian measures are still in use today, primarily for religious purposes in Hinduism and Jainism. ...

East Asian systems of measurement

Greco-Roman systems of measurement

The Roman system of measurement was built on the Greek system with Egyptian influences. ...

Medieval European measurements

Medieval European systems of measurement evolved during the Middle Ages (or European Dark Ages) due to the agriculture-intensive way of life. These systems may also be referred to as feudal measurement systems. The measurements were approximate and variable. The measures can be categorized by ever expanding commercial, political and religious spheres of influence. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Eastern European

In Eastern Europe traditional standards of measure were predominantly of Greek origin

Ancient Polish weights and measures included: Garniec [1] Grzywna [2] and [3] Kamień [4] Korzec [5] Krok [6] Kwarta [7] Kwartnik [8] Łan [9] Łaszt [10] Ławka [11] Łokieć [12] Łut [13] Morga [14] Pacierz [15] Piędź [16] Skojec [17] Staje [18] Stopa [19] Wiardunek [20] Zdrowaśka [21... The measures of the old Romanian system varied greatly not only between the three Romanian states (Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania), but sometimes also inside the same country. ... Obsolete Russian weights and measures were used in Imperial Russia and after the Russian Revolution until they were replaced in the Soviet Union by a metric system in 1924. ... Obsolete Tatar weights and measures were used by Tatars until 1924, when they were replaced in the Soviet Union by the SI units. ...

Western and Northern European

In Western and Northern Europe traditional standards of measure were predominantly of Roman origin:

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... English unit is the American name for a unit in one of a number of systems of units of measurement, some obsolete, and some still in use. ... In Finland, approximate units of measure derived from body parts and were used for a long time, some being later standardised for the purpose of commerce. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... As in the case of the Danes the Norwegians earliest standards of measure can be derived from their ship burials. ... Several native system of weights and measures were used in Scotland. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Other historical systems of measurement

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also

The megalithic yard (sometimes abbreviated to MY) is a theoretical unit of prehistoric measurement first suggested by the Scottish engineer, Alexander Thom in 1955. ... There are many approaches in the branch of historic metrology which must be qualified as pseudoscience. ... Weights and measures is a term used by legal authorities in English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom for a function related to units of measurement in trade. ... The former Weights and Measures office in Middlesex, England. ...

Conversion tables

Conversion of units refers to conversion factors between different units of measurement for the same quantity. ... Approximate conversion of units often needs to be done without calculator or computer. ...

References

  1. ^ M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Measures and Weights in the Islamic World. An English Translation of Professor Walther Hinz's Handbook “Islamische Maße und Gewichte“, with a foreword by Professor Bosworth, F.B.A. Kuala Lumpur, ISTAC, 2002, ISBN 983-9379-27-5. This work is an annotated translation of a work in German by the late German orientalist Walther Hinz, published in the Handbuch der Orientalistik, erste Abteilung, Ergänzungsband I, Heft 1, Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1970.
  • Tavernor, Robert (2007), Smoot's Ear: The Measure of Humanity, ISBN 030-0124-92-9

External links

  • Dictionary of Units of Measurement
  • The Unified Code for Units of Measure
  • CLDR - Unicode localization of currency, date, time, numbers
  • Old units of measure
  • Measures from Antiquity and the Bible
  • A utiliy to Convert Different Units
  • Reasonover's Land Measures A Reference to Spanish and French land measures(and their English equivalents with conversion tables) used in North America

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