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Encyclopedia > Systems engineering
Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity
Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity

Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means for enabling the realization and deployment of successful systems. It can be viewed as the application of engineering techniques to the engineering of systems, as well as the application of a systems approach to engineering efforts.[1] Systems Engineering integrates other disciplines and specialty groups into a team effort, forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation and disposal. Systems Engineering considers both the business and the technical needs of all customers, with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user needs.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 800 pixel, file size: 466 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 800 pixel, file size: 466 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma) is a set of entities, real or abstract, comprising a whole where each component interacts with or is related to at least one other component and they all serve a common objective. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ...

Contents

History

QFD House of Quality for Enterprise Product Development Processes
QFD House of Quality for Enterprise Product Development Processes

Although an important concept of Systems Engineering, that of perceiving whole as against parts, was probably applied to every complex system that was ever built, the mention of the term Systems Engineering can be traced back to Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1940s[3]. The beginnings of this type of engineering was marked by another aspect in which it differed from typical engineering: it encompasses management practices such as requirements study, and scheduling as part of its processes. The need to identify properties of a system as a whole, which in complex engineering projects may greatly differ from the sum of its parts, motivated the Department of Defense, NASA, and related industries to acknowledge and use Systems analysis[4] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1224x1583, 64 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1224x1583, 64 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


When it was no longer possible to rely on design evolution to improve upon a system, and the existing tools were not sufficient to meet growing demands, new methodologies began to develop that addressed the complexity head on[5]. The evolution of Systems Engineering as it continues to this day, comprises development and identification of new methods and modelling techniques: methods that can aid in better comprehension of engineering systems as they grow more complex. Some popular tools often used in the Systems Engineering context such as UML, QFD, IDEF0 were developed during these times. In the field of software engineering, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized specification language for object modeling. ... Quality function deployment or QFD is a flexible technique used in brand marketing and product management to help a company decide what product(s) to add to its product portfolio and what characteristics to include in a new product. ... The family of ICAM Definition Languages, short IDEF, were initiated in the 1970s and finished being developed in the 1980s. ...


In 1990, a professional society for systems engineering, the National Council on Systems Engineering (NCOSE), was founded by representatives from a number of US corporations and organizations. NCOSE was created to address the need for improvements in systems engineering practices and education. As a result of growing involvement from systems engineers outside of the U.S., the name of the organization was changed to the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) in 1995[6]. Schools in several countries offer graduate programs in systems engineering, and continuing education options are also available for practicing engineers[7]. The International Council on Systems Engineering, or INCOSE, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of systems engineering. ... Continuing education is an all encompassing term within a broad spectrum of post-secondary learning activities and programs. ...


Concept

Some definitions
"An interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems"[8]INCOSE handbook
"Systems engineering is a robust approach to the design, creation, and operation of systems. In simple terms, the approach consists of identification and quantification of system goals, creation of alternative system design concepts, performance of design trades, selection and implementation of the best design, verification that the design is properly built and integrated, and post-implementation assessment of how well the system meets (or met) the goals."[9]NASA Systems engineering handbook
"The Art and Science of creating effective systems, using whole system, whole life principles" OR "The Art and Science of creating optimal solution systems to complex issues and problems"[10]Derek Hitchins, Prof. of Systems Engineering, former president of INCOSE (UK)
"The function of Systems Engineering is to guide the engineering of complex systems"[11]Systems Engineering Principles and Practice by A. Kossiakoff

Systems Engineering signifies both an approach and, more recently, as a discipline in engineering. The aim of education in Systems Engineering is to simply formalize the approach and in doing so, identify new methods and research opportunities similar to the way it occurs in other fields of engineering. As an approach, Systems Engineering is holistic and interdisciplinary in flavor. The International Council on Systems Engineering, or INCOSE, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of systems engineering. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ...


Holistic view

SE focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem (system lifecycle). At the heart of Systems Engineering lies the Systems Engineering process model. The Systems Engineering Process consists of the Systems Engineering Technical Process, and the Systems Engineering Management Process. The goal of Systems Engineering Management Process is to organize the technical effort in the lifecycle. At its core, the SE technical process involves assessing available information, defining effectiveness measures, to create a behavior model, create a structure model, perform trade-off analysis, and create sequential build & test plan[12]. Depending on their application, although there are several models that are used in the industry, all of them aim to identify the relation between the various stages mentioned above and incorporate feedback. Examples of such models are: Waterfall model, and VEE model[13]. In telecommunication, system lifecycle is the course of developmental changes through which a system passes from its conception to the termination of its use and subsequent salvage. ... The waterfall model is a sequential software development model (a process for the creation of software) in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of requirements analysis, design, implementation, testing (validation), integration, and maintenance. ... For V-model in application development, see V-Model (software development) It has been suggested that V-Model (software development) be merged into this article or section. ...


Interdisciplinary field

System development often requires contribution from diverse technical disciplines. In order to gain such expertise, a systems engineer is often a traditional engineer with expertise in one field, and knowledge of other fields including management and business processes. This helps in integration of subsystems and validation of requirements. By providing a systems (holistic) view of the development effort, SE helps meld all the technical contributors into a unified team effort, forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation and, in some cases, through to termination and disposal. This perspective is often replicated in educational programs in that Systems Engineering courses are taught by faculty from other engineering departments which, in effect, helps create an interdisciplinary environment[14][15].


Managing complexity

The need for systems engineering arose with the increase in complexity of systems and projects. When speaking in this context, complexity is not limited to engineering systems but also to human organizations; at the same time, a system can become more complex not only due to increase in size — as in the ISS — but also with increase in the amount of data, variables, or the number of fields that are simultaneously involved in the design. For instance, development of smarter control algorithms, microprocessor design, and analysis of environmental systems, also come within the purview of Systems engineering. Systems Engineering encourages use of tools and methods to better comprehend and manage complexity in systems. Some examples of such tools are: Modeling and Simulation, Optimization, System dynamics, Systems analysis, Statistical analysis, Reliability analysis, and Decision making[16]. Taking an interdisciplinary approach to engineering systems is inherently complex, since the behavior of and interaction among system components are not always well defined or understood (at least at the outset). Defining and characterizing such systems and subsystems, and the interactions among them, is one of the goals of systems engineering. In doing so, the gap that exists between informal requirements from users, operators, and marketing organizations, and technical specifications that an engineer can implement is successfully bridged[12]. ISS is an abbreviation, acronym, or initialism that may refer to: The International Space Station is a joint international project to build and maintain an orbiting space station. ... In mathematics, the term optimization, or mathematical programming, refers to the study of problems in which one seeks to minimize or maximize a real function by systematically choosing the values of real or integer variables from within an allowed set. ... System Dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Statistics is the science and practice of developing knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... Reliability engineering is the discipline of ensuring that a system (or a device in general) will perform its intended function(s) when operated in a specified manner for a specified length of time. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... For the Pet Shop Boys album of the same name see Behaviour Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... In mathematics, the term well-defined is used to specify that a certain concept (a function, a property, a relation, etc. ... Systems is an annual information and telecommunications trade fair in Munich, Bavaria, Germany Categories: | | ...


Scope

Bertalanffy in 1968 recognized a common behavior in systems and promoted the need to develop a general system theory with the purpose of integration in various sciences.[17] One way to understand the motivation behind systems engineering is to see it as a method, or practice, to identify and improve common rules that exist within a wide variety of systems.[citation needed] Keeping this in mind, the principles of Systems Engineering — holism, emergence, behavior, boundary, et al — can be applied to any system, complex or otherwise, provided systems thinking is employed at all levels.[18] Besides defense and aerospace, many information and technology based companies, software development firms, and industries in the field of electronics & communications require Systems engineers as part of their team[19]. An analysis by the INCOSE Systems Engneering center of excellence (SECOE) indicates that optimal effort spent on Systems Engineering is about 15-20% of the total project effort.[20] At the same time, studies have shown that Systems Engineering essentially leads to reduction in costs among other benefits.[20] However, no quantitative survey at a larger scale encompassing a wide variety of industries has been conducted until recently. Such studies are underway to determine the effectiveness and quantify the benefits of Systems engineering. [21] [22] Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory. ... Systems theory or general systems theory or systemics is an interdisciplinary field which studies systems as a whole. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Systems engineering encourages the use of modeling and simulation to validate assumptions or theories on systems and the interactions within them.[23][24] Use of methods that allow early detection of possible failures (Safety engineering) are integrated into the design process. At the same time, decisions made at the beginning of a project whose consequences are not clearly understood can have enormous implications later in the life of a system, and it is the task of the modern systems engineer to explore these issues and make critical decisions. There is no method which guarantees that decisions made today will still be valid when a system goes into service years or decades after it is first conceived but there are techniques to support the process of systems engineering. Examples include the use of soft systems methodology, Jay Wright Forrester's System dynamics method and the Unified Modeling Language (UML), each of which are currently being explored, evaluated and developed to support the engineering decision making process. Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering. ... Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918 Climax, Nebraska) is an American pioneer of computer engineering. ... System Dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time. ... In the field of software engineering, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized specification language for object modeling. ...


Education

Education in Systems engineering is often seen as an extension to the regular engineering courses[25], reflecting the industry attitude that engineering students need a foundational background in one of the traditional engineering disciplines (e.g. electrical engineering) plus practical, real-world experience in order to be effective as systems engineers. Undergraduate university programs in systems engineering are rare. INCOSE maintains a continuously updated Directory of Systems Engineering Academic Programs worldwide.[7] As of 2006, there are about 75 institutions in United States that offer 130 undergraduate and graduate programs in Systems engineering. Education in Systems engineering can be taken as SE-centric or Domain-centric. SE-centric programs treat Systems engineering as a separate discipline and all the courses are taught focusing on Systems engineering practice and techniques. Domain-centric programs offer Systems engineering as an option that can be exercised with another major field in engineering. Both these patterns cater to educate the systems engineer who is able to oversee interdisciplinary projects with the depth required of a core-engineer. [26] The International Council on Systems Engineering, or INCOSE, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of systems engineering. ...


Closely related fields

Many related fields may be considered tightly coupled to systems engineering. These areas have contributed to the development of systems engineering as a distinct entity.


Cognitive systems engineering is Systems Engineering with the human integrated as an explicit part of the system. It draws from the direct application of centuries of experience and research in both Cognitive Psychology and Systems Engineering. Cognitive Systems Engineering focuses on how man interacts with the environment and attempts to design systems that explicitly respect how humans think, and works at the intersection of: problems imposed by the world; needs of agents (human, hardware, and software); and interaction among the various systems and technologies that affect (and/or are affected by) the situation. Sometimes referred to as Human Engineering or Human Factors Engineering, this subject also deals with ergonomics in systems design. Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ... Dildonics (or human factors) is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use (definition adopted by the International Dildonics Association in 2007). ...


The design and implementation of control systems, used extensively in nearly every industry, is a large sub-field of Systems Engineering. The cruise control on an automobile and the guidance system for a ballistic missile are two examples. Control systems theory is an active field of applied mathematics involving the investigation of solution spaces and the development of new methods for the analysis of the control process. A control system is a device or set of devices that manage the behavior of other devices. ...


Interface design and specification are concerned with assuring that the pieces of a system connect and inter-operate with other parts of the system and with external systems as necessary. Interface design also includes assuring that system interfaces be able to accept new features, including mechanical, electrical, and logical interfaces, including reserved wires, plug-space, command codes and bits in communication protocols. This is known as extensibility. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) or Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is another aspect of interface design, and is a critical aspect of modern Systems Engineering. Systems engineering principles are applied in the design of network protocols for local-area networks and wide-area networks. User interface design is the overall process of designing the interaction between a human (user) and a machine (computer). ... Extensibility is a system design principle where the current implementation takes into consideration future growth. ... // Human–computer interaction (HCI), alternatively man–machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI), is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. ... ... A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small local area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings such as a college. ... A wide area network or WAN is a computer network covering a wide geographical area, involving a vast array of computers. ...


Operations research, or OR, supports systems engineering. The tools of operations research are used in systems analysis, decision making, and trade studies. Several schools teach SE courses within the operations research or industrial engineering department[citation needed], highlighting the role systems engineering plays in complex projects. operations research, briefly, is concerned with the optimization of a process under multiple constraints (see articles for discussion: [1] and [2]). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Operations management. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Operations management. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Operations management. ...


Reliability engineering is the discipline of ensuring a system will meet the customer's expectations for reliability throughout its life; i.e. it will not fail more frequently than expected. Reliability engineering applies to all aspects of the system. It is closely associated with maintainability, availability and logistics engineering. Reliability engineering is always a critical component of safety engineering, as in failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and hazard fault tree analysis, and of security engineering. Reliability engineering relies heavily on statistics, probability theory and reliability theory for its tools and processes. Reliability engineering is the discipline of ensuring that a system (or a device in general) will perform its intended function(s) when operated in a specified manner for a specified length of time. ... In telecommunication, the term maintainability has the following meanings: A characteristic of design and installation, expressed as the probability that an item will be retained in or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when the maintenance is performed in accordance with prescribed procedures and resources. ... In telecommunications and reliability theory, the term availability has the following meanings: 1. ... Logistic Engineering deals with the science of Logistics. ... Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a risk assessment technique for systematically identifying potential failures in a system or a process. ... Safety engineering is used to assure that a life-critical system behaves as needed even when pieces fail. ... Security engineering is the field of engineering dealing with the security and integrity of real-world systems. ... A graph of a Normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with analysis of random phenomena. ... Reliability theory developed apart from the mainstream of probability and statistics, and was used originally as a tool to help nineteenth century maritime insurance and life insurance companies compute profitable rates to charge their customers. ...


Performance engineering is the discipline of ensuring a system will meet the customer's expectations for performance throughout its life. Performance is usually defined as the speed with which a certain operation is executed or the capability of executing a number of such operations in the unit of time. It may be degraded where operations queue to be executed whenever the capacity is of the system is limited. For example, the performance of a packed-switched network would be characterised by the end-to-end packet transit delay or the number of packets switched within an hour. The design of performant systems makes use of analytical or simulation modeling, whereas the delivery of performant implementation involves thorough performance testing. Performance engineering relies heavily on statistics, queuing theory and probability theory for its tools and processes. Performance engineering is the set of roles, skills, activities, practices, tools, and deliverables applied at every phase of the Systems Development Lifecycle which ensures that a solution will be designed and implemented to meet the non-functional requirements defined for the solution. ...


The techniques of safety engineering may be applied by non-specialist engineers (e.g., EEs or SEs) in designing complex systems to minimize the probability of safety-critical failures. The System Safety Engineering function helps to identify safety hazards in emerging designs, and may assist with techniques to mitigate the effects of (potentially) hazardous conditions that cannot be designed out of systems. Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering. ... The term engineers degree may be used to represent a graduate academic degree intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate (U.S.), or it may also represent a higher (in total, 6-year) degree equivalent to or slightly more extensive than a masters degree...


Security engineering can be viewed as an interdisciplinary field that integrates the community of practice for control systems design, reliability, safety and systems engineering. It may involve such sub-specialties as authentication of system users, system targets, and others: people, objects, and processes. Security engineering is the field of engineering dealing with the security and integrity of real-world systems. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... The concept of a community of practice (often abbreviated as CoP) refers to the process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem collaborate over an extended period to share ideas, find solutions, and build innovations. ... Authentication (from Greek αυθεντικός; real or genuine, from authentes; author) is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) as authentic, that is, that claims made by or about the thing are true. ...


From its beginnings, Software engineering has shaped modern Systems Engineering practice to a great degree.[citation needed] The techniques used in the handling of complexes of large software-intensive systems has had a major effect on the shaping and reshaping of the tools, methods and processes of SE (e.g., see SysML, CMMI, Object-oriented analysis and design, Requirements engineering, Formal methods and Language theory). Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... SysML, or Systems Modeling Language, is a general-purpose systems engineering modeling language. ... The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a method for evaluating the maturity of software development organisations on a scale of 1 to 5. ... Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is often part of the development of large scale systems and programs often using the Unified Modeling Language (UML). ... Requirements analysis, in software engineering, is a term used to describe all the tasks that go into the instigation, scoping and definition of a new or altered computer system. ... In computer science and software engineering, formal methods are mathematically-based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems. ...


Supportability engineering: any system, when operational and providing the requirements defined in the design, needs degrees of support to maintain the operational functions. Supportability engineering is an analytical process that determines the optimal mix and distribution of support resources. By using the reliability aspects of the system and through isolating failure modes, causes and effects, the system's maintainability can be designed. A properly designed maintenance plan determines support resource capacities, such as trained support staff, documentation, spare parts, test equipment, repair facilities and contracted support, necessary to reduce the mean system downtime.


Outstanding SE successes and failures

The successes

Systems engineering (SE) practices were used during the critical period of ballistic missile development, both at NASA and the United States Department of Defense. The initial U.S. failures of booster programs following Sputnik were overcome, resulting in the spectacular success of the Project Apollo moon-landing program. Systems engineering successes in the design and development of the Polaris ballistic missile system led to unqualified successes of the submarine-based intercontinental ballistic missile systems that have culminated in the Trident missile D5 system. Similar successes were realized in the development of land-based missiles and in the development of military and commercial aircraft (e.g., the Boeing 777 and the various recent Airbuses). In addition, virtually all major weapons systems acquired by the U.S. military since the 1970s have been acquired using system engineering techniques. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... The Polaris Missile was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carrying a nuclear warhead developed during the Cold War for the United States Navy. ... The Trident missile, named after the trident, is an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) which is armed with nuclear warheads and is launched from submarines (SSBNs), making it a SLBM. The Trident was built in two variants: the I (C4) UGM-96A and II (D5) UGM-133A. The C4 and D5... The Boeing 777 is an American long-range wide-body twin-engined airliner built by Boeings Commercial Airplanes division. ... Airbus S.A.S. is the aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS N.V., a pan-European aerospace concern. ...


Partly as the result of this long history of SE development in the military, military weapons use subsequent to Vietnam have generally proved to be spectacularly successful, with little unexpected failure of (even complex) weapons systems.


SE has played a major role in producing many recent 'revolutions' in technology development.


The failures

When Systems Engineering Fails — Toward Complex Systems Engineering
"The images of success in the Manhattan and Space Projects remain with us. What really happens with large scale engineering projects is much less satisfactory. Many projects end up as failed and abandoned. This is true despite the tremendous investments that [have been] made…" Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ...


The failure of the Federal Aviation Administration's Advanced Automation System has been reasonably well documented. (See above citation.) Indeed, this represented such a complete failure, that the prime contractor sold the entire division hosting the project, over a year prior to the dénouement! “FAA” redirects here. ...


Nevertheless, the failure was not primarily a SE failure. The principal failing was that, for all of the people involved, government and contractor, managers and engineers, the AAS Program represented at least an order of magnitude larger and many magnitudes more complex than any they had ever experienced or even envisioned. And, there were entirely too many players and not enough workers. There are many valuable lessons that could be learned from it, but unlike civil engineers (whose failures usually involve civil liability), SEs rarely get an opportunity to dig deeply into their failures.


Report of the Inquiry Into The London Ambulance Service (February 1993)
"In the autumn of 1990, following the abandonment of the previous attempt to computerise the LAS Command and Control system, work commenced on the preparation of a requirements specification which would lead towards the implementation of a 'state of the art' Command and Control system. It should be noted that the previous system was abandoned after load testing revealed that it would not cope with the demands likely to be placed upon it…"


In the end, the new 'state of the art' system was abandoned after a cost of $2.5M and perhaps 20 lives. The LAS was reduced to the following coda: "The fact is that of the 26 cases considered by coroners' courts since November 1991, we are advised that not a single one has concluded that the LAS can be blamed for the death of a patient."


The Ongoing Saga of the U.S. IRS Tax Modernization Effort
The Taxman's burden, CIO Mag., 1 April 2001 "IN JANUARY, just three months before the internal revenue service planned to field a new call center application, its first system upgrade in a $10 billion modernization project, its CIO of almost three years, Paul Cosgrave, quit.
"Not surprisingly, eyebrows were raised.
"During the past 25 years, the IRS has twice tried— and twice failed— to modernize."

GOVExec, 1 August 2001
But hope springs eternal…
GOVExec, 15 April 2005 "Todd Grams, Chief Information Officer at the Internal Revenue Service believes in second chances. In the simplest terms, he believes the IRS failed in the past because it bit off more than it could chew. The sheer scope of the program 'exceeded our collective capacity to manage it,' Grams concedes candidly."


See also Large Scale Engineering and Evolutionary Change, 2002 by Yaneer Bar-Yam, New England Complex Systems Institute.


See also

Cybernetics is the study of feedback and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organisations. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Manufacturing and manufacturing systems manufacturing factory Craft system English system of manufacturing American system of manufacturing Mass production Batch production Just in time manufacturing Toyota Production System Lean manufacturing Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) Mass customization Theories of production Taylorism Fordism Theory of constraints Productivity Productivity benchmarking cost accounting experience curve... This is a list of notable systems engineers, people who were trained in or practice Systems Engineering, and made notable contributions to this field in theory or practice. ... This List of systems engineering books gives a chronological listing of the most general publications on Systems Engineering since the 1950s. ... This List of systems engineering at universities gives an overview of the differnt forms of systems engineering programs, faculties and institutes at universities all over the world. ... A systems engineering process is a process for applying systems engineering techniques to the development of all kinds of systems. ... The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), is a Domain-Specific Modeling language for systems engineering. ... System-of-Systems Engineering (SoSE) is a set of developing processes and methods for designing and implementing solutions to System-of-Systems problems. ... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... Systems theory is a transdisciplinary/multiperspectual scientific domain that seeks to derive and formulate those principles that are isomorphic to all fields of scientific inquiry. ... System (from Latin systÄ“ma, in turn from Greek systÄ“ma) is a set of entities, real or abstract, comprising a whole where each component interacts with or is related to at least one other component and they all serve a common objective. ... Systems theory in its broadest sense is the interdisciplinary study of human life and social organization in terms of systems. ... Systems science is a term in use since the 1960s that refers to the field of science surrounding systems theory, cybernetics, the science of complex systems. ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... System (from Latin systÄ“ma, in turn from Greek systÄ“ma) is a set of entities, real or abstract, comprising a whole where each component interacts with or is related to at least one other component and they all serve a common objective. ... A conceptual system is a system that is comprised of non-physical objects, i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Information system. ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... In mathematics, catastrophe theory is a branch of bifurcation theory in the study of dynamical systems; it is also a particular special case of more general singularity theory in geometry. ... A plot of the Lorenz attractor for values r = 28, σ = 10, b = 8/3 In mathematics and physics, chaos theory describes the behavior of certain nonlinear dynamical systems that under specific conditions exhibit dynamics that are sensitive to initial conditions (popularly referred to as the butterfly effect). ... Complex adaptive systems are special cases of complex systems. ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ... Cybernetics is the study of feedback and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organisations. ... In computer science, a multi-agent system (MAS) is a system composed of several agents, collectively capable of reaching goals that are difficult to achieve by an individual agent or monolithic system. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... Systems theory is a transdisciplinary/multiperspectual scientific domain that seeks to derive and formulate those principles that are isomorphic to all fields of scientific inquiry. ... William Ross Ashby (September 6, 1903, London, England - November 15, 1972) was a British psychiatrist and a pioneer in the study of complex systems. ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... Kenneth Ewart Boulding (January 18, 1910 - March 18, 1993) was an economist, educator, poet, religious mystic, devoted Quaker, systems scientist, and interdisciplinary philosopher. ... Charles West Churchman (born August 29, 1913 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, died March 21, 2004 Bolinas, California) was an American philospher in the field of management science, operations research and systems theory. ... He is a twat He was born in Vienna and died in Pescadero, California. ... Charles François is a Belgian citizen, born 1922 and retired from the Belgian Foreign Service since 1987. ... Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918 Climax, Nebraska) is an American pioneer of computer engineering. ... Debora Hammond down the Green River in Canyonlands National Park Debora Hammond is an American systems theorist, working as an Associate Professor professor Interdisciplinary Studies of the Hutchins School of Liberal Studies at the Sonoma State University. ... Niklas Luhmann (December 8, 1927 - November 6, 1998) was a German sociologist, administration expert, and social systems theorist, as well as one the most prominent modern day thinkers in the sociological systems theory. ... Warren McCulloch (November 16, 1899 - September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician. ... Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928 in Santiago) is a Chilean biologist whose work crosses over into philosophy and cognitive science. ... Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902–May 8, 1979) was for many years the best-known sociologist in the United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... Anatol Rapoport (born May 22, 1911) is a Russian-born American Jewish, mathematical psychologist. ... Francisco Varela (Santiago, September 7, 1946 – May 28, 2001, Paris) was a Chilean biologist and philosopher who, together with his teacher Humberto Maturana, is best known for introducing the concept of autopoiesis to biology. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

References

  1. ^ Thomé, Bernhard (1993). Systems Engineering: Principles and Practice of Computer-based Systems Engineering. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-93552-2. 
  2. ^ INCOSE. What is Systems Engineering. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  3. ^ Brief History of Systems Engineering. INCOSE, International Council on Systems Engineering. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  4. ^ IET Forums - Oral History of Systems Engineering. Institution of Engineering and Technology. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  5. ^ Andrew Patrick Sage (1992). Systems Engineering. Wiley IEEE. ISBN 0471536393. 
  6. ^ INCOSE Resp Group (11 June 2004). Genesis of INCOSE. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  7. ^ a b INCOSE Education & Research Technical Committee. Directory of Systems Engineering Academic Programs. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  8. ^ (2004) Systems Engineering Handbook, version 2a. INCOSE. 
  9. ^ (1995) NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. NASA. SP-610S. 
  10. ^ Derek Hitchins. INCOSE UK. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  11. ^ Kossiakoff, Alexander (2003). Systems Engineering Principles and Practice. Wiley-IEEE, pp 3. ISBN 0471234435. 
  12. ^ a b Oliver, David W.; Timothy P. Kelliher, James G. Keegan, Jr. (1997). Engineering Complex Systems with Models and Objects. McGraw-Hill, pp 85-94. ISBN 0070481881. 
  13. ^ The SE VEE. SEOR, George Mason University. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  14. ^ Systems Engineering Program at Cornell University. Cornell University. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  15. ^ ESD Faculty and Teaching Staff. Engineering Systems Division, MIT. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  16. ^ Core Courses, Systems Analysis - Architecture, Behavior and Optimization. Cornell University. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  17. ^ Ludwig von Bertalanffy. passages from General System Theory. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  18. ^ Rick Adcock. Principles and Practices of Systems Engineering. INCOSE, UK. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  19. ^ Systems Engineering, Career Opportunities and Salary Information (1994). George Mason University. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  20. ^ a b Understanding the Value of Systems Engineering. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  21. ^ Surveying Systems Engineering Effectiveness. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  22. ^ Systems Engineering Cost Estimation by Consensus. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  23. ^ Andrew P. Sage, Stephen R. Olson (2001). "Modeling and Simulation in Systems Engineering". SAGE Publications. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  24. ^ E.C. Smith, Jr. (1962). "Simulation in systems engineering". IBM Research. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  25. ^ Didactic Recommendations for Education in Systems Engineering. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  26. ^ Perspectives of Systems Engineering Accreditation. INCOSE. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.

The International Council on Systems Engineering, or INCOSE, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of systems engineering. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Council on Systems Engineering, or INCOSE, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of systems engineering. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Council on Systems Engineering, or INCOSE, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of systems engineering. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... The International Council on Systems Engineering, or INCOSE, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of systems engineering. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... The International Council on Systems Engineering, or INCOSE, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of systems engineering. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ...

Further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Systems engineering - Encyclopedia Article (655 words)
Systems engineering as a field originated around the time of World War II.
The first significant systems engineering was performed for telephone systems.
System engineers perform testing and validation when a system has to have predictable behavior.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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