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Encyclopedia > Systemics

Systemics is the emerging branch of science that studies holistic systems. It tries to develop logical, mathematical, engineering and philosophical paradigms and frameworks in which physical, technological, biological, social, cognitive and metaphysical systems can be studied and developed. Systemics can be considered an alternative name for all research related to General Systems Theory and Systems science. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Holism (from holon, a Greek word meaning entity) is the idea that the properties of a system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its components alone. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Systems theory or general systems theory or systemics is an interdisciplinary field which studies systems as a whole. ... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ...

Contents

Introduction

Systemics is the science of systems. It has been developed by reaction of a tendency in modern science, towards reductionist, immanentist view, according to which knowledge concerning all the parts of a whole would additively entail a complete knowledge of also that whole. Systemics draws methodic attention upon contextuallity making clear the necessity to consider the functionings of the other elements from that system, and furthermore in relation also with the systems from the environment of that system.[1] A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Reductionism in philosophy describes a number of related, contentious theories that hold, very roughly, that the nature of complex things can always be reduced to (explained by) simpler or more fundamental things. ...


Systemics tends to generalize results obtained in cybernetics, classical engineering systems theory and other sciences to derive principles common to many fields, based on scientific paradigms. This inclusion of general principles characterizes the philosophy of systems. Systemics also generates many metaphysical questions, therefore, is closely related to contemporary philosophy, intelligence research and complex systems. For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... From the late 1800s the word paradigm refers to a thought pattern in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ...


Charles François, editor of the International Encyclopedia of Cybernetics and Systems, in the 1990s suggested that "Systemics" be used to avoid the familiar and ambiguous terms "systems thinking," "systems science," and "general systems theory." Charles François is a Belgian citizen, born 1922 and retired from the Belgian Foreign Service since 1987. ... dedirected to International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Systemics: Topics

Cognitive and practical motivations

Systemics has two related motivations, one cognitive and one practical. The cognitive or theoretical rational of systems is, of course, the wish to discover similarities among systems of all kind despite their specific differences - e.g. between body temperature control systems and furnace thermostats. The practical motivation for systemics is the need to cope with the huge and many-sided systems characteristics of industrial societies - such as communications, networks, factories, hospitals, and armies. This complexity, in particular the variety of components of such systems, violates the traditional borders among disciplines and calls for a cross-disciplinary approach.[2] Look up Motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Several equivalence relations in mathematics are called similarity. ... In sociology, industrial society refers to a society with a modern societal structure. ...


Meta language

Systemics and cybernetics can be viewed as a metalanguage of concepts and models for transdisciplinarian use, still now evolving and far from being stabilized. This is the result of a slow process of accretion through inclusion and interconnection of many notions, which came and are still coming from very different disciplines. The process started more than a century ago, but has gathered momentum since 1948 through the pioneering work of Norbert Wiener, John von Neumann, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Heinz von Foerster and W. Ross Ashby, among many others.[3] For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... In logic and linguistics, a metalanguage is a language used to make statements about other languages (object languages). ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... He is a twat He was born in Vienna and died in Pescadero, California. ... William Ross Ashby (September 6, 1903, London, England - November 15, 1972) was a British psychiatrist and a pioneer in the study of complex systems. ...


Scientific methodology

The Argentinian-Canadian epistemologist Mario Bunge developed a very acute critical study of systemics as a scientific methodology, and in a sense philosophy. He debunked some myths concerning abusive holism, but at the same time revindicated the usefulness of systemics, especially in the fourth volume of his 'Treatise on Basic Philosophy: Ontology II. A World of Systems.[3] Mario Augusto Bunge (born September 21, 1919, Buenos Aires) is an Argentinian philosopher and physicist mainly active in Canada. ...


History

Until the 1940 every science studies systems of some kind, and every species of systems was studied separately. Since that time a number of specialists joined efforts to launch various cross-disciplinary ventures, such as operations research and cybernetics. They suggested that a unified approach to problems in various fields was possible. The discipline that purports to develop such unified approach is often called "general systems theory". Paradoxically enough, this is not a single theory but a whole set of theories - automata theory, linear systems theory, control theory, network theory, general Lagrangian dynamics, etc. - unified by a philosophical framework. Mario Bunge in 1979 proposed to call this set systemics, referring to "the set of theories that focus on the structural characteristics of systems".[2] Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operations Research or Operational Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary branch of mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Systems theory or general systems theory or systemics is an interdisciplinary field which studies systems as a whole. ... Mario Augusto Bunge (born September 21, 1919, Buenos Aires) is an Argentinian philosopher and physicist mainly active in Canada. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


The term Systemics is used by J.K. Feibleman in his Foundations of Empiricism (1962) to name a domain of finite ontology. Systemics was a third domain beside categorematics and axiomatics.[4] In mathematics, a set is called finite if and only if there is a bijection between the set and some set of the form {1, 2, ..., n} where is a natural number. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ...


Applications of systemics

Systemics of learning [5][6]

In the 1990s Robert E. Young developed a systemics for learning and communication. He saw systemics as action-oriented pragmatics. Utterances are construed as meaningful deeds of special kind whose meanings are interpretively created by hearers by reference both to the words (lexicon) and structure of words (grammar) to the social situation, and to more general background knowledge of culture. This is precisely Habermas' view. In systematics, speech and writing related context of social situation and cultural background in several ways. There is said to be a "field" relation and a "mode" relation of all meaning or messages.[7] Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... Jürgen Habermas (IPA: ; born June 18, 1929) is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and American pragmatism. ...

Other applications

Criticism

In 2002 to Mugur-Schächter it looks though systems - the science of systems - were failing to obtain the place which it seemed to have a right to claim in the unraveling of the paradigms which define the general orientations of the various modern sciences. An element of explanation might be that, though the work developed inside the framework of systemics have produced concepts which, here and there, have been seminal, other such concepts aroused resistance.[1]


See also

Look up Autopoiesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In engineering and mathematics, a dynamical system is a deterministic process in which a functions value changes over time according to a rule that is defined in terms of the functions current value. ... Meta-knowledge or metaknowledge is possible to interpret as knowledge about knowledge. ... Meta-systems have several definitions. ... // A metatheory or meta-theory is a theory which concerns itself with another theory or theories. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Reliability concerns quality or consistency. ... Systems engineering (or systems design engineering) as a field originated around the time of World War II. Large or highly complex engineering projects, such as the development of a new airliner or warship, are often decomposed into stages and managed throughout the entire life of the product or system. ... From the late 1800s the word paradigm refers to a thought pattern in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context. ... Socio-cognitive may relate to systems, processes, functions, models, as well as can indicate the branch of science, engineering or technology, such as socio-cognitive research, socio-cognitive interactions. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Mioara Mugur-Schächter, Alwyn Van der Merwe (2002), Quantum Mechanics, Mathematics, Cognition and Action, 493 pp.
  2. ^ a b Mario Bunge (1979). A world of systems. Dordrecht ; Boston, Reidel.
  3. ^ a b Charles François (1999), Systemics and Cybernetics in a Historical Perspective. in: Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Vol 16, pp.203-219.
  4. ^ James Kern Feibleman (1962), Foundations of Empiricism, M. Nijhoff.
  5. ^ Robert E. Young (1992), Critical Theory and Classroom Talk, 65 pp.
  6. ^ Richard A. Lesh, Eric Hamilton, James J. Kaput (2007), Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Education, 245 pp.
  7. ^ Robert E. Young (1996), Intercultural Communication: Pragmatics, Genealogy, Deconstruction, 214 pp.
  8. ^ Wroe Alderson (1965), Dynamic Marketing Behavior: A Functionalist Theory of Marketing, 383 pp.
  9. ^ Wroe Alderson, Ben Wooliscroft, Robert D. Tamilia, Stanley J. Shapiro (2006), A Twenty-First Century Guide to Aldersonian Marketing Thought, 581 pp.

Mario Augusto Bunge (born September 21, 1919, Buenos Aires) is an Argentinian philosopher and physicist mainly active in Canada. ... Charles François is a Belgian citizen, born 1922 and retired from the Belgian Foreign Service since 1987. ...

Further reading

Mario Augusto Bunge (born September 21, 1919, Buenos Aires) is an Argentinian philosopher and physicist mainly active in Canada. ... Charles François is a Belgian citizen, born 1922 and retired from the Belgian Foreign Service since 1987. ...

External links


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