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Encyclopedia > Systema Naturae
Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae (1758).
Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae (1758).
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Linnaeus's table of the Animal Kingdom from the first edition of Systema Naturae (1735).

The book Systema naturae was one of the major works of the Swedish doctor of medicine Carolus Linnaeus. Its full title is Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with [generic] characters, [specific] differences, synonyms, places"). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (525x865, 73 KB) Summary cover of w:en:Systema Naturae sourced from http://bibbild. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (525x865, 73 KB) Summary cover of w:en:Systema Naturae sourced from http://bibbild. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2376x1497, 725 KB) Table of the Animal Kingdom (Regnum Animale) from Carolus Linnaeuss first edition (1735) of Systema Naturae. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2376x1497, 725 KB) Table of the Animal Kingdom (Regnum Animale) from Carolus Linnaeuss first edition (1735) of Systema Naturae. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[1] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...


Its prime importance is that the tenth edition serves as the starting point of zoological nomenclature. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ...


Overview

Linnaeus published the Systema Naturae in the year 1735, during his stay in the Netherlands. As customary for the scientific literature of its day, the book was published in Latin. In it, he outlines his ideas for the hierarchical classification of the natural world, dividing it into the animal kingdom (Regnum animale), the plant kingdom (Regnum vegetabile) and the "mineral kingdom" (Regnum lappideum). Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Eumetazoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Xenoturbellida Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Bryozoa Entoprocta... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ...


The classification of the plant kingdom in the book was not a natural one, but of convenience: it followed Linnaeus' new Sexual system where species with the same number of stamens were treated in the same group. Linneaus believed that he was classifying God's creation and was not trying to express evolutionary relationships. The classification of animals was more natural. For instance, humans were for the first time placed together with other primates. Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting pollen, accidentally transfer it from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal apes belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (known as the great apes). ... Families 15, See classification A primate (L. prima, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ...


In view of the popularity of the work Linnaeus kept publishing new and ever expanding editions, growing from eleven pages in the first edition (1735) to three thousand pages in the final and thirteenth edition (1770). Also, as the work progressed he made changes: in the 10th edition, published in 1758, he moved the whales from the fishes to the mammals. In this same edition he introduced two part names (see binomen) for animal species, something he had done for plant species (see binary name) in the 1753 publication of Species Plantarum. Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... A Fin whale The term whale is ambiguous: it can refer to all cetaceans, to just the larger ones, or only to members of particular families within the order Cetacea. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... In zoology, a binomen, or binominal name, is the name of a species. ... In botanical nomenclature, the ICBN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, and including the rank of species. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ...


External links

  • LinnĂ© on line
  • 12th edition (in three volumes) online at gallica

  Results from FactBites:
 
Systema Naturae - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (373 words)
The book Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus differentiis, synonymis, locis ("system of nature, in three kingdoms of nature, with classes, orders, types and species, with differences of character, synonyms, places"), is by the Swedish systematist Carolus Linnaeus.
Today however we are aware that identifying all the species that exist is probably beyond the capabilities of humanity.
The number of species has become too large to be assembled in one book and besides which databases offer better storage capabilities.
Carl Linnaeus (2236 words)
Linnaeus continued to revise his Systema Naturae, which grew from a slim pamphlet to a multivolume work, as his concepts were modified and as more and more plant and animal specimens were sent to him from every corner of the globe.
As he wrote in the preface to a late edition of Systema Naturae: Creationis telluris est gloria Dei ex opere Naturae per Hominem solum -- The Earth's creation is the glory of God, as seen from the works of Nature by Man alone.
Although Linnaeus was not the first to use binomials, he was the first to use them consistently, and for this reason, Latin names that naturalists used before Linnaeus are not usually considered valid under the rules of nomenclature.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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