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Encyclopedia > System of government

A form of government (also referred to as a system of government) is a social institution composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance (or government) of a state. Different forms of government have different types of political systems (form of government should not be mistaken for political system, those are related but distant concepts). An institution is a group, tenet, maxim, or organization created by a group of humans. ... In mathematics, a relation is a generalization of arithmetic relations such as = and < which occur in statements such as 5 < 6 or 2 + 2 = 4. See relation (mathematics), binary relation and relational algebra. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... A political system is a social system of politics and government. ...


A wide range of different forms of government have been proposed or used in practice. The study of such forms is called civics or comparative government. Civics is the science of comparative government and means of administering public trusts - the theory of governance as applied to state institutions. ... Comparative government or comparative politics is the field of political science that focuses on comparing the varying forms of government in different settings, especially the governments of different states and nations, though it may also compare governments across different periods of history. ...


Types of government

Main article: List of forms of government As there is often a strong correlation between certain ideologies, political systems and economic systems (for example, consider the meanings of the term communism). ...

Categorising forms of government gives a general idea of the power structure of the governance of a country. However, the picture is more complicated than this, as every country’s system is unique, and in practice many represent a hybrid of different forms of government. For example, a system generally seen as a representative democracy (for instance Canada and the United States) may in fact also include measures providing for a degree of direct democracy in the form of referenda, for deliberative democracy in the form of the extensive processes required for constitutional change, and investigating committees and commissions (which may not be led by representatives). A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ... A country, a land, or a state, is a geographical area that connotes an independent political entity, with its own government, administration, laws, often a constitution, police, military, tax rules, and population, who are one anothers countrymen. ... Representative democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein voters choose (in free, secret, multi-party elections) representatives to act in their interests, but not as their proxies—i. ... Direct democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein all citizens can directly participate in the political decision-making process. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ...


A further complication is that a number of political systems originate as socio-economic movements and are then carried into governments by specific parties naming themselves after those movements. Experience with those movements in power, and the strong ties they may have to particular forms of governmental control, can cause them to be considered as forms of government in themselves. Some examples are as follows: A political party is a political organization that subscribes to a certain ideology and seeks to attain political power within a government. ...

  • Perhaps the most widely cited example of such a phenomenon is the communist movement. This is an example of where the resulting political systems may diverge from the original socio-economic ideologies from which they developed. This may mean that adherents of the ideologies are actually opposed to the political systems commonly associated with them. For example, activists describing themselves as Trotskyists or communists are often opposed to the communist states of the 20th century.
  • Islam as a political movement is also often included on a list of movements that have deep implications for the form of government. Indeed, many nations in the Islamic World use the term Islamic in the name of the state. However, these governments in practice exploit a range of different mechanisms of power (for example debt and appeals to nationalism). This means that there is no single form of government that could be described as “Islamic” government. Islam as a political movement is therefore better seen as a loose grouping of related political practices rather than a single, coherent political movement.
  • The basic principles of many other popular movements have deep implications for the form of government those movements support and would introduce if they came to power. For example, bioregional democracy is a pillar of green politics.

This article is about communism as a form of society built around a gift economy, as an ideology that advocates that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... A Communist state is a state governed by a single political party which declares its allegiance to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of all believers in Islam, who are known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Debt is that which is owed. ... Nationalism is an ethno-political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation-identity for an exclusive group of people. ... Bioregional democracy (or the Bioregional State) is a set of electoral reforms designed to force the political process in a democracy to better represent concerns about the economy, the body, and environmental concerns (e. ... Green politics is a body of political ideas informed by environmentalism aimed at developing a sustainable society. ...

See also

As there is often a strong correlation between certain ideologies, political systems and economic systems (for example, consider the meanings of the term communism). ... Civics is the science of comparative government and means of administering public trusts - the theory of governance as applied to state institutions. ... Comparative government or comparative politics is the field of political science that focuses on comparing the varying forms of government in different settings, especially the governments of different states and nations, though it may also compare governments across different periods of history. ... This is a list of countries categorized by system of government currently in use. ...

External links

  • Types of Governments from Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/20c-govt.htm)
  • Other classifications examples from Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/othergov.htm)

  Results from FactBites:
 
System of government - definition of System of government in Encyclopedia (499 words)
A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state.
A political system is the system that has the monopoly on the legitimate use of force and legislation.
However, every government is unique and so is every country and its constitution - the basic law which describes the form of government for the state in detail.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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