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System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma) is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. The concept of an 'integrated whole' can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships which are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime. Look up System in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ...

There are natural and man-made (designed) systems. Man-made systems normally have a certain purpose, set of objectives. They are “designed to work as a coherent entity”. Natural systems may not have an apparent objective but they are sustainable, efficient and resilient.

A system is a fundamental concept of systems theory, which views the world as a complex system of interconnected parts. We determine a system by choosing the relevant interactions we want to consider, plus choosing the system boundary —– or, equivalently, providing membership criteria to determine which entities are part of the system, and which entities are outside of the system and are therefore part of the environment of the system. We then make simplified representations (models) of the system in order to understand it and to predict or impact its future behavior. Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... Model may refer to more than one thing : For models in society, art, fashion, and cosmetics, see; role model model (person) supermodel figure drawing modeling section In science and technology, a model (abstract) is understood as an abstract or theoretical representation of a phenomenon,see; geologic modeling model (economics) model...

An open system usually interacts with some entities in their environment. A closed system is isolated from its environment. This article is about systems theory. ... In thermodynamics, a closed system, as contrasted with an isolated system, can exchange heat and work, but not matter, with its surroundings. ...

A subsystem is a set of elements, which is a system itself, and a part of a larger system. As a noun, a part is a section of a greater whole. ...

The scientific research field which is engaged in the transdisciplinary study of universal system-based properties of the world is general system theory, systems science and recently systemics. They investigate the abstract properties of the matter and mind, their organization, searching concepts and principles which are independent of the specific domain, independent of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scales of existence. Yo man This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... Systemics is the emerging branch of science that studies holistic systems. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ...

The term system has multiple meanings [1]:

1. A collection of organized things; as, a solar system.
2. A way of organising or planning.
3. A whole composed of relationships among the members.

Most systems share the same common characteristics. These common characteristics include the following:[2]

1. Systems have a structure that is defined by its parts and processes.
2. Systems are generalizations of reality.
3. Systems tend to function in the same way. This involves the inputs and outputs of material (energy and/or matter) that is then processed causing it to change in some way.
4. The various parts of a system have functional as well as structural relationships between each other.

The characteristics of systems have been studied in general systems theory. Systems theory or general systems theory or systemics is an interdisciplinary field which studies systems as a whole. ...

## History

The term System has a long history which can be traced back to the Greek language. Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: â€” Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ...

In the 19th century the first to develop the concept of a "system" in the natural sciences was the French physicist Sadi Carnot who studied thermodynamics. In 1824 he studied what he called the working substance (system), i.e. typically a body of water vapor, in steam engines, in regards to the system's ability to do work when heat is applied to it. The working substance could be put in contact with either a heat reservoir (a boiler), a cold reservoir (a stream of cold water), or a piston (to which the working body could do work by pushing on it). In 1850, the German physicist Rudolf Clausius generalized this picture to include the concept of the surroundings and began to use the term "working body" when referring to the system. The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ... Sadi Carnot in the dress uniform of a student of the Ã‰cole polytechnique Nicolas LÃ©onard Sadi Carnot (June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832) was a French physicist and military engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as the Carnot cycle, thereby laying the... Thermodynamics (from the Greek Î¸ÎµÏÎ¼Î·, therme, meaning heat and Î´Ï…Î½Î±Î¼Î¹Ï‚, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Rudolf Clausius - physicist and mathematician Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (January 2, 1822 â€“ August 24, 1888), was a German physicist and mathematician. ...

In the 1980s the term complex adaptive system was coined at the interdisciplinary Santa Fe Institute by John H. Holland, Murray Gell-Mann and others. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Complex adaptive systems are special cases of complex systems. ... The Santa Fe Institute (or SFI) is a non-profit research institute dedicated to the study of complex systems in Santa Fe, New Mexico founded by George Cowan, David Pines, Stirling Colgate, Murray Gell-Mann, Nick Metropolis, Herb Anderson, Peter A. Carruthers, and Richard Slansky in 1984 to study complex... Dr. John Henry Holland (February 2, 1929) is known as the father of genetic algorithms. ... Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929 in Manhattan, New York City, USA) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. ...

## Types of systems

In offering these more global definitions, the author maintains that it is important not to confuse one for the other. The theorist explains that natural systems include sub-atomic systems, living systems, the solar system, the galactic system and the Universe. Designed systems are our creations, our physical structures, hybrid systems which include natural and designed systems, and our conceptual knowledge. The human element of organization and activities are emphazized with their relevant abstract systems and representations. A key consideration in making distinctions among various types of systems is to determine how much freedom the system has to select purpose, goals, methods, tools, etc. and how widely is the freedom to select distributed (or concentrated) in the system. Living systems theory is an offshoot of Bertalanffys general systems theory, created by James Grier Miller, intended to formalize the concept of life. According to Millers original conception, as spelt out in his magnum opus Living Systems, a living system must contain each of 19 critical subsystems, which... This article is about the Solar System. ... Galactic is a funk and jazz group from New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. ...

### Cultural system

Main article: Cultural system

A cultural system may be defined as the interaction of different elements of culture. While a cultural system is quite different from a social system, sometimes both systems together are referred to as the sociocultural system. A major concern in the social sciences is the problem of order. One way that social order has been theorized is according to the degree of integration of cultural and social factors. Cultural system refers to the functional interaction between the different elements of culture in a particular manner. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Social structure (also referred to as a social system) is a system in which people forming the society are organized by a patterns of prelationships. ... Social interactions and their consequences are the subject of sociology. ...

### Economic system

Main article: Economic system

## Application of the system concept

### Systems in information and computer science

In computer science and information science, system could also be a method or an algorithm. Again, an example will illustrate: There are systems of counting, as with Roman numerals, and various systems for filing papers, or catalogues, and various library systems, of which the Dewey Decimal System is an example. This still fits with the definition of components which are connected together (in this case in order to facilitate the flow of information). Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Not to be confused with informatics or information theory. ... In object-oriented programming, the term method refers to a subroutine that is exclusively associated either with a class (called class methods, static methods, or factory methods) or with an object (called instance methods). ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC, also called the Dewey Decimal System) is a system of library classification developed by Melvil Dewey (1851–1931) in 1876, and since greatly modified and expanded in the course of the twenty-two major revisions which have occurred up until 2004. ...

System can also be used referring to a framework, be it software or hardware, designed to allow software programs to run, see platform. In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ...

### Systems in engineering

In engineering, the concept of a system is usually well defined. It is used in numerous different concrete contexts, and it is the subject of the basic engineering activities, such as: planning, design, implementation, building, and maintaining. Systems engineering is also a generalized theoretical branch of the different engineering approaches and paradigms. Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ...

### Systems in social and cognitive sciences and management research

Social and cognitive sciences recognize systems in human person models and in human societies. They include human brain functions and human mental processes as well as normative ethics systems and social/cultural behavioral patterns.

In management science, operations research and organizational development (OD), human organizations are viewed as systems (conceptual systems) of interacting components such as subsystems or system aggregates, which are carriers of numerous complex processes and organizational structures. Organizational development theorist Peter Senge developed the notion of organizations as systems in his book The Fifth Discipline. Management science, or MS, is the discipline of using mathematics, and other analytical methods, to help make better business decisions. ... Operations Research or Operational Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary branch of mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima... The field of organization development (OD) has had several definitions. ... In general, a carrier is a system or process with a specific property or is attributed of something (in physical or in abstract sense). ... Peter Michael Senge was the Director of the Center for Organizational Learning at the MIT Sloan School of Management, and is presently (2005) on the faculty at MIT. He is the founding chair of the Society for Organizational Learning (SoL). ...

Systems thinking is a style of thinking/reasoning and problem solving. It starts from the recognition of system properties in a given problem. It can be a leadership competency. Some people can think globally while acting locally. Such people consider the potential consequences of their decisions on other parts of larger systems. This is also a basis of systemic coaching in psychology. Systems thinking is a social approach using systems theories to create desired outcomes, or change. ... Look up style in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... A coach is a person who supports people (clients) to achieve their goals, with goal setting, encouragement and questions. ...

Organizational theorists such as Margaret Wheatley have also described the workings of organizational systems in new metaphoric contexts, such as quantum physics, chaos theory, and the self-organization of systems. Organizational studies, organizational behaviour, and organizational theory are related terms for the academic study of organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... Margaret J. Wheatley (commonly Meg Wheatley) is a writer and management consultant who studies organizational behavior. ... Fig. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ...

In socio-cognitive engineering the concept system is generalized to so-called intelligence-based systems, enabling the analysis of heterogeneous human-organization-technology aggregates and recognition of their pathological properties such as organization, vulnerability, crisis and changes. Socio-cognitive may relate to systems, processes, functions, models, as well as can indicate the branch of science, engineering or technology, such as socio-cognitive research, socio-cognitive interactions. ... For other uses of the word Vulnerability, please refer to vulnerability (computer science). ... A crisis (plural: crises) is a turning point or decisive moment in events. ...

 Examples of systems List of systems Complex system Computer system Meta-systems Solar system Systems in human anatomy Theories about systems Other related topics Complexity and organization Glossary of systems theory System of Systems System of Systems Engineering

## Literature

• Alexander Backlund, The definition of system, in: Kybernetes, (2000) Vol. 29 nr. 4, pp. 444-451.
• Bela H. Banathy, "A Taste of Systemics", ISSS The Primer Project, 1997.
• Kenneth D. Bailey, Sociology and the New Systems Theory: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis, New York: State of New York Press, 1994.
• Walter F. Buckley, Sociology and Modern Systems Theory, New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. 1967
• Peter Checkland, Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 1997.
• Flood, R.L. Rethinking the Fifth Discipline: Learning within the unknowable, London: Routledge, 1999.
• George J. Klir, Approach to General Systems Theory, 1969.
• Steiss, A.W. Urban Systems Dynamics, Toronto: Lexington Books, 1967.

Bela H. Banathy is a founder of the White Stag Program for Scouts, Professor Emeritus at Saybrook Graduate School and President of the International Systems Institute. ... Major Kenneth Dillon Bailey (1910â€“1942) was a United States Marine Corps officer who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for heroic conduct during action during the Battle of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. ... Walter F. Buckley (1922, Lynn, Massachusetts - January 26, 2006, Durham, New Hampshire) was an American Professor of Sociology. ... British academic Peter Checkland is the developer of soft-systems methodology (SSM) in the field of systems thinking. ... George Jiri Klir (born 1932 Prague, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech-American computer scientist and professor of systems sciences at the Center for Intelligent Systems at the Binghamton University in New York. ...

## References

1. ^ Wiktionary, term system.
2. ^ Michael Pidwirny, Definitions of Systems and Models, 1999-2007.
3. ^ Steiss 1967, p.8-18.
4. ^ Bailey, 1994.
5. ^ Buckley, 1967.
6. ^ Banathy, 1997.
7. ^ Klir 1969, pp. 69-72
8. ^ Checkland 1997; Flood 1999.

Results from FactBites:

 PHP: system - Manual (3227 words) The system() call also tries to automatically flush the web server's output buffer after each line of output if PHP is running as a server module. If you are going to allow data coming from user input to be passed to this function, then you should be using escapeshellarg() or escapeshellcmd() to make sure that users cannot trick the system into executing arbitrary commands. We were using system() to call a Cocoa command-line binary from PHP using Mac OS X. The Cocoa binary was simply not working -- no error message, no logging, nothing, it would just die within moments of launching from the system() function and we'd get no results.
 System (Java 2 Platform SE 5.0) (2366 words) Note that while the unit of time of the return value is a millisecond, the granularity of the value depends on the underlying operating system and may be larger. Multiple paths in a system property value are separated by the path separator character of the platform. System properties and environment variables are both conceptually mappings between names and values.
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