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Encyclopedia > System

System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma) is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. The concept of an 'integrated whole' can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships which are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime. Look up System in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ...


There are natural and man-made (designed) systems. Man-made systems normally have a certain purpose, set of objectives. They are “designed to work as a coherent entity”. Natural systems may not have an apparent objective but they are sustainable, efficient and resilient.


A system is a fundamental concept of systems theory, which views the world as a complex system of interconnected parts. We determine a system by choosing the relevant interactions we want to consider, plus choosing the system boundary —– or, equivalently, providing membership criteria to determine which entities are part of the system, and which entities are outside of the system and are therefore part of the environment of the system. We then make simplified representations (models) of the system in order to understand it and to predict or impact its future behavior. Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... Model may refer to more than one thing : For models in society, art, fashion, and cosmetics, see; role model model (person) supermodel figure drawing modeling section In science and technology, a model (abstract) is understood as an abstract or theoretical representation of a phenomenon,see; geologic modeling model (economics) model...


An open system usually interacts with some entities in their environment. A closed system is isolated from its environment. This article is about systems theory. ... In thermodynamics, a closed system, as contrasted with an isolated system, can exchange heat and work, but not matter, with its surroundings. ...


A subsystem is a set of elements, which is a system itself, and a part of a larger system. As a noun, a part is a section of a greater whole. ...

Contents

Overview

The scientific research field which is engaged in the transdisciplinary study of universal system-based properties of the world is general system theory, systems science and recently systemics. They investigate the abstract properties of the matter and mind, their organization, searching concepts and principles which are independent of the specific domain, independent of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scales of existence. Yo man This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... Systemics is the emerging branch of science that studies holistic systems. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ...


The term system has multiple meanings [1]:

  1. A collection of organized things; as, a solar system.
  2. A way of organising or planning.
  3. A whole composed of relationships among the members.

Most systems share the same common characteristics. These common characteristics include the following:[2]

  1. Systems have a structure that is defined by its parts and processes.
  2. Systems are generalizations of reality.
  3. Systems tend to function in the same way. This involves the inputs and outputs of material (energy and/or matter) that is then processed causing it to change in some way.
  4. The various parts of a system have functional as well as structural relationships between each other.

The characteristics of systems have been studied in general systems theory. Systems theory or general systems theory or systemics is an interdisciplinary field which studies systems as a whole. ...


History

The term System has a long history which can be traced back to the Greek language. Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ...


In the 19th century the first to develop the concept of a "system" in the natural sciences was the French physicist Sadi Carnot who studied thermodynamics. In 1824 he studied what he called the working substance (system), i.e. typically a body of water vapor, in steam engines, in regards to the system's ability to do work when heat is applied to it. The working substance could be put in contact with either a heat reservoir (a boiler), a cold reservoir (a stream of cold water), or a piston (to which the working body could do work by pushing on it). In 1850, the German physicist Rudolf Clausius generalized this picture to include the concept of the surroundings and began to use the term "working body" when referring to the system. The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ... Sadi Carnot in the dress uniform of a student of the École polytechnique Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832) was a French physicist and military engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as the Carnot cycle, thereby laying the... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Rudolf Clausius - physicist and mathematician Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (January 2, 1822 – August 24, 1888), was a German physicist and mathematician. ...


In the 1980s the term complex adaptive system was coined at the interdisciplinary Santa Fe Institute by John H. Holland, Murray Gell-Mann and others. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Complex adaptive systems are special cases of complex systems. ... The Santa Fe Institute (or SFI) is a non-profit research institute dedicated to the study of complex systems in Santa Fe, New Mexico founded by George Cowan, David Pines, Stirling Colgate, Murray Gell-Mann, Nick Metropolis, Herb Anderson, Peter A. Carruthers, and Richard Slansky in 1984 to study complex... Dr. John Henry Holland (February 2, 1929) is known as the father of genetic algorithms. ... Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929 in Manhattan, New York City, USA) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. ...


Types of systems

Evidently, there are many types of systems that can be analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. For example, with an analysis of urban systems dynamics, A.W. Steiss [3] defines five intersecting systems, including the physical subsystem and behavioral system. For sociological models influenced by systems theory, where Kenneth D. Bailey [4] defines systems in terms of conceptual, concrete and abstract systems; either isolated, closed, or open, Walter F. Buckley [5] defines social systems in sociology in terms of mechanical, organic, and process models. Bela H. Banathy [6] cautions that with any inquiry into a system that understanding the type of system is crucial and defines Natural and Designed systems. A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... Qualitative is an important qualifier in the following subject titles: Qualitative identity Qualitative marketing research Qualitative method Qualitative research THE BIG J This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Major Kenneth Dillon Bailey (1910–1942) was a United States Marine Corps officer who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for heroic conduct during action during the Battle of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. ... A concept is an abstract, universal psychical entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events or relations. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Isolation can refer to: Isolation as a psychological phenomenon. ... In topology and related branches of mathematics, a closed set is a set whose complement is open. ... This article is about systems theory. ... Walter F. Buckley (1922, Lynn, Massachusetts - January 26, 2006, Durham, New Hampshire) was an American Professor of Sociology. ... The word mechanical can mean one of several things: A device or principle described as mechanical relates to a mechanism or machine, or the realm of Newtonian mechanics. ... Organic describes forms, methods and patterns found in living systems such as organisation of cells, to populations, communities, and ecosystems. ... Illustration of a physical process: a geyser in action. Process (lat. ... Bela H. Banathy is a founder of the White Stag Program for Scouts, Professor Emeritus at Saybrook Graduate School and President of the International Systems Institute. ...


In offering these more global definitions, the author maintains that it is important not to confuse one for the other. The theorist explains that natural systems include sub-atomic systems, living systems, the solar system, the galactic system and the Universe. Designed systems are our creations, our physical structures, hybrid systems which include natural and designed systems, and our conceptual knowledge. The human element of organization and activities are emphazized with their relevant abstract systems and representations. A key consideration in making distinctions among various types of systems is to determine how much freedom the system has to select purpose, goals, methods, tools, etc. and how widely is the freedom to select distributed (or concentrated) in the system. Living systems theory is an offshoot of Bertalanffys general systems theory, created by James Grier Miller, intended to formalize the concept of life. According to Millers original conception, as spelt out in his magnum opus Living Systems, a living system must contain each of 19 critical subsystems, which... This article is about the Solar System. ... Galactic is a funk and jazz group from New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. ...


George J. Klir [7] maintains that no "classification is complete and perfect for all purposes," and defines systems in terms of abstract, real, and conceptual physical systems, bounded and unbounded systems, discrete to continuous, pulse to hybrid systems, et cetera. The interaction between systems and their environments are categorized in terms of absolutely closed systems, relatively closed, and open systems. The case of an absolutely closed system is a rare, special case. Important distinctions have also been made between hard and soft systems.[8] Hard systems are associated with areas such as systems engineering, operations research and quantitative systems analysis. Soft systems are commonly associated with concepts developed by Peter Checkland through Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) involving methods such as action research and emphasizing participatory designs. Where hard systems might be identified as more "scientific," the distinction between them is actually often hard to define. George Jiri Klir (born 1932 Prague, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech-American computer scientist and professor of systems sciences at the Center for Intelligent Systems at the Binghamton University in New York. ... Look up real in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A conceptual system is a system that is comprised of non-physical objects, i. ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... The term bounded appears in different parts of mathematics where a notion of size can be given. ... In the theory of dynamical systems, an unbounded system is a system that has no bound; i. ... Look up discrete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In mathematics, a continuous function is one in which arbitrarily small changes in the input produce arbitrarily small changes in the output. ... A hybrid system consists of both discrete signals and continuous signals. ... In thermodynamics, a closed system, as contrasted with an isolated system, can exchange heat and work, but not matter, with its surroundings. ... This article is about systems theory. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... British academic Peter Checkland is the developer of soft-systems methodology (SSM) in the field of systems thinking. ... to start the page ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Cultural system

Main article: Cultural system

A cultural system may be defined as the interaction of different elements of culture. While a cultural system is quite different from a social system, sometimes both systems together are referred to as the sociocultural system. A major concern in the social sciences is the problem of order. One way that social order has been theorized is according to the degree of integration of cultural and social factors. Cultural system refers to the functional interaction between the different elements of culture in a particular manner. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Social structure (also referred to as a social system) is a system in which people forming the society are organized by a patterns of prelationships. ... Social interactions and their consequences are the subject of sociology. ...


Economic system

Main article: Economic system

An economic system is a mechanism (social institution) which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. The economic system is composed of people, institutions and their relationships to resources, such as the convention of property. It addresses the problems of economics, like the allocation and scarcity of resources. An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... A social institution is any institution in a socity that works to socialize the groups or people in it. ... jimo is so hard where as chinn is the biggest virgin around. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... In economics, consumption refers to the final use of goods and services to provide utility. ... A good in economics is any physical object (natural or man-made) or service that, upon consumption, increases utility, and therefore can be sold at a price in a market. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... An institution is a group, tenet, maxim, or organization created by a group of humans. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


Application of the system concept

Systems in information and computer science

In computer science and information science, system could also be a method or an algorithm. Again, an example will illustrate: There are systems of counting, as with Roman numerals, and various systems for filing papers, or catalogues, and various library systems, of which the Dewey Decimal System is an example. This still fits with the definition of components which are connected together (in this case in order to facilitate the flow of information). Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Not to be confused with informatics or information theory. ... In object-oriented programming, the term method refers to a subroutine that is exclusively associated either with a class (called class methods, static methods, or factory methods) or with an object (called instance methods). ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC, also called the Dewey Decimal System) is a system of library classification developed by Melvil Dewey (1851–1931) in 1876, and since greatly modified and expanded in the course of the twenty-two major revisions which have occurred up until 2004. ...


System can also be used referring to a framework, be it software or hardware, designed to allow software programs to run, see platform. In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ...


Systems in engineering

In engineering, the concept of a system is usually well defined. It is used in numerous different concrete contexts, and it is the subject of the basic engineering activities, such as: planning, design, implementation, building, and maintaining. Systems engineering is also a generalized theoretical branch of the different engineering approaches and paradigms. Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ...


Systems in social and cognitive sciences and management research

Social and cognitive sciences recognize systems in human person models and in human societies. They include human brain functions and human mental processes as well as normative ethics systems and social/cultural behavioral patterns.


In management science, operations research and organizational development (OD), human organizations are viewed as systems (conceptual systems) of interacting components such as subsystems or system aggregates, which are carriers of numerous complex processes and organizational structures. Organizational development theorist Peter Senge developed the notion of organizations as systems in his book The Fifth Discipline. Management science, or MS, is the discipline of using mathematics, and other analytical methods, to help make better business decisions. ... Operations Research or Operational Research (OR) is an interdisciplinary branch of mathematics which uses methods like mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or good decisions in complex problems which are concerned with optimizing the maxima (profit, faster assembly line, greater crop yield, higher bandwidth, etc) or minima... The field of organization development (OD) has had several definitions. ... In general, a carrier is a system or process with a specific property or is attributed of something (in physical or in abstract sense). ... Peter Michael Senge was the Director of the Center for Organizational Learning at the MIT Sloan School of Management, and is presently (2005) on the faculty at MIT. He is the founding chair of the Society for Organizational Learning (SoL). ...


Systems thinking is a style of thinking/reasoning and problem solving. It starts from the recognition of system properties in a given problem. It can be a leadership competency. Some people can think globally while acting locally. Such people consider the potential consequences of their decisions on other parts of larger systems. This is also a basis of systemic coaching in psychology. Systems thinking is a social approach using systems theories to create desired outcomes, or change. ... Look up style in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... A coach is a person who supports people (clients) to achieve their goals, with goal setting, encouragement and questions. ...


Organizational theorists such as Margaret Wheatley have also described the workings of organizational systems in new metaphoric contexts, such as quantum physics, chaos theory, and the self-organization of systems. Organizational studies, organizational behaviour, and organizational theory are related terms for the academic study of organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... Margaret J. Wheatley (commonly Meg Wheatley) is a writer and management consultant who studies organizational behavior. ... Fig. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ...


In socio-cognitive engineering the concept system is generalized to so-called intelligence-based systems, enabling the analysis of heterogeneous human-organization-technology aggregates and recognition of their pathological properties such as organization, vulnerability, crisis and changes. Socio-cognitive may relate to systems, processes, functions, models, as well as can indicate the branch of science, engineering or technology, such as socio-cognitive research, socio-cognitive interactions. ... For other uses of the word Vulnerability, please refer to vulnerability (computer science). ... A crisis (plural: crises) is a turning point or decisive moment in events. ...


See also

There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Meta-systems have several definitions. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Systems Ecology is a transdiscipline which studies ecological systems, or ecosystems. ... Systems intelligence is a concept developed in the fields of engineering sciences and applied philosophy. ... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed principally by Andre Gunder Frank and Immanuel Wallerstein, with major contributions by Samir Amin, Giovanni Arrighi, Christopher Chase-Dunn, Peter Turchin, Andrey Korotayev, Janet Abu Lughod, Tom Hall, and others. ... Complexity Theory has been used extensively in the field of strategic management and organizational studies, sometimes called Complexity strategy or Complex Adaptive Organization on the internet or in popular press. ... A glossary of terms as relating to systems theory. ... System of Systems is a relatively new term that is being applied primarily to government projects for addressing large scale inter-disciplinary problems with multiple, heterogeneous, distributed systems that are embedded in networks at multiple levels and multiple domains. ... System-of-Systems Engineering (SoSE) is a set of developing processes and methods for designing and implementing solutions to System-of-Systems problems. ...

Literature

  • Alexander Backlund, The definition of system, in: Kybernetes, (2000) Vol. 29 nr. 4, pp. 444-451.
  • Bela H. Banathy, "A Taste of Systemics", ISSS The Primer Project, 1997.
  • Kenneth D. Bailey, Sociology and the New Systems Theory: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis, New York: State of New York Press, 1994.
  • Walter F. Buckley, Sociology and Modern Systems Theory, New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. 1967
  • Peter Checkland, Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 1997.
  • Flood, R.L. Rethinking the Fifth Discipline: Learning within the unknowable, London: Routledge, 1999.
  • George J. Klir, Approach to General Systems Theory, 1969.
  • Steiss, A.W. Urban Systems Dynamics, Toronto: Lexington Books, 1967.

Bela H. Banathy is a founder of the White Stag Program for Scouts, Professor Emeritus at Saybrook Graduate School and President of the International Systems Institute. ... Major Kenneth Dillon Bailey (1910–1942) was a United States Marine Corps officer who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for heroic conduct during action during the Battle of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. ... Walter F. Buckley (1922, Lynn, Massachusetts - January 26, 2006, Durham, New Hampshire) was an American Professor of Sociology. ... British academic Peter Checkland is the developer of soft-systems methodology (SSM) in the field of systems thinking. ... George Jiri Klir (born 1932 Prague, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech-American computer scientist and professor of systems sciences at the Center for Intelligent Systems at the Binghamton University in New York. ...

References

  1. ^ Wiktionary, term system.
  2. ^ Michael Pidwirny, Definitions of Systems and Models, 1999-2007.
  3. ^ Steiss 1967, p.8-18.
  4. ^ Bailey, 1994.
  5. ^ Buckley, 1967.
  6. ^ Banathy, 1997.
  7. ^ Klir 1969, pp. 69-72
  8. ^ Checkland 1997; Flood 1999.

External links

Look up System in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Definitions of Systems and Models by Michael Pidwirny, 1999-2007.
  • Definitionen von "System" (1572-2002) by Roland Müller, 2001-2007 (most in German).
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... An example of a system: The nervous system. ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Complex adaptive systems are special cases of complex systems. ... A conceptual system is a system that is comprised of non-physical objects, i. ... Cultural system refers to the functional interaction between the different elements of culture in a particular manner. ... The Lorenz attractor is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... In logic and mathematics, a formal system consists of two components, a formal language plus a set of inference rules or transformation rules. ... GPS redirects here. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Information System (example) An Information System (IS) is the system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in a given organization, including manual processes or automated processes. ... World distribution of major legal traditions The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. ... A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify anything which can be measured and were historically important, regulated and defined because of trade and internal commerce. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are cells called neurons. ... In mathematics, a nonlinear system is one whose behavior cant be expressed as a sum of the behaviors of its parts (or of their multiples. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... A political system is a system of politics and government. ... The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ... For control theory in psychology and sociology, see control theory (sociology). ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Holism in science, or Holistic science, is an approach to research that emphasizes the study of complex systems. ... Sociotechnical systems theory is theory about the social aspects of people and society and technical aspects of machines and technology. ... Systems biology is a term used very widely in the biosciences, particularly from the year 2000 onwards, and in a variety of contexts. ... System dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time. ... Systems Ecology is a transdiscipline which studies ecological systems, or ecosystems. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... Systems science is the science of complex systems. ... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... Russell Lincoln Ackoff (born 12 February 1919) is a Professor Emeritus of the Wharton School in operations research and systems theory. ... William Ross Ashby (September 6, 1903, London, England - November 15, 1972) was a British psychiatrist and a pioneer in the study of complex systems. ... Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904–4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. ... Anthony Stafford Beer (September 25, 1926 - August 23, 2002) was a theorist in operational research and management cybernetics. ... Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (September 19, 1901, Vienna, Austria - June 12, 1972, New York, USA) was a biologist who was a founder of general systems theory--which he literally translated from the mathematization of Nicolai Hartmanns Ontology as stated by himself in his seminal work-- .An Austrian citizen, he... Kenneth E. Boulding Kenneth Ewart Boulding (January 18, 1910 - March 18, 1993) was an economist, educator, peace activist, poet, religious mystic, devoted Quaker, systems scientist, and interdisciplinary philosopher. ... British academic Peter Checkland is the developer of soft-systems methodology (SSM) in the field of systems thinking. ... Charles West Churchman (born August 29, 1913 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, died March 21, 2004 Bolinas, California) was an American philospher in the field of management science, operations research and systems theory. ... He is a twat He was born in Vienna and died in Pescadero, California. ... Charles François is a Belgian citizen, born 1922 and retired from the Belgian Foreign Service since 1987. ... Jay Wright Forrester (born 14 July 1918 Climax, Nebraska) is an American pioneer of computer engineering. ... Ralph Waldo Gerard (7 October 1900, Harvey, Illinois - 17 February 1974) was an American neurophysiologist and behavioral scientist known for his wide-ranging work on the nervous system, nerve metabolism, psychopharmacology, and biological bases of schizophrenia [1]. // Gerard was born in Harvey, Illinois at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Debora Hammond down the Green River in Canyonlands National Park Debora Hammond is an American systems theorist, working as an Associate Professor professor Interdisciplinary Studies of the Hutchins School of Liberal Studies at the Sonoma State University. ... George Jiri Klir (1932 Prague, Czechoslovakia) is an Czech-American computer scientist and professor of systems sciences at the Center for Intelligent Systems at the Binghamton University in New York. ... Niklas Luhmann (December 8, 1927 - November 6, 1998) was a German sociologist, administration expert, and social systems theorist, as well as one the most prominent modern day thinkers in the sociological systems theory. ... Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928 in Santiago) is a Chilean biologist whose work crosses over into philosophy and cognitive science. ... Donella Dana Meadows (March 13, 1941 Elgin, Illinois, USA - February 20, 2001, New Hampshire) was a pioneering environmental scientist, a teacher and writer. ... Mihajlo D. Mesarovic (1928) is a Yugoslavian scientist, who was professor of Systems Engineering and Mathematics at Case Western Reserve University. ... Howard Thomas Odum (1924-2002), commonly known as H.T. Odum or Tom Odum, was an eminent American ecosystem ecologist and a professor at the University of Florida. ... Talcott Parsons Talcott Edgar Frederick Parsons (December 13, 1902–May 8, 1979) was for many years the best-known sociologist in the United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... Anatol Rapoport (born May 22, 1911) is a Russian-born American Jewish, mathematical psychologist. ... Francisco Varela (Santiago, September 7, 1946 – May 28, 2001, Paris) was a Chilean biologist and philosopher who, together with his teacher Humberto Maturana, is best known for introducing the concept of autopoiesis to biology. ... JOHN N. WARFIELD The career of John Warfield has been described as passing through four phases: Phase 1: Electrical engineering faculty member: 1948-1965 Phase 2: Starting a systems science research career path: 1966-1980 Phase 3: Accruing evidence and developing components of systems science: 1980-2000 Phase 4: Aggregating... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894, Columbia, Missouri – March 18, 1964, Stockholm Sweden) was an American theoretical and applied mathematician. ...

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