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Encyclopedia > Syriac language
Syriac
ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Suryāyā 
Pronunciation: IPA: /ˌsurˈja.jɑ/ (Eastern), /ˌsurˈjɔ.jɔ/ (Western)
Spoken in: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Turkey
Total speakers: 1 500 000 fluent
Language family: Afro-Asiatic
 Semitic
  West Semitic
   Central Semiic
    Northwest Semitic
     Aramaic
      Eastern Aramaic
       Syriac 
Writing system: Syriac abjad
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: syr
ISO/DIS 639-3: variously:
syr — Syriac (generic)
syc — Syriac (classical)
aii — Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
bhn — Bohtan Neo-Aramaic
cld — Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
lhs — Mlahsö
kqd — Koy Sanjaq Surat
syn — Senaya
tru — Turoyo 

Syriac (ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. It was a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the second to the eighth century AD. At its broadest definition, Syriac is often used to refer to all Eastern Aramaic languages spoken by the Assyrians; at its most specific, it refers to the classical language of Edessa, which became the liturgical language of Syriac Christianity. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of Semitic languages. ... 12th century Hebrew Bible script The Semitic languages are a family of languages spoken by more than 250 million people across much of the Middle East, where they originated, and North and East Africa. ... The Northwest Semitic languages form a medium-level division of the Semitic language family. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... The Hértevin language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Mlahsö is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... Koy Sanjaq Surat is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... The Senaya language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Turoyo is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... The Fertile Crescent is a region in the Middle East incorporating present-day Israel, West Bank, and Lebanon and parts of Jordan, Syria, Iraq and south-eastern Turkey. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... // Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... A classical language is a language with a literary tradition that can be judged as classical —ie. ... Edessa is the historical name of a town in northern Mesopotamia. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ...


It became the vehicle of Christianity and culture, spreading throughout Asia as far as Malabar and Eastern China and was the medium of communication and cultural dissemination for Assyrians, Arabs, and to a lesser extent Persians. Primarily a Christian medium of expression, Syriac had a fundamental cultural and semantical influence on the development of Arabic which replaced it towards the end of the 8th century. The neutrality and factual accuracy of this section are disputed. ... Asia is the largest and most populous region or continent depending on the definition. ... It has been suggested that Malabarian Coast be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...

Contents


Classification

Syriac is a member of the Afro-Asiatic language family, the Semitic language sub-family, the West Semitic language branch, and the Aramaic language group. Map showing the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ...


Syriac is written in the Syriac alphabet. 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ...


Geographic distribution

Syriac was originally a local Aramaic dialect in northern Mesopotamia. Before Arabic became the dominant language, Syriac was a major language among Christian communities in the Middle East, Central Asia and southern India. It is now spoken as a first language in small, scattered communities in Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Palestine, Israel, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan. These communities have, over the years, settled throughout the Middle East, Europe, North and South America, and Australia. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Palestine (Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina, Arabic: فلسطين Filastīn or Falastīn, see also Canaan, Land of Israel) is one of many historical names for the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River, plus various adjoining lands to the east and south. ...


History

The history of Syriac can be divided into three distinct periods:

  • Old Syriac (the language of the kingdom of Osroene),
  • Middle Syriac (Kṯāḇānāyâ: Literary Syriac), which divided into:
    • Western Middle Syriac (the literary and ecclesiastical language of Syriac and Maronite Churches),
    • Eastern Middle Syriac (the literary and ecclesiastical language of Chaldean and Church of the East Churches),
  • Modern "Syriac" (a Modern Eastern Aramaic language), which remains divided:
    • Modern Western Assyrian(Assyrian Western and Mlahso),
    • Modern Eastern Assyrian(Assyrian Eastern, Assyrian Central etc.).

Osroene (also: Osrohene, Osrhoene; Syriac: ܡܠܟܘܬܐ Ü•Ü’ܝܬ Ü¥Ü£ÜªÜ Ü¥ÜÜ¢Ü¶Ü), also known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (modern Sanli Urfa, in Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ), was one of several kingdoms arising from the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire. ...

Origins

Syriac began as an unwritten spoken dialect of Old Aramaic in northern Mesopotamia. The first evidence we have of such dialects is their influence on the written Imperial Aramaic from the fifth century BC. After the conquests of Syria and Mesopotamia by Alexander the Great, Syriac and other Aramaic dialects became written languages in a reaction to Hellenism. Old Syriac orthography is drawn from Arsacid Aramaic. In 132 BC, the kingdom of Osroene was founded in Edessa with Syriac as its official language. Syriac-speakers still look to Edessa as the cradle of their language. There are about eighty extant Old Syriac inscriptions, dated to the first three centuries AD (the earliest example of Syriac, rather than Imperial Aramaic, is in an inscription dated to AD 6, and the earliest parchment is a deed of sale dated to AD 243). All of these early examples of the language are non-Christian. As an official language, Old Syriac was given a relatively coherent form, style and grammar that is lacking in other Old Eastern Aramaic dialects. Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Osroene (also: Osrohene, Osrhoene; Syriac: ܡܠܟܘܬܐ Ü•Ü’ܝܬ Ü¥Ü£ÜªÜ Ü¥ÜÜ¢Ü¶Ü), also known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (modern Sanli Urfa, in Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ), was one of several kingdoms arising from the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire. ... Edessa is the historical name of a town in northern Mesopotamia. ...


Literary Syriac - Medieval Assyrian

In the third century, churches in Edessa began to use Syriac as the language of worship. There is evidence that the adoption of Syriac, the language of the people, was to effect mission. Much literary effort was put into the production of an authoritative translation of the Bible into Syriac (the Pšîṭtâ or Peshitta). At the same time, Ephrem the Syrian was producing the most treasured collection of poetry and theology in the Syriac language. The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Ephrem the Syrian (Syriac: , ;Greek: ; Latin: Ephraem Syrus; 306–373) was a deacon, prolific Syriac language hymn writer and theologian of the 4th century. ...

The sixth beatitude (Matthew 5:8) from an East Syriac Peshitta.Ṭûḇayhôn l'aylên daḏkên b-lebbhôn: d-henôn neḥzôn l'alāhâ.'Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.'
The sixth beatitude (Matthew 5:8) from an East Syriac Peshitta.
Ṭûḇayhôn l'aylên daḏkên b-lebbhôn: d-henôn neḥzôn l'alāhâ.
'Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.'

In 489, many Syriac-speaking Christians living in the Roman Empire fled to Persia to escape persecution and growing animosity with Greek-speaking Christians. The dubbing of the Persian church as 'Nestorian' heretics by the West led to a bitter division in the Syriac-speaking world. Thus, Syriac developed separate western and eastern literary languages, with distinct pronunciation, scripts and grammar. Aramaic version of the 6th Beatitude. ... The Beatitudes (from Latin, beatitudo, happiness) is the name given to a well-known, definitive and central, portion of the Sermon on the Mount, recorded in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally: according to Matthew, Greek: Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον ) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... Events Theoderic, king of the Italy with the approval of the eastern emperor Zeno. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ...


Western Middle Syriac is the official language of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syrian Catholic Church, the Maronite Church, the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church, the Mar Thoma Church and the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church. The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... The Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant in full communion with the pope having practices and rites in common with the Jacobites. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church, sometimes called Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church, is a branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Mar Thoma Church is a branch of the pre-16th century undivided Indian Church, and got its current identity in 1889, even though it was born much earlier. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Malankara catholic church. ...


Eastern Assyrian/Syriac is the liturgical language of the Assyrian Church of the East (including the Chaldean Syrian Church), the Chaldean Catholic Church and the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. The symbol of the Assyrian Church The Holy Apostolic and Catholic Assyrian Church of the East under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV, is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... Chaldean Syrian Church is the name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India. ... The Chaldean Catholic Church is an Eastern Rite sui juris (autonomous ritual church) particular church of the Catholic Church, maintaining full communion with the Pope in Rome. ... The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Eastern Rite Church sui iuris with historical ties to the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Church of Rome. ...

Syriac literature is by far the most prodigious of the various Aramaic languages. Its corpus covers poetry, prose, theology, liturgy, hymnody, history, philosophy, science, medicine and natural history. Much of this wealth remains not available in critical editions or modern translation. Aboun. ... The Lords Prayer (sometimes known by its first two Latin words as the Pater Noster, in Greek as the , or the English equivalent Our Father) is probably the best-known prayer in Christianity. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ...


From the seventh century onwards, Syriac gave way to Arabic as the spoken language of the region. The Mongol invasions of the thirteenth century led to the rapid decline of the language. In many places, even in liturgy, it was replaced by Arabic. Revivals of Syriac in recent times have led to some success with the creation of newspapers in literary Syriac (Kthābānāyā), and the translation of many Arabic and western books into Syriac. Among the Syriac churches of Kerala, Malayalam often replaces Syriac. Literary Syriac is often used as a spoken language by clerics who do not speak the vernacular dialects. The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം) is the major language of the state of Kerala, in southern India. ...


Modern Syriac vernaculars

Classical Syriac mixed with various local, unwritten Eastern Aramaic dialects throughout northern Mesopotamia over time. These Neo-Syriac vernaculars are only partly based on the classical language, and are diverse enough to impede clear communication between speakers of different Modern Syriac languages.


The main language of Modern Western Syriac is Turoyo, the mountain tongue of Tur Abdin in eastern Turkey. A related but distinct language, Mlahso is now believed to be extinct. Turoyo is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... Tur Abdin is a hilly region of south east Turkey incorporating the eastern half of Mardin Province, and Sirnak Province west of the Tigris, on the border with Syria. ... Mlahsö is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ...


Modern Eastern Assyrian has much in common with the Jewish languages of Eastern Aramaic. This group of languages, spread from Lake Urmia to Mosul, is diverse. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (with numerous dialects) The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Lake Urmia from space, October 1984 Satellite image of Lake Urmia, taken in November 2003 Lake Urmia (37. ... Mosul (36°22′N 43°07′E; Arabic: , Kurdish: Mûsil, Syriac: ܢܝܢܘܐ Nîněwâ) is a city in northern Iraq. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ...


Due to the upheavals of the region over the last two centuries, many speakers of Modern Syriac languages have moved south into Syria and Iraq, north into Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia, and throughout the world.


Grammar

Assyrianwords, as with those in other Semitic languages, are built out of triliteral roots, permutations of three Assyrian consonants. For example, the root ܫܩܠ, ŠQL, has the basic meaning of taking, and so we have the following words that can be formed from this root: 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic languages, a triliteral is a root containing a sequence of three consonants. ...

  • ܫܩܠ — šqal: "he has taken"
  • ܢܫܩܘܠ — nešqûl: "he takes"
  • ܫܩܠ — šaqel: "he has lifted/raised"
  • ܐܫܩܠ — ašqel: "he has set out"
  • ܫܩܠܐ — šqālâ: "a taking, burden, recension, portion or syllable"
  • ܫܩܠܐ — šeqlē: "takings, profits, taxes"
  • ܫܩܠܘܬܐ — šaqlûṯā: "a beast of burden"
  • ܫܘܩܠ — šûqālâ: "arrogance"

Nouns

Most Assyriannouns are built from triliteral roots. Nouns carry grammatical gender (masculine or feminine), they can be either singular or plural in number (a very few can be dual) and can exist in one of three grammatical states. These states correspond, in part, to the role of grammatical cases in some other languages. A noun, or noun substantive, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) which can co-occur with (in)definite articles and attributive adjectives, and function as the head of a noun phrase. ... In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic languages, a triliteral is a root containing a sequence of three consonants. ... It has been suggested that natural gender be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: generally, the alteration of a noun to indicate its grammatical role. ...

  • The absolute state is the basic form of the noun — ܫܩܠܝܢ, šeqlîn, "taxes".
  • The emphatic state usually represents a definite noun — ܫܩܠܐ, šeqlē, "the taxes".
  • The construct state marks a noun in relationship to another noun — ܫܩܠܝ, šeqlay, "taxes of...".

However, very quickly in the development of Classical Syriac, the emphatic state became the ordinary form of the noun, and the absolute and construct states were relegated to certain stock phrases (for example, ܒܪ ܐܢܫܐ, bar nāšâ, "man", literally "son of man").


In Old and early Classical Syriac, most genitive noun relationships are built using the construct state. Thus, ܫܩܠܝ ܡܠܟܘܬܐ, šeqlay malkûṯâ, means "the taxes of the kingdom". Quickly, the construct relationship was abandoned and replaced by the use of the relative particle ܕ, d-. Thus, the same noun phrase becomes ܫܩܠܐ ܕܡܠܟܘܬܐ, šeqlē d-malkûṯâ, where both nouns are in the emphatic state. Very closely related nouns can be drawn into a closer grammatical relationship by the addition of a pronominal suffix. Thus, the phrase can be written as ܫܩܠܗ ܕܡܠܟܘܬܐ, šeqleh d-malkûṯâ. In this case, both nouns continue to be in the emphatic state, but the first has the suffix that makes it literally read "her taxes" ("kingdom" is feminine), and thus is "her taxes, those of the kingdom". The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... In linguistics, a noun phrase is a phrase whose Head is a noun. ...


Adjectives always agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. Adjectives are in the absolute state if they are predicative, but agree with the state of their noun if attributive. Thus, ܒܝܫܝܢ ܫܩܠܐ, bîšîn šeqlē, means "the taxes are evil", whereas ܫܩܠܐ ܒܝܫܐ, šeqlē ḇîšē, means "evil taxes". An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually describing it or making its meaning more specific. ... An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually making its meaning more specific. ... An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually making its meaning more specific. ...


Verbs

Most Syriac verbs are built on triliteral roots as well. Finite verbs carry person, gender (except in the first person) and number, as well as tense and conjunction. The non-finite verb forms are the infinitive and the active and passive participles. In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic languages, a triliteral is a root containing a sequence of three consonants. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Narrator. ... It has been suggested that natural gender be merged into this article or section. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In grammar, the infinitive is the form of a verb that has no inflection to indicate person, number, mood or tense. ... Voice, in grammar, is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In linguistics, a participle is a verbal adjective. ...


Syriac has only two true morphological tenses: perfect and imperfect. Whereas these tenses were originally aspectual in Aramaic, they have become a truly temporal past and future tenses respectively. The present tense is usually marked with the participle followed by the subject pronoun. However, such pronouns are usually omitted in the case of the third person. This use of the participle to mark the present tense is the most common of a number of compound tenses that can be used to express varying senses of tense and aspect. Morphology is a subdiscipline of linguistics that studies word structure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... The present tense is the tense (form of a verb) that is often used to express: Action at the present time A state of being A habitual action An occurrence in the near future An action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present There are two... In linguistics, a participle is a verbal adjective. ... The subject of a sentence is one of the two main parts of a sentence, the other being the predicate. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun phrase. ...


Syriac also employs verb conjunctions such as are present in other Semitic languages. These are regular modifications of the verb's root to express other changes in meaning. The first conjunction is the ground state, or Pə`al (this name models the shape of the root). form of the verb, which carries the usual meaning of the word. The next is the intensive state, or Pa``el, form of the verb, which usually carries an intensified meaning, The third is the extensive state, or Ap̄`el, form of the verb, which is often causative in meaning. Each of these conjunctions has its parallel passive conjunction: the Eṯpə`el, Eṯpa``al and Ettap̄`al respectively. To these six cardinal conjunctions are added a few irregular forms, like the Šap̄`el and Eštap̄`al, which generally have an extensive meaning. 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... intensive refers to an act that is done repetitively or with much force. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ...


Sounds

There is some variation in the pronunciation of Syriac in its various forms. The various Modern Eastern Aramaic vernaculars have quite different pronunciations, and these sometimes influence how the classical language is pronounced, for example, in public prayer. Classical Syriac has two major streams of pronunciation: western and eastern. Pronunciation has also been affected by other that of other languages.


Consonants

Syriac shares with Aramaic a set of lightly contrasted plosive/fricative pairs. In different variations of a certain lexical root, a root consonant might exist in plosive form in one variation and fricative form in another. In the Syriac alphabet, a single letter is used for each pair. Sometimes a dot is placed above the letter (qûššāyâ, or strengthening; equivalent to a dagesh in Hebrew) to mark that the plosive pronunciation is required, and a dot is placed below the letter (rûkkāḵâ, or softening) to mark that the fricative pronunciation is required. The pairs are: Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel with significant communities in the West Bank, the United States, and Jewish communities around the world. ...

Some Syriac speakers, however, reduce each of these pairs to a single unvarying consonant. For example, an Arabic-influenced speaker of Western Syriac might reduce the set to /b/, /ɣ/, /d/, /f/ and /t/, with only the /k/-/x/ pair remaining. A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ...


As with other Semitic languages, Syriac has a set of five emphatic consonants. These are consonants that are articulated or released in the pharynx or slightly higher. The set consists of: 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Emphatic consonant is a somewhat imprecise term commonly used in Semitic linguistics to describe pharyngealized or velarized, and ejective consonants, or consonants that historically had one of these properties. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system and respiratory system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ...

Syriac also has a rich array of sibilant consonants: The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx is constricted during the articulation of the sound. ... The voiceless dental plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx is constricted during the articulation of the sound. ... The voiceless alveolar fricatives are a type of consonantal sound. ... The voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... A sibilant is a type of fricative or affricate, made by directing a jet of air through a narrow channel towards the sharp edge of the teeth. ...

Table of Syriac consonants
Place of articulation Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical (none)
Manner of articulation Bi­labial Labio-
dental
Den­tal Alveo­lar Post-
alveolar
Pharyn-
gealized
coronal
Pala­tal Ve­lar Uvu­lar Pharyn-
geal
Glot­tal
Plosive p b t d k ɡ q   ʔ   
Nasal    m    n  
Trill    r    
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ x ɣ ħ ʕ h
Approximant    l    j    w    (ʕ)


The voiced alveolar fricatives are a type of consonantal sound. ... The voiceless alveolar fricatives are a type of consonantal sound. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx is constricted during the articulation of the sound. ... The voiceless alveolar fricatives are a type of consonantal sound. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue against either the hard palate, or the flexible velum just behind it, or even against the uvula. ... Radical consonants are articulated with the root (base) of the tongue in the throat. ... In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx is constricted during the articulation of the sound. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx is constricted during the articulation of the sound. ... The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages (such as Russian, Spanish, Armenian, and Polish). ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar fricatives are a type of consonantal sound. ... The voiced alveolar fricatives are a type of consonantal sound. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx is constricted during the articulation of the sound. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in very many spoken languages. ... The labial-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages. ... The voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Vowels

As with most Semitic languages, the vowels of Syriac are mostly subordinated to consonants. Especially in the presence of an emphatic consonant, vowels tend to become mid-centralised. 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Emphatic consonant is a somewhat imprecise term commonly used in Semitic linguistics to describe pharyngealized or velarized, and ejective consonants, or consonants that historically had one of these properties. ...


Classical Syriac had the following set of distinguishable vowels:

In the western dialect, /ɑ/ has become /ɔ/, and the original /o/ has merged with /u/. In eastern dialects there is more fluidity in the pronunciation of front vowels, with some speakers distinguishing five qualities of such vowels, and others only distinguishing three. Vowel length is generally not important: close vowels tend to be longer than open vowels. Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ...


The open vowels form diphthongs with the approximants /j/ and /w/. In almost all dialects the full sets of possible diphthongs collapses into two or three actual pronunciations: An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek and ending tongue positions. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

  • /aj/ sometimes monophthongized to /e/
  • /aw/ usually becomes /ɑw/
  • /ɑj/ usually becomes /aj/, but the western dialect has /ɔj/
  • /ɑw/ sometimes monophthongized to /o/

A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ...

Appendices

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: [] or []) is a multilingual Web-based free-content encyclopedia. ...

See also

11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... Syriac literature is literature written in the Syriac language, an eastern Aramaic language. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... The Senaya language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Turoyo is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... Mlahsö is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... Ephrem the Syrian (Syriac: , ;Greek: ; Latin: Ephraem Syrus; 306–373) was a deacon, prolific Syriac language hymn writer and theologian of the 4th century. ... Syriac music refers to music in the Syriac language. ...

References

  • Beyer, Klaus (1986). The Aramaic language: its distribution and subdivisions. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-53573-2.
  • Healey, John F (1980). First studies in Syriac. University of Birmingham/Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 0-7044-0390-0.
  • Maclean, Arthur John (2003). Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Syriac: as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, north-west Persia, and the Plain of Mosul: with notices of the vernacular of the Jews of Azerbaijan and of Zakhu near Mosul. Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-59333-018-9.
  • Payne Smith, Jessie (Ed.) (1903). A compendious Syriac dictionary founded upon the Thesaurus Syriacus of R. Payne Smith. Oxford University Press, reprinted in 1998 by Eisenbraums. ISBN 1-57506-032-9.
  • Robinson, Theodore Henry (1915). Paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199261296.

Robert Payne Smith, D.D., M.A. (1819-1895) was Regius Professor of Divinity at the University of Oxford, later Dean of Canterbury. ...

External links

This article is part of the series on Eastern Christianity — Also see the Eastern Christianity Portal  


Image File history File links Template:Public File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions which developed in Greece, the Balkans, the rest of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ...

Syriac Christianity
Self-appellations : Aramaeans · Assyrians · Chaldeans · Syriacs · Maronites · Melkites
Languages : Aramaic : Classical Syriac · Assyrian Neo-Aramaic · Bohtan Neo-Aramaic · Chaldean Neo-Aramaic · Hértevin · Koy Sanjaq Surat · Mlahsö · Senaya · Turoyo Non-Aramaic : Cypriot Maronite Arabic Lebanese Arabic · Garshuni
Churches : Antiochian Orthodox Church · Assyrian Church of the East · Chaldean Catholic Church · Maronite Catholic Church · Melkite Greek Catholic Church · Syriac Catholic Church · Syriac Orthodox Church

  Results from FactBites:
 
Syriac language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2140 words)
Syriac is a member of the Afro-Asiatic language family, the Semitic language sub-family, the West Semitic language branch, and the Aramaic language group.
Western Middle Syriac is the official language of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syrian Catholic Church, the Maronite Church, the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church, the Mar Thoma Church and the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.
Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Syriac: as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, north-west Persia, and the Plain of Mosul: with notices of the vernacular of the Jews of Azerbaijan and of Zakhu near Mosul.
Aramaic language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5442 words)
As the language grew in importance, it came to be spoken throughout the Mediterranean coastal area of the Levant, and spread east of the Tigris.
It was the language of the city-states of Damascus, Hamath and Arpad.
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