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Encyclopedia > Syriac alphabet
11th century book in Syriac Serto.
11th century book in Syriac Serto.


The Syriac alphabet is used for writing the Syriac language. It is clearly related to other alphabets used to write Semitic languages. Download high resolution version (991x748, 131 KB)The Schøyen Collection MS 577, Oslo and London. ... Download high resolution version (991x748, 131 KB)The Schøyen Collection MS 577, Oslo and London. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Semitic languages are a family of languages spoken by more than 250 million people across much of the Middle East, where they originated, and North and East Africa. ...

Contents


General remarks

Syriac is written from right to left. It is a cursive (joined-up) script, where some, but not all, letters connect within a word. The alphabet consists of 22 letters, all of which are consonants. The vowel sounds are supplied by the reader's memory or by pointing (a system of diacritical marks to indicate the correct reading). In fact, three letters act as matres lectionis: rather than being a consonant, they indicate a vowel. The first letter, 'âlaph, often represents a glottal stop, but it can also indicate a vowel at the beginning or the end of a word. The letter waw is technically a w, but can also represent the vowels o and u. Likewise, the letter yôdh represents the consonant y, but it also stands for the vowels i and e. Cursive is a style of handwriting in which all the letters in a word are connected, making a word one single (complicated) stroke. ... Matres lectionis (singular form: mater lectionis) are an early manner of indicating vowels in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ...


Forms of the Syriac alphabet

edit
History of the Alphabet

Wadi el-Hol 19th c. BC Proto-Canaanite 14th c. BC An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters — basic written symbols — each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. ... Two similar but undeciphered scripts believed to be ancestral to all modern alphabets are attested from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BCE): the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to 1500 BCE, and the Wadi el-Ħôl (or Wadi... Drawing of the 16 and 12 characters Wadi el-Hol inscriptions The Proto-Canaanite (also Proto-Sinaitic) alphabet is identified as the prototype of the Semitic alphabets that, mostly via the successful Phoenician alphabet became the ancestor of most scripts in use today. ...

Meroitic 3rd c. BC
Armenian 405
Georgian 5th c.
Orkhon 6th c.
Ogham 6th c.
Hangul 1446
Cree 1840

There are three major variations of the Syriac alphabet. The oldest and classical form of the alphabet is estrangelâ (the name is derived from the Greek description στρογγυλη, strongylê, 'rounded'). Although estrangelâ is no longer used as the main script for writing Syriac, it has received a bit of a revival. It is often used in scholarly publications (for instance, the Leiden University version of the Peshitta), in titles and inscriptions. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1000 BC and is derived from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1000 BC and is derived from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... The Samaritan alphabet is a direct descendant of the paleo-Hebrew variety of the Phoenician alphabet, the more commonly known Hebrew alphabet having been adapted from the Aramaic alphabet under the Persian Empire. ... The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a. ... Brahmi refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 5th century BC. The best known inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka, c. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Old Italic refers to a number of related historical alphabets used on the Italian peninsula which were used for some non-Indo-European languages (Etruscan and probably North Picene), various Indo-European languages belonging to the Italic branch (Faliscan and members of the Sabellian group, including Oscan, Umbrian, and South... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. ... The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia, and the British Isles. ... The South Arabian alphabet branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... The Geez language (or Giiz language) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ... Turkic people living in Central Asia developed various alphabets in early ages. ... Ogham (Old Irish Ogam) was an alphabet used primarily to represent Gaelic languages that was probably often written in wood in early times. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language, as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China. ... Canadian aboriginal syllabic writing (often syllabics for short) is a family of writing schemes which are used to write a number of aboriginal Canadian languages from the Algonquian, Athabaskan and Inuit language families. ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest still existing and most famous university in the Netherlands. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ...


The West Syriac dialect is usually written in the sertâ ('line') form of the alphabet. Most of the letters are obviously derived from estrangelâ, but are simplified, flowing lines. The western script is usually vowel-pointed with miniature Greek vowel letters above or below the letter which they follow: Α (capital alpha) represents a, α (lowercase alpha) represents â (pronounced as an o), ε (lowercase epsilon) represents e and ê, Ι (capital iota) represents î, and a combined symbol of Υ (capital upsilon) and ο (lowercase omicron) represents û.


The East Syriac dialect is usually written in the madnhâyâ ('eastern') form of the alphabet. Unfortunately, it is often called 'nestorian', a term that was originally used to disparage Christians living in the Persian Empire. The eastern script resembles estrangelâ more closely than the western script. The eastern script uses a system of dots above or below letters to indicate vowels. The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ...


When Arabic began to be the dominant spoken language in Fertile Crescent, texts were often written in Arabic with the Syriac script. These writings are usually called Karshuni or Garshuni. Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The Fertile Crescent is a region in the Middle East incorporating present-day Israel, West Bank, and Lebanon and parts of Jordan, Syria, Iraq and south-eastern Turkey. ... Garshuni, also known as Karshuni, is the Arabic language written in the Syriac alphabet. ...


Syriac estrangelâ script

Letter Normal
format
Final
connected
Final
unconnected
Unicode character Pronunciation
'Âlaph image:aramaic_alap.png     ܐ ʔ (glottal stop)
or silent
Bêth image:aramaic_beth.png image:aramaic_beth_c.png   ܒ hard: b (voiced bilabial plosive)
soft: v (voiced labiodental fricative) or w (labial-velar approximant)
Gâmal image:aramaic_gamal.png image:aramaic_gamal_c.png   ܓ hard: g (voiced velar plosive)
soft: ɣ (voiced velar fricative)
Dâlath image:aramaic_daleth.png     ܕ hard: d (voiced alveolar plosive)
soft: ð (voiced dental fricative)
image:aramaic_heh.png     ܗ h (voiceless glottal fricative)
Waw image:aramaic_waw.png     ܘ consonant: w (labial-velar approximant)
mater lectionis: u (close back rounded vowel) or o (close-mid back rounded vowel)
Zain image:aramaic_zain.png     ܙ z (voiced alveolar fricative)
Hêth image:aramaic_kheth.png image:aramaic_kheth_c.png   ܚ ħ (voiceless pharyngeal fricative)
Têth image:aramaic_teth.png image:aramaic_teth_c.png   ܛ (pharyngealized voiceless alveolar plosive)
Yôdh image:aramaic_yodh.png image:aramaic_yodh_c.png   ܝ consonant: j (voiced palatal approximant)
mater lectionis: i (close front unrounded vowel) or e (close-mid front unrounded vowel)
Kâph image:aramaic_kap.png image:aramaic_kap_c.png image:aramaic_kap_f.png ܟ hard: k (voiceless velar plosive)
soft: x (voiceless velar fricative)
Lâmadh image:aramaic_lamadh.png image:aramaic_lamadh_c.png   ܠ l (alveolar lateral approximant)
Mîm image:aramaic_meem.png image:aramaic_meem_c.png   ܡ m (bilabial nasal)
Nûn image:aramaic_noon.png image:aramaic_noon_c.png image:aramaic_noon_f.png ܢ n (alveolar nasal)
Semkath image:aramaic_simkath.png image:aramaic_simkath_c.png   ܣ / ܤ s (voiceless alveolar fricative)
image:aramaic_ain.png image:aramaic_ain_c.png   ܥ ʕ (voiced pharyngeal fricative)
image:aramaic_payin.png image:aramaic_payin_c.png   ܦ hard: p (voiceless bilabial plosive)
soft: f (voiceless labiodental fricative) or w (labial-velar approximant)
Çâdhê image:aramaic_tsade.png     ܨ (pharyngealized voiceless alveolar fricative)
Qôph image:aramaic_qoph.png image:aramaic_qoph_c.png   ܩ q (voiceless uvular plosive)
Rêš image:aramaic_resh.png     ܪ r (alveolar trill)
Šîn image:aramaic_sheen.png image:aramaic_sheen_c.png   ܫ ʃ (voiceless postalveolar fricative)
Taw image:aramaic_taw.png     ܬ hard: t (voiceless alveolar plosive)
soft: θ (voiceless dental fricative)
  image:aramaic_lamadh_alap.png       Lâmadh and 'Âlaph combined
at end of word
  image:aramaic_taw_alap.png       Taw and 'Âlaph combined
at end of word

Source, copyright File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The labial-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced dental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiceless glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The labial-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages. ... The close back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The close-mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiced alveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ... The voiceless alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in very many spoken languages. ... The close front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The close-mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiced pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The labial-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ... The voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages (such as Spanish, Armenian, and Polish). ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiceless postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... The voiceless alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless dental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ... Source, copyright File links The following pages link to this file: Syriac alphabet Categories: Free use images ...

Syriac in Unicode

The Syriac Unicode range is U+0700 ... U+074F. In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ...

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
700   ܀ ܁ ܂ ܃ ܄ ܅ ܆ ܇ ܈ ܉ ܊ ܋ ܌ ܍ ܎ ܏
710   ܐ ܑ ܒ ܓ ܔ ܕ ܖ ܗ ܘ ܙ ܚ ܛ ܜ ܝ ܞ ܟ
720   ܠ ܡ ܢ ܣ ܤ ܥ ܦ ܧ ܨ ܩ ܪ ܫ ܬ ܭ ܮ ܯ
730   ܰ ܱ ܲ ܳ ܴ ܵ ܶ ܷ ܸ ܹ ܺ ܻ ܼ ܽ ܾ ܿ
740   ݀ ݁ ݂ ݃ ݄ ݅ ݆ ݇ ݈ ݉ ݊ ݋ ݌ ݍ ݎ ݏ

  Results from FactBites:
 
Syriac Language - LoveToKnow 1911 (1562 words)
Syriac is the eastern dialect of the Aramaic language which, during the early centuries of the Christian era, prevailed in Mesopotamia and the adjoining regions.
The main grammatical distinction between Syriac and all the west Aramaic dialects is that in Syriac the 3rd person of the imperfect (singular and plural) of the verb begins with n, but in west Aramaic, as in the other Semitic languages, it begins with y.
The Syriac alphabet, which derived its letters from forms ultimately akin to those of the Old Hebrew and Phoenician alphabets, has the same twenty-two letters as the Hebrew.
Syriac alphabet Information (423 words)
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system used to write the Syriac language from around the 2nd century BC.
It is one of the Semitic abjads directly descending from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet.
The Arabic alphabet was based on the Nabatean alphabet, which was based on this form of Syriac handwriting.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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