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Encyclopedia > Syracuse, Sicily
Comune di Siracusa
Coat of arms of Comune di Siracusa
Municipal coat of arms
Country Flag of Italy Italy
Region Sicily
Province Siracusa (SR)
Mayor Giambattista Bufardeci (from June 14, 2004)
Elevation 17 m
Area 204 km²
Population
 - Total (as of December 31, 2004)
123,322
 - Density 593/km²
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 37°05′N, 15°17′E
Gentilic Siracusani
Dialing code 0931
Postal code 96100
Frazioni Belvedere, Cassibile, Fontane Bianche, Isola, Santa Teresa Longarini Scalo, Targia,
Patron Saint Lucy
 - Day December 13

Location of Syracuse in Italy
Website: www.comune.siracusa.it
Syracuse and the Rocky Necropolis of Pantalicaa
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Flag of Italy Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv, vi
Identification #1200
Regionb Europe and North America

Inscription History Image File history File links Siracusa-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... In Italy, the province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of an intermediate level, between municipality (comune) and region (Regione). ... Syracuse (It. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ethnonym. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... Saint Lucy of Syracuse, also known as Saint Lucia, Santa Lucia, or Saint Lukia, (traditional dates 283-304) was a rich young Christian martyr who is venerated as a Saint by Catholic and Orthodox Christians. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Italy_Regions_220px_(including_Pelagie_Islands). ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... The Necropolis of Pantalica is a large necropolis in Sicily with about 5000 tombs dating from the 13th to the 7th centuries BC. Pantalica is situated in the valleys of the rivers Anapo and Calcinara, between the towns of Ferla and Sortino in south-eastern Sicily. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 373 KB) This image was originally posted to Flickr as Theatre. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ...

Formal Inscription: 2005
29th Session

a Name as officially inscribed on the WH List
b As classified officially by UNESCO
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Syracuse (Italian Siracusa, Sicilian Sarausa, Greek Συρακοῦσαι, Latin Syracusae) is an Italian city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse. Once described by Cicero as "the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of them all," the ancient core of Syracuse is part of the UNESCO World Heritage List. Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Syracuse (It. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators and prose stylists. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...

Contents

History

Greek Period

Syracuse and its surrounding area have been inhabited since ancient times, as shown by the findings in the villages of Stentinello, Ognina, Plemmirio, Matrensa, Cozzo Pantano and Thapsos, which already had a relationship with Mycenaean Greece. Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ...


Syracuse was founded in 734 or 733 BC by Greek settlers from Corinth and Tenea, led by the oecist (colonizer) Archias, who called it Sirako, referring to a nearby swamp. The nucleus of the ancient city was the small island of Ortygia. The settlers found the land to be fertile and the native tribes to be reasonably well-disposed to their presence. The city grew and prospered, and for some time stood as the most powerful Greek city anywhere in the Mediterranean. Colonies were founded at Akrai (664 BC), Kasmenai (643 BC) and Kamarina (598 BC). The descendants of the first colonist, called Gamoroi, held the power until they were expelled by the Killichiroi, the lower class of the city. The former, however, returned to power in 485 BC, thanks to the help of Gelo, ruler of Gela. Gelo himself became the despot of the city, and moved numerous inhabitants of Gela, Kamarina and Megera to Syracuse, building the new quarters of Tyche and Neapolis outside the walls. His program of new constructions included also a new theater, designed by Damocopos, which gave the city a flourishing cultural life: this in turn attracted personalities as Aeschylus, Ario of Metimma, Eumelos of Corinth and Sappho, who had been exiled here from Mytilene. The enlarged power of Syracuse made unavoidable the clash against the Carthaginians, who ruled over the Western part of Sicily. In the Battle of Himera, Gelo, who had allied with Theron of Agrigento, decisively defeated the African force led by Hamilcar. A temple, entitled to Athena (on the site of the today's Cathedral), was erected in the city to commemorate the event Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC Events and Trends 739 BC - Hiram II becomes king of Tyre 738 BC - King Tiglath-Pileser III... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Tenea (Τενέα) was established approximately 15 kilometers west of Corinth and 25 kilometers NW of Mycenae shortly after the Trojan war by Trojans living in the island of Tenedos, offshore Troy, hence the name. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Palazzolo Acreide, a town of Sicily, in the Province_of_Syracuse, 28 m. ... CAMARINA, an ancient city of Sicily, situated on the south coast, about 17 miles South East of Gela (Terranova). ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC - 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC... Gelo (d. ... Gela is a city in the province of Caltanissetta in the south of Sicily, Italy. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... This article refers to the Greek poet. ... Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mytilíni, Turkish: Midilli), also Mytilini is the capital city of Lesbos (formerly known as Mytilene), a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, and the Lesbos Prefecture as well. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... The Battle of Himera (480 BC), supposedly fought on the same day as the more famous Battle of Salamis (according to Herodotus 7. ... San Lorenzo. ... Hamilcar was a traditional name among the ruling families of Carthage. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type. ...


Gelo was succedeed by his brother Hiero, who fought against the Etruscans at Cumae in 474 BC. His rule was eulogized by poets like Simonides of Ceos, Bacchylides and Pindar, who visited his court. A democratic regime was introduced by Thrasybulos (467 BC). The city continued to expand in Sicily, fighting against the rebellious Siculi, and on the Tyrrhenian Sea, making expeditions up to Corsica and Elba. In the late 5th century BC, Syracuse found itself at war with Athens, which sought more resources to fight the Peloponnesian War. The Syracusans enlisted the aid of a general from Sparta, Athens' foe in the war, to defeat the Athenians, destroy their ships, and leave them to starve on the island (see Sicilian Expedition). In 401 BC, Syracuse contributed a force of 3,000 hoplites and a general to Cyrus the Younger's Army of the Ten Thousand. Hiero I was the brother of Gelo and tyrant of Syracuse from 478 to 467 BC. During his Carlos reign he greatly increased the power of Syracuse. ... The Battle of Cumae was a naval battle in 474 BC between the combined navies of Syracuse and Cumae and the Etruscans. ... Map showing the extent of the Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 479 BC 478 BC 477 BC 476 BC 475 BC - 474 BC - 473 BC 472 BC 471... Bold textil8jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjpooSimonides of Ceos (ca. ... Bacchylides, Ancient Greek lyric poet, was born at Iulis, in the island of Ceos. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (522 BC – 443 BC), perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, was born at Cynoscephalae, a village in Thebes. ... Thrasybulus was a short-lasting tyrant who ruled Syracuse for eleven months[1] during 466 and 465 BC. He was the brother of the the previous tyrant Hiero , who seized power of Syracuse by convincing Gelons son to give up his claim to Syracusean power and instead pursue a... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 472 BC 471 BC 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC - 467 BC - 466 BC 465 BC 464... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... According to Thucydides (vi:2), before the arrival of Greek colonists, the Sicels (or Siculi) were one of the three tribes who inhabited Sicily: the Sicels (Greek Sikeloi) in eastern Sicily (as well as southern Italy), who spoke an Indo-European language, and the Sicani (Greek Sikanoi) and Elymi (Greek... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Elba (bottom centre) from space, February 1994. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of Southern Greece. ... Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles, Cleon, Nicias, Alcibiades Archidamus II, Brasidas, Lysander The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict, fought between Athens and their empire and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC - 401 BC - 400 BC 399 BC... Warfare in Hellenic Greece centered mainly around heavy infantrymen called hoplites. ... Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general. ... The Ten Thousand were a group of mercenary units, mainly Greek, drawn up by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Their march to the Battle of Cunaxa and back to Greece (401 BC-399 BC) was recorded by...

A Syracusan tetradrachm (c. 415-405 BC), sporting Arethusa and a quadriga.
A Syracusan tetradrachm (c. 415-405 BC), sporting Arethusa and a quadriga.

Not long after, in the early 4th century BC, the tyrant Dionysius the Elder was again at war against Carthage and, although losing Gela and Camarina, kept that power from capturing the whole of Sicily. After the end of the conflict Dionysius built a massive fortress on the Otrigia island of the city, as well as another 22 km-long walls line that encircled the whole of Syracuse. After another period of expansion, which saw the destruction of Naxos, Catania and Lentini, the city entered again in war against Carthage (397 BC). After various changes of fortune, the Africans managed to besiege Syracuse itself, but were eventually pushed back by a pestilence. A treaty in 392 BC allowed Syracuse to enlarge further its possessions, founding the cities of Adrano, Ancona, Adria, Tindari and Tauromenos, and conquering Reggio Calabria on the continent. Apart his battle deeds, Dionysius was famous as a patron of art, and Plato himself visited Syrcacuse several times. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ISO 4217 Code GRD User(s) Greece Inflation 3. ... Arethusa means the waterer. In Greek mythology, Arethusa was one of the Hesperides. ... A quadriga (from the Latin language quadri-, four, and jungere, to yoke) is a four-horse chariot, raced in the Olympic Games and other sacred games, and represented in profile as the usual chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and bas-reliefs. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC. // Overview Events Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This page is about Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse. ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician Kart-hadasht meaning new town, Arabic: ‎, Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Catania is the second-largest city of Sicily, southern Italy, and is the capital of the province which bears its name. ... Leontini (mod. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 402 BC 401 BC 400 BC 399 BC 398 BC - 397 BC - 396 BC 395 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 397 BC 396 BC 395 BC 394 BC 393 BC - 392 BC - 391 BC 390 BC... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... Adria is a town in the province of Rovigo in the Veneto region of Northern Italy, situated between the mouths of the rivers Adige and Po. ... The ancient city of Rhegion (Latin Rhegium) (nowadays: Reggio Calabria) was one of the Magna Graecia colonies founded by Chalcidians in 730 BC. Thucydides wrote that the Delphi oracle was consulted prior to the founding of Rhegion. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


His successor was Dionysius the Younger, who was however expelled by Dion in 356 BC. However, the latter's despotic rule led in turn to his expulsion, and Dionysius reclaimed his throne in 347 BC. A democratic government was installed by Timoleon in 345 BC. The long series of inner struggles had weakened Syracuse's power in the island, and Timoleon tried to remedy this situation, defeating the Carthaginians in 339 BC near the Krimisos river. The struggle among the city's parties, however, restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized the power with a coup in 317 BC. He resumed the war against Carthage, with alternate fortunes. He however scored a moral success, bringing the war to the Carthaginians' native African soil, inflicting heavy losses to the enemy. The war, however, ended with another treaty of peace which did not prevent the Carthaginians interfering in the politics of Syracuse after the death of the tyrant Agathocles (289 BC). The citizens therefore called Pyrrhus of Epirus for help. After a brief period under the rule of Epirus, Hiero II seized power in 275 BC. Dionysius the Younger or Dionysius II (c. ... Dion (408-354 BC), tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, was the son of Hipparinus, and brother-in-law of Dionysius of Syracuse. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344... Timoleon (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC Years: 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC - 345 BC - 344 BC 343 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 344 BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC - 339 BC - 338 BC 337 BC... For the grindcore band, see Agathocles (band) Agathocles (361 BC - 289 BC), tyrant of Syracuse (317 BC - 289 BC) and king of Sicily (304 BC - 289 BC). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 322 BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 294 BC 293 BC 292 BC 291 BC 290 BC 289 BC 288 BC 287 BC 286... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Grave monument of Hiëro II in Syracuse Hiero II, tyrant of Syracuse from 270 to 215 BC, was the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelo. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC Years: 280 BC 279 BC 278 BC 277 BC 276 BC - 275 BC - 274 BC 273 BC...


Hiero inaugurated a period of fifty years of peace and prosperity, in which Syracause became one of the most renowned capitals of Antiquity. He issued the so-called Lex Hieronica, which was later adopted by the Romans for their administration of Sicily; he also had the theater enlarged and a new immense altar, the "Hiero's Ara", built. Under his rule the most famous Syracusan lived, the natural philosopher Archimedes. Among his many inventions were various military engines including the claw of Archimedes, later used to resist a Roman siege. Literature figures included Theocritus and others. Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Archimedes (Greek: c. ... The Claw of Archimedes was an ancient weapon devised by Archimedes to defend the seaward portion of Syracuses city wall against amphibious assault. ... Motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of Ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ...

The siege of Syracuse in a 17th century engraving.
The siege of Syracuse in a 17th century engraving.

Hiero's successor, the young Hieronymus (ruled from 215 BC), broke the peace with the Romans, who, led by consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus, besieged the city in 214 BC. The city held out for three years, but fell in 212 BC. It is believed to have fallen due to a peace party opening a small door in the wall to negotiate a peace, but the Romans charged through the door and took the city, killing Archimedes in the process. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 545 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 2200 pixel, file size: 902 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Kupferstich auf dem Titelblatt der lateinischen Ausgabe des Thesaurus opticus, einem Werk des arabischen Gelehrten Alhazen. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 545 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 2200 pixel, file size: 902 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Kupferstich auf dem Titelblatt der lateinischen Ausgabe des Thesaurus opticus, einem Werk des arabischen Gelehrten Alhazen. ... April 23 - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 219 BC 218 BC 217 BC 216 BC 215 BC - 214 BC - 213 BC 212 BC... 13241322456878448 8mur ;pgho[nthhjtrughtugo0gu08u8g-=i980u8595i oprjiojmn kjlkiuh8909n07rugre8yg789e0 789g8ryrvugu89werh8 h6n 7h g89g9r6r9wg90yghgp4ghb r yrhgr rng4y2[2u=y780945y54ut5486ut549tj450t87uh845vnnyh g98hhggggy785y49y5gtvnyht758027y4nvth7nt57858857yvbnv5ty589vt58940uv5bnvby[1 In the First Battle of Capua, Hannibal defeats the consuls Quintus Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius, but the Roman army escapes, and soon reestablished the siege once again. ...


From Roman domination to the Middle Ages

Though declining slowly by the years, Syracuse maintained the status of capital of the Roman government of Sicily and seat of the praetor. It remained an important port for the trades between the Eastern and the Western parts of the Empire. Christianity spread in the city through the efforts of Paul of Tarsus and Saint Marziano, the first bishop of the city, who made it one of the main centres of proselytism in the West. In the age the persecutions massive catacombs were carved, whose size is second only to Rome's ones. // Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The word catacomb comes from Greek kata kumbas (L. ad catacumbas), near the low place and originally it meant a certain burial district in Rome. ...


After a period of Vandal rule, Syracuse and the island was recovered by Belisarius for the Byzantine Empire (31 December 535). From 663 to 668 Syracuse was the seat of Emperor Constans II, as well as metropolis of the whole Sicilian Church. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Belisarius is thought to be the figure to the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale Ravenna that celebrates the reconquest of Italy, performed by the Byzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius himself. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Beginning of the Western Wei Dynasty in China. ... // Events Byzantine emperor Constans II invades south Italy (Part of) the city wall of Benevento is reconstructed The movement to restore Baekje is defeated by Silla and Tang Battle of Hakusukinoe An annonymous monk reaches the summit of mount Fuji Environmental change A brief outbreak of plague hits Britain Births... Events Childeric II succeeds Clotaire III as Frankish king Constantine IV becomes Byzantine Emperor, succeeding Constans II Theodore of Tarsus made archbishop of Canterbury. ... Constans and his son Constantine. ...


Another siege in 878, which ended with the fierce sack of the city, inaugurated two centuries of Muslim rule. Syracuse lost its capital status in favour of Palermo. The Cathedral was turned into a mosque and the quarter on the Ortygia island was gradually rebuilt along Islamic styles. The city, anyway, maintained important trade relationships, and housed a relatively flourishing cultural and artistical life: several Arab poets, including Ibn Hamdis, the most important Sicilan poet of the 12th century, lived here. Events The Danes force king Alfred the Great of Wessex to retreat to a fort in Athelney, Somerset. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


In 1038, the Byzantine general George Maniaces reconquered the city, sending the relics of St. Lucy to Constantinople. The eponymous castle on the cape of Ortygia bears his name, although it was built under the Hohenstaufen rule. The Normans entered Syracuse, one of the last Saracen strongpoints, in 1085, after a summer-long siege by Roger I of Sicily and his son Jordan of Hauteville, who was given the city as count. New quarters were built, and the cathedral was restored, as well as other churches. Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... George Maniaces (or Georgios Maniakes) (d. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... Roger I (1031 – June 22, 1101), Norman ruler of Sicily, was the youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville. ... Jordan of Hauteville (died 12, 18, or 19 September 1091 or 1092) was the eldest son and bastard of Roger I of Sicily. ...


In 1194 Henry VI of Swabia occupied Syracuse. After a short period of Genoese rule (1205-1220), which favoured a rise of trades, Syracuse was conquered back by emperor Frederick II. He began the construction of the Castello Maniace, the Bishops' Palace and the Bellomo Palace. Frederick's death brought a period of unrest and feudal anarchy. In the struggle between the Anjou and Aragonese monarchies, Syracuse sided with the Aragonese and defeated the Anjou in 1298, receiving from the Spanish sovereigns great privileges in reward. The preeminence of baronal families is also showed by the construction of the palaces of Abela, Chiaramonte, Nava, Montalto. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (November 1165, Nijmegen – September 28, 1197, Messina) was king of Germany 1190-1197, and Holy Roman Emperor 1191-1197. ... Germany. ... Genoa (Genova in Italian - Zena in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire April 1 - King Amalric II of Jerusalem (born 1145) May 7... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Part of the castle. ... Anjou is a former county (c. ... Categories: Pages containing IPA | Language stubs | Romance languages | Languages of Spain ... Events July 2 - The Battle of Göllheim is fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. ...

The Cathedral of Syracuse.
The Cathedral of Syracuse.

Image File history File links Syracuse_dome_Sicily. ... Image File history File links Syracuse_dome_Sicily. ...

Modern Syracuse

The city in the following centuries was struck by two ruinous earthquakes in 1542 and 1693, and, in 1729, by a plague. The 17th century destruction changed forever the appearance of Syracuse, as well as the entire Val di Noto, whose cities were rebuilt along the typical lines of Sicilian Baroque, considered one of the most typical expressions of art of Southern Italy. The spread of cholera in 1837 led to a revolt against the Bourbon government. The punishment was the move of the province capital seat to Noto, but the unrest had not been totally choked, as the Siracusani took part to the 1848 revolution. Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Val di Noto (English: Valley of Noto) is a geographical area of south east Sicily; it is dominated by the limestone Iblean plateau. ... Illustration 1: Sicilian Baroque. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... Noto is a city in Sicily, Italy, in the Province of Syracuse, 32 km southwest of the city of Syracuse, at the feet of the Iblei Mountains. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


After the Unification of Italy of 1865, Syracuse regained its status of provincial capital. In 1870 the walls were demolished and a bridge connecting the mainland to Ortygia island was built. In the following year a railway link was constructed. Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Heavy destruction was caused by the Allied and the German bombings in 1943. After the end of World War II the northern quarters of Syracuse experienced a heavy, often chaotic, expansion, favoured by the quick process of industrialization. 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Syracuse today has about 125,000 inhabitants and numerous attractions for the visitor interested in historical sites (such as the Ear of Dionysius). A process of recovering and restoring the historical centre has been ongoing since the 1990s. Nearby places of note include Catania, Noto, Modica and Ragusa. The Ear of Dionysius (Italian: Orecchio di Dionisio) is an artificial limestone cave carved out of the Temenites hill in the city of Syracuse, on the island of Sicily in Italy. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Catania is the second-largest city of Sicily, southern Italy, and is the capital of the province which bears its name. ... Noto is a city in Sicily, Italy, in the Province of Syracuse, 32 km southwest of the city of Syracuse, at the feet of the Iblei Mountains. ... Country Italy Region Sicily Province Ragusa (RG) Mayor Pietro Torchi Lucifora (since May 28, 2002 Elevation 296 m Area 290. ... Ragusa Ragusa is a city in southern Italy. ...


See also

This is the List of Tyrants of Syracuse, Italy: Gelo (491-478) Hiero I (478-466) Thrasybulus (466-465) democracy (465-405) Dionysius the Elder (405-367) Dionysius the Younger (367-356) Dion (356-347) Calippus (rival, 354-352) and then. ...

Main sights

The Roman amphitheatre.
The Roman amphitheatre.
The Maniace Castle.
The Maniace Castle.
Detail of Palazzo Beneventano Del Bosco.
Detail of Palazzo Beneventano Del Bosco.
View of Archimede Square.
View of Archimede Square.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 526 KB) Author : Urban Description : Amphithéâtre romain, Syracuse, Italy, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Syracuse, Italy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 526 KB) Author : Urban Description : Amphithéâtre romain, Syracuse, Italy, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Syracuse, Italy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 156 KB) Summary Photographer: frabuleuse Title: Castello Maniace, Siracusa, Italy Taken on: 2005-08-18 Original source: Flickr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 156 KB) Summary Photographer: frabuleuse Title: Castello Maniace, Siracusa, Italy Taken on: 2005-08-18 Original source: Flickr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 250 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author : Urban Description : Palazzio Beneventano Del Bosco, Syracuse, Italy, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 250 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author : Urban Description : Palazzio Beneventano Del Bosco, Syracuse, Italy, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer: vic15 Title: Piazza Archiemede, Siracusa, Italy Taken on: 2005-02-25 Original source: Flickr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 290 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer: vic15 Title: Piazza Archiemede, Siracusa, Italy Taken on: 2005-02-25 Original source: Flickr. ...

Ancient buildings

  • The Temple of Apollo, adapted to a church in Byzantine times and to a mosque under Arab rule.
  • The Fountain of Arethusa, in the Ortygia island. According to a legend, the nymph Arethusa, hunted by Alpheus, took shelter here.
  • The Theatre, whose cavea is one of the largest ever built by the ancient Greeks: it has 67 rows, divided into 9 sections with 8 aisles. Only traces of the scene and the orchestra remain. The edifice (still used today) was modified by the Romans, who adapted it to their different style of spectacles, including also circus games. Near the theatre are the latomìe, stone quarries, also used as prisons in ancient times. The most famous latomìa is the Orecchio di Dionisio ("Ear of Dionysius").
  • The Roman amphitheatre, of Roman Imperial age. It was partly carved out from the rock. In the centre of the area is a rectangular space which was used for the scenic machinery.
  • The so-called Tomb of Archimede, in the Grotticelli Nechropolis. Decorated with two Doric columns, it was a Roman tomb.
  • The Temple of Olympian Zeus, about 3 km outside the city, built around 6th century BC.

The Arethuse is a fountain on the island of Ortygia in Syracuse, Sicily. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... Arethusa means the waterer. In Greek mythology, Arethusa was one of the Hesperides. ... In Roman times the cavea were the subterranean cells in which wild animals were confined before the combats in the Roman arena or amphitheatre. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ear of Dionysius (Italian: Orecchio di Dionisio) is an artificial limestone cave carved out of the Temenites hill in the city of Syracuse, on the island of Sicily in Italy. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time...

Churches

  • The Cathedral was built by bishop Zosimo in the 7th century over the great Temple of Athens (5th century BC), on the Ortygia island. This was a Doric edifice with 6 columns on the short sides and 14 on the long ones: these can still be seen incorporated in the walls of the current church. The base of the Greek edifice had three steps. The interior of the church has a nave and two aisles. The roof of the nave is from Norman times, as well as the mosaics in the apses. The façade was rebuilt by Andrea Palma in 1725-1753, with a double order of Corinthian columns, and statues by Ignazio Marabitti. The most interesting artipieces of the interior are a font with marble basin (12th-13th century), a silver statue of St. Lucy by Pietro Rizzo (1599), a ciborium by Luigi Vanvitelli, and a statue of the Madonna della Neve ("Madonna of the Snow", 1512) by Antonello Gagini.
  • Basilica of Santa Lucia extra Moenia, a Byzantine church built, according to tradition, in the same place of the martyrdom of the saint in 303 AD. The current appearance is from the 15th-16th centuries. The most ancient parts still preserved include the portal, the three half-circular apses and the first two orders of the belfry. Under the church are the Catacombs of St. Lucy.
  • Church of San Paolo (18th century).
  • Church of San Cristoforo (14th century, rebuilt in the 18th century).
  • Church of Santa Lucìa alla Badìa, a Baroque edifice built after the 1693 earthquake.
  • Church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli (13th century).
  • Church of the Spirito Santo (18th century).
  • Church of the Jesuite College, a majestic, Baroque building.
  • Church of St. Benedict (16th century, restored after 1693). It houses a painting of the Death of Saint Benedict by the Caravaggisti Mario Minniti.
  • Chiesa della Concezione (14th century, rebuilt in the 18th century), with the annexed Benedictine convent.
  • Church of San Francesco all'Immacolata, with a convex façade intermingled by columns and pilaster strips. It housed and ancient celebration, the Svelata ("Revelation"), in which an image of the Madonna was unveiled at dawn of November 29.
  • Basilica of St. John the Evangelist, built by the Normans and destroyed in 1693. Only partially restored it was erected over an ancient crypt of the martyr San Marciano, later destroyed by the Arabs. The main altar is Byzantine. It includes the Catacombs of San Giovanni, featuring a maze of tunnels and passages, with thousands of tombs and several frescoes.

The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The uncompleted Doric temple at Segesta, Sicily, has been waiting for finishing of its surfaces since 430–420 BC The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... Cathedral in Syracuse Andrea Palmas cathedral facade (begun in 1728). ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... 1599 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A Ciborium is a container, used in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and related Churches rituals to store Holy Communion. ... Luigi Vanvitelli (Naples, May 12, 1700 – March 1, 1773, Caserta), an engineer as well as the most prominent 18th-century Italian architect, practiced a sober classicizing academic Late Baroque style that made an easy transition to Neoclassicism. ... Antonello Gagini (1478-1536); was a Sicilian sculptor. ... Events Diocletian launched the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire; Hierocles was said to have been the instigator of the fierce persecution of the Christians under February 24 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Empire. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Caravaggio re-directs here; for alternate uses see Caravaggio (disambiguation) Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610), often short Caravaggio after his hometown, was an Italian Renaissance painter, whose large religious works portrayed saints and other biblical figures as ordinary people. ... The Five Signs, workshop of Mario Minniti, showing characteristic Caravaggistic chiaroscuro and use of colour. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Other edifices and sights

  • The Castello Maniace, constructed between 1232 and 1240, is an example of the military architecture of Frederick II's reign. It is a square structure with circular towers at each of the four corners. The most striking feature is the pointed portal, decorated with polychrome marbles.
  • The important Archaeological Museum, with collections including findings from the mid-Bronze Age to 5th century BC.
  • Palazzo Lanza Buccheri (16th century).
  • Palazzo Mergulese-Montalto (14th century), which conserves the old façade from the 14th century, with a pointed portal.
  • The Archbishop's Palace (17th century, modified in the following century). It houses the Alagonian Library, founded in the late 18th century.
  • The Palazzo Vermexio, the current Town Hall, which includes fragments of an Ionic temple of the 5th century BC.
  • Palazzo Francica Nava, with parts of the original 16th century building surviving.
  • Palazzo Beneventano del Bosco, originally built in the Middle Ages but extensively modified between 1779 and 1788. It has a pleasant internal court.
  • Palazzo Migliaccio (15th century), with notable lava inlay decorations.
  • The Senate Palace, housing in the court an 18th century coach.
  • The Castle of Euryalos, built nine kilometres outside the city by Dionysius the Elder and which was one of the most powerful fortresses of ancient times. It had three moats with a series of underground galleries which allowed the defenders to remove the materials the attackers could use to fill them.

Part of the castle. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) The Ionic order forms one of the three orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... // Original meaning and etymology The original meaning of the term coach was: a horse-drawn vehicle designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger — and of mail — and covered for protection from the elements. ...

Namesakes

One city and six small municipalities in the United States have been named after Syracuse: A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ...

Nickname: The Salt City Location of Syracuse within the state of New York Coordinates: City Government  - Mayor Matthew Driscoll Area  - City 66. ... Syracuse is a town located in Kosciusko County, Indiana. ... Syracuse is a city located in Hamilton County, Kansas. ... Syracuse is a city located in Morgan County, Missouri. ... Syracuse is a city located in Otoe County, Nebraska. ... Syracuse is a village located in Meigs County, Ohio. ... Syracuse is a city in Davis County, Utah, between the Great Salt Lake and Interstate 15, about 25 miles north of Salt Lake City. ... The origin of the Siracusa Family (formerly Zaragoza) is documented in the year 1018 by Jeronimo Zurita, as a branch of the House Béarn. ...

External links


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Syracuse, Italy (1578 words)
Syracuse (Siracusa in Italian) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy.
Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq.
Syracuse, Utah Clinton Square in Downtown Syracuse Syracuse is an American city in Central New York.
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