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Encyclopedia > Syracuse, Italy
Comune di Siracusa
Coat of Arms of Comune di Siracusa
Country Italy
Region Sicily
Province Siracusa (SR)
Altitude 17 m
Area 204 km²
Population
 - City
 - Density

123,322 (as of December 31, 2004)
593/km²
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 37°05′N 15°17′E
Fractions Belvedere, Cassibile, Fontane Bianche, Isola, Santa Teresa Longarini Scalo, Targia, Floridia
Telephone Prefix 0931
Postal Code 96100
Gentilic Siracusani
Patron:
 - Saint
  -Day

Saint Lucy
December 13
Mayor Giambattista Bufardeci (from June 14, 2004)
Website www.comune.siracusa.it

Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. Once described by Cicero as "the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of them all", the ancient core of Syracuse is part of the UNESCO World Heritage List. Image File history File links Siracusa-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... In Italy, the province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of an intermediate level, between municipality (comune) and region (Regione). ... Syracuse (It. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of UTC+1 time zone, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere: these are the lowest subdivisions of the country. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Saint Lucy, by Domenico Beccafumi, 1521, is a High Renaissance recasting of a Gothic iconic image (Pinacoteca Nazionale, Siena) Saint Lucy of Syracuse, also known as Saint Lucia, (traditional dates 283-304) was a rich young Christian martyr who is venerated as a Saint by Catholic and Orthodox Christians. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... Syracuse (It. ... Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA: ;) (January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin orator and prose stylist. ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...

Contents


History

Greek Period

The area of what is today Syracuse was settled since very ancient times, as showed by the findings in the villages of Stentinello, Ognina, Plemmirio, Matrensa, Cozzo Pantano and Thapsos, who already had relationship with Mycenaean Greece. Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of Bronze Age Greece, is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of ancient Greece. ...

Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Syracuse on the island of Sicily. Map also shows mainland Italy, Tunisia, and the islands Sardinia and Corsica.
Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Syracuse on the island of Sicily. Map also shows mainland Italy, Tunisia, and the islands Sardinia and Corsica.

Syracuse was founded in 734 or 733 BC by Greek settlers from Corinth, led by the oecist Archias, who called it Sirako, referring to a nearby swamp. The nucleus of the ancient city was the small island of Ortygia. The settlers found the land to be fertile and the native tribes to be reasonably well-disposed to their presence. The city grew and prospered, and for some time stood as the most powerful Greek city anywhere in the Mediterranean. Colonies were founded at Akrai (664 BC), Kasmenai (643 BC) and Kamarina (598 BC). The descendants of the first colonist, called Gamoroi, held the power until they were expelled by the Killichiroi, the lower class of the city. The former, however, returned to power in 485 BC, thanks to the help of Gelo, ruler of Gela. Gelo himself became the despot of the city, and moved numerous inhabitants of Gela, Kamarina and Megera to Syracuse, building the new quarters of Tyche and Neapolis outside the walls. His program of new constructions included also a new theater, designed by Damocopos, which gave the city a flourishing cultural life: this in turn attracted personalities as Aeschylus, Ario of Metimma, Eumelos of Corinth and Sappho, who had been exiled here from Mytilene. The enlarged power of Syracuse made unavoidable the clash against the Carthaginians, who ruled over the Western part of Sicily. In the Battle of Himera, Gelo, who had allied with Theron of Agrigento, decisively defeated the African force led by Hamilcar. A temple, entitled to Athena (on the site of the today's Cathedral), was erected in the city to commemorate the event Image File history File links Map of central Mediterranean, showing location of Syracuse, Sicily (37 03 N, 15 17 E) This image is an original work by Robert Dodier (User:Wile E. Heresiarch). ... Image File history File links Map of central Mediterranean, showing location of Syracuse, Sicily (37 03 N, 15 17 E) This image is an original work by Robert Dodier (User:Wile E. Heresiarch). ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... Sardinia [[]] (Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna, Sardinna or Sardinnia in the Sardinian language, Sardenya in Catalan), is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. ... Capital Ajaccio Land area¹ 8,680 km² Regional President ² Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Population  - Jan. ... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Palazzolo Acreide, a town of Sicily, in the Province_of_Syracuse, 28 m. ... CAMARINA, an ancient city of Sicily, situated on the south coast, about 17 miles South East of Gela (Terranova). ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC - 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC... Gelo (d. ... Gela is a commune in the province of Caltanissetta, in the island of Sicily, Italy. ... Aeschylus This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Ancient Greek bust of Sappho the Eresian. ... This city is not ot be confused with a village in the island of Samos named Mytilinii Mytilene (Μυτιλήνη in Greek) is the capital city of Lesbos, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... The Battle of Himera (480 BC), supposedly fought on the same day as the more famous Battle of Salamis, saw the Greek forces of Gelon, King of Syracuse, and Theron, the sole ruler of Agrigentum, defeating the Carthaginian force of Hamilcar, ending the Carthaginian threat to the Greek colonies on... Agrigento (formerly Girgenti) is the name of a town on the southern coast of Italy, capital of the province of Agrigento. ... Hamilcar was a traditional name among the ruling families of Carthage. ... The Akshardham Hindu temple (mandir), Delhi, India, 2005 The Ecclesia, the Rosicrucian healing temple, Oceanside, California, United States, 1920 The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ... Drawing from a sculpture of Athena at the Louvre. ...


Gelo was succedeed by his brother Hiero, who fought against the Etruscans at Cumae in 474 BC. His rule was eulogized by poets like Simonides of Ceos, Bacchylides and Pindar, who visited his court. A democratic regime was introduced by Thrasybulos (467 BC). The city continued to expand in Sicily, fighting against the rebellious Siculi, and on the Tyrrhenian Sea, making expeditions up to Corsica and Elba. In the late 5th century BC, Syracuse found itself at war with Athens, which sought more resources to fight the Peloponnesian War. The Syracusans enlisted the aid of a general from Sparta, Athens' foe in the war, to defeat the Athenians, destroy their ships, and leave them to starve on the island (see Sicilian Expedition). In 401 BC, Syracuse contributed a force of 3000 hoplites and a general to Cyrus the Younger's Army of the Ten Thousand. Hiero I was the brother of Gelo and tyrant of Syracuse from 478 to 467 BC. During his Carlos reign he greatly increased the power of Syracuse. ... The Battle of Cumae was a naval battle in 474 BC between the combined navies of Syracuse and Cumae and the Etruscans. ... See: Etruscan civilization Etruscan language Etruscan alphabet Etruscan mythology See also: Tyrrhenian, Lemnian, Pelasgian. ... Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 479 BC 478 BC 477 BC 476 BC 475 BC - 474 BC - 473 BC 472 BC 471... Bold textil8jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjpooSimonides of Ceos (ca. ... Bacchylides, Ancient Greek lyric poet, was born at Iulis, in the island of Ceos. ... Pindar Pindar (or Pindarus / Pindaros) (522 BC – 443 BC), considered the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, was born at Cynoscephalae, a village in Thebes. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 472 BC 471 BC 470 BC 469 BC 468 BC - 467 BC - 466 BC 465 BC 464... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... According to Thucydides (vi:2), before the arrival of Greek colonists, the Sicels (or Siculi) were one of the three tribes who inhabited Sicily: the Sicels (Greek Sikeloi) in eastern Sicily (as well as southern Italy), who spoke an Indo-European language, and the Sicani (Greek Sikanoi) and Elymi (Greek... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Capital Ajaccio Land area¹ 8,680 km² Regional President ² Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Population  - Jan. ... Elba (top center) from space, February 1994 Elba and the Tuscan Archipelago. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) The 5th and 6th centuries BC are a period of philosophical brilliance among advanced civilizations. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína (IPA: )) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ... Map of the Greek world at the start of the Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ... Sparta (Σπάρτη) was a city in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC - 401 BC - 400 BC 399 BC... Warfare in Hellenic Greece centered mainly around heavy infantrymen called hoplites. ... Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general. ... The Ten Thousand were a group of mercenary units, mainly Greek, drawn up by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Their march to the Battle of Cunaxa and back to Greece (401 BC-399 BC) was recorded by...


Not long after, in the early 4th century BC, the tyrant Dionysius the Elder was against at war against Carthage and, although losing Gela and Camarina, kept that power from capturing the whole of Sicily. After the end of the conflict Dionysius built a massive fortress on the Otrigia island of the city, as well as another 22 km-long walls line that encircled the whole of Syracuse. After another period of expansion, which saw the destruction of Naxos, Catania and Lentini, the city entered again in war against Carthage (397 BC). After various changes of fortune, the Africans managed to besiege Syracuse itself, but were eventually pushed back by a pestilence. A treaty in 392 BC allowed Syracuse to enlarge further its possessions, founding the cities of Adrano, Ancona, Adria, Tindari and Tauromenos, and conquering Reggio Calabria on the continent. Apart his battle deeds, Dionysius was famous as a patron of art, and Plato himself visited several times Syracuse. (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) // Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome 383 BCE Second Buddhist Councel at Vesali. ... A tyrant (from Greek τύραννος týrannos) possesses absolute power in a state or in an organisation: one refers to this mode of rule as a tyranny. ... This page is about Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse. ... A map of the central Mediterranean Sea, showing the location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). ... Location within Italy Catania is the second largest city of Sicily and is the capital of the province which bears its name. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 402 BC 401 BC 400 BC 399 BC 398 BC - 397 BC - 396 BC 395 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 397 BC 396 BC 395 BC 394 BC 393 BC - 392 BC - 391 BC 390 BC... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of northeastern Italy, population 100,507 (2001). ... Adria is a town in the province of Rovigo in the Veneto region of Northern Italy, situated between the mouths of the rivers Adige and Po. ... The ancient city of Rhegion was one of the Magna Graecia colonies founded by Calcidians in 730 BC. Thucydides wrote that before to found Rhegion, there was a consulting to the Delphi oracle, and then the Messenes, coming from Messene in the Peloponnesos participate to the foundation by order of... Plato ( Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn) (c. ...

The Greek theatre of Syracuse.

His successor was Dionysius the Younger, who was however expelled by Dion in 356 BC. However, the latter's despotic rule led in turn to his expulsion, and Dionysius reclaimed his throne in 347 BC. A democratic government was installed by Timoleon in 345 BC. The long series of inner struggles had weakened Syracuse's power in the island, and Timoleon tried to remedy this situation, defeating the Carthaginians in 399 BC near the Krimisos river. The struggle among the city's parties, however, restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized the power with a coup in 317 BC. He resumed the war against Carthage, with alternate fortunes. He however scored a moral success, bringing the war to the Carthaginians' native African soil, inflicting heavy losses to the enemy. The war, however, ended with another treaty of peace which did not prevent the Carthaginians interfering in the politics of Syracuse after the death of the tyrant Agathocles (289 BC). The citizens therefore called Pyrrhus of Epirus for help. After a brief period under the rule of Epirus, Hiero II seized power in 275 BC. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 373 KB) This image was originally posted to Flickr as Theatre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 373 KB) This image was originally posted to Flickr as Theatre. ... Dionysius the Younger or Dionysius II (c. ... Dion (408-354 BC), tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, was the son of Hipparinus, and brother-in-law of Dionysius of Syracuse. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344... Timoleon (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC Years: 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC - 345 BC - 344 BC 343 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC 401 BC 400 BC - 399 BC - 398 BC 397 BC... For the grindcore band, see Agathocles (band) Agathocles (361 BC - 289 BC), tyrant of Syracuse (317 BC - 289 BC) and king of Sicily (304 BC - 289 BC). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 322 BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 294 BC 293 BC 292 BC 291 BC 290 BC 289 BC 288 BC 287 BC 286... Pyrrhus (312-272 BC) (Greek: Πυρρος - the color of fire, red-blonde, Latin Pyrrhus), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Grave monument of Hiëro II in Syracuse Hiero II, tyrant of Syracuse from 270 to 215 BC, was the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelo. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC Years: 280 BC 279 BC 278 BC 277 BC 276 BC - 275 BC - 274 BC 273 BC...


Hiero inaugurated a period of fifty years of peace and prosperity, in which Syracause became one of the most renowned capitals of Antiquity. He issued the so-called Lex Hieronica, which was later adopted by the Romans for their administration of Sicily; he also had the theater enlarged and a new immense altar, the "Hiero's Ara", built. Under his rule the most famous Syracusan lived, the natural philosopher Archimedes. Among his many inventions were various military engines including the claw of Archimedes, later used to resist a Roman siege. Literature figures included Theocritus and others. Natural philosophy is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Archimedes of Syracuse. ... The Claw of Archimedes was a war machine devised by Archimedes to defend the seaward portion of Syracuses city wall against amphibious assault. ... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of Ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ...


Hiero's successor, the young Hieronymus (ruled from 215 BC), broke the peace with the Romans, who, led by consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus, besieged the city in 214 BC. The city held out for three years, but fell in 212 BC. It is believed to have fallen due to a peace party opening a small door in the wall to negotiate a peace, but the Romans charged through the door and took the city, killing Archimedes in the process. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC 217 BC 216 BC - 215 BC - 214 BC 213 BC... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 219 BC 218 BC 217 BC 216 BC 215 BC - 214 BC - 213 BC 212 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 217 BC 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC - 212 BC - 211 BC 210 BC... Archimedes of Syracuse. ...


The city under the Romans and in the Middle Ages

Though declining slowly by the years, Syracuse mantained the status of capital of the Roman government of Sicily and seat of the praetor. It remained an important port for the trades between the Eastern and the Western parts of the Empire. Christianity spread in the city through the efforts of St. Paul and San Marziano, the first bishop of the city, who made it one of the main centres of proselytism in the West. In the age the persecutions massive catacombs were carved, whose size is second only to Rome's ones. // Definition According to Cicero, Praetor was a title which designated the consuls as the leaders of the armies of the state. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, known by Christians as Jesus Christ, and the New Testament accounts of his life, teachings, and actions. ... Saul, also known as Paul, Paulus, and Saint Paul the Apostle, (AD 3–67) is widely considered to be central to the early development and spread of Christianity, particularly westward from Judea. ... The word catacomb comes from Greek kata kumbas (L. ad catacumbas), near the low place and originally it meant a certain burial district in Rome. ...


After a period of Vandal rule, in 535 AD Syracuse and the island was recovered by Belisarius for the Byzantine Empire. From 663 to 668 Syracuse was the seat of emperor Constans II, as well as metropolis of the whole Sicilian Church. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Events Beginning of the Western Wei Dynasty in China. ... Belisar as a beggar, as depicted in popular legend, in the painting by Jacques-Louis David (1781). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... // Events Byzantine emperor Constans II invades south Italy (Part of) the city wall of Benevento is reconstructed The movement to restore Baekje is defeated by Silla and Tang Battle of Hakusukinoe An annonymous monk reaches the summit of mount Fuji Environmental change A brief outbreak of plague hits Britain Births... Events Childeric II succeeds Clotaire III as Frankish king Constantine IV becomes Byzantine Emperor, succeeding Constans II Theodore of Tarsus made archbishop of Canterbury. ...


Another siege in AD 878, which ended with the fierce sack of the city, inaugurated two centuries of Muslim rule. Syracuse lost its capital status in favour of Palermo. The Cathedral was turned into a mosque and the quarter on the Ortygia island was gradually rebuilt along Islamic styles. The city, anyway, mantained important trade relationships, and housed a relatively flourishing cultural and artistical life: several Arab poets, including Ibn Hamdis, the most important Sicilan poet of the 12th century, lived here. Events The Danes force king Alfred the Great of Wessex to retreat to a fort in Athelney, Somerset. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Nickname: Palermu Motto: Official website: http://www. ... Yeni Camii (the New Mosque), one of the landmarks of İstanbul A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


In 1038 the Byzantine general George Maniaces reconquered the city, sending the relics of St. Lucy to Constantinople. The eponymous castle on the cape of Ortygia bears his name, although it was built under the Hohenstaufen rule. The Normans entered Syracuse, one of the last Saracen strongpoints, in 1085, after a summer-long siege by Roger I of Sicily and his son Jordan, who was given the city as count. New quarters were built, and the cathedral was restored, as well as other churches. Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... George Maniaces (or Georgios Maniakes) (d. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen The Hohenstaufen were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... Roger I (1031 – June 22, 1101), Norman ruler of Sicily, was the youngest son of Tancred of Hauteville. ...


In 1194 Henry VI of Swabia occupied Syracuse. After a short period of Genoese rule (1205-1220), which favoured a rise of trades, Syracuse was conquered back by emperor Frederick II. He began the construction of the Castello Maniace, the Bishops' Palace and the Bellomo Palace. Frederick's death brought a period of unrets and feudal anarchy. In the struggle between the Anjou and Aragonese monarchies, Syracuse sided with the Aragonese and defeated the Anjou in 1298, receiving from the Spanish sovereigns great privileges in reward. The preeminence of baronal families is also showed by the construction of the palaces of Abela, Chiaramonte, Nava, Montalto. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location within Italy Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes, German Genua, Spanish Génova, Galician Xénova) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Events January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople (1205) between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire Births Walter IV of Brienne Wenceslaus I, King of... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 - 1220 - 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 See also: 1220 state leaders The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right). ... Part of the castle. ... Anjou is a former county (c. ... Categories: Pages containing IPA | Language stubs | Romance languages | Languages of Spain ... Events July 2 - The Battle of Göllheim is fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. ...

The Cathedral of Syracuse.
The Cathedral of Syracuse.

Image File history File links Syracuse_dome_Sicily. ... Image File history File links Syracuse_dome_Sicily. ...

Modern Syracuse

The city in the following centuries was struck by two ruinous earthquakes in 1542 and 1693, and, in 1729, by a plague. The 17th century destruction changed forever the appearance of Syracuse, as well as the entire Val di Noto, whose cities were rebuilt along the typical lines of Sicilian Baroque, considered one of the most typical expressions of art of Southern Italy. The spread of cholera in 1837 led to a revolt against the Bourbon government. The punishment was the move of the province capital seat to Noto, but the unrest had not been totally choked, as the Siracusani took part to the 1848 revolution. Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... Val di Noto (English: Valley of Noto) is a geographical area of south east Sicily; it is dominated by the limestone Iblean plateau. ... Illustration 1: Sicilian Baroque. ... Cholera (also called Asiatic cholera) is a water-borne disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which are typically ingested by drinking contaminated water, or by eating improperly cooked fish, especially shellfish. ... | Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bourbon may refer to: Bourbon whiskey House of Bourbon Bourbon biscuits Île Bourbon was the name of Réunion from 1642 until the French Revolution A class of old garden roses first raised on Île Bourbon and called Bourbon roses. ... Noto, a city of Sicily, in the province of Syracuse, and 20 miles southwest of it, 520 feet above sea-level. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the Unification of Italy of 1865, Syracuse regained its status of provincial capital. In 1870 the walls were demolished and a bridge connecting the mainland to Ortygia island was built. In the following year a railway link was constructed. Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Heavy destruction was caused by the Allied and the German bombings in 1943. After the end of World War 2 the northern quarters of Syracuse experienced a heavy, often chaotic, expansion, favoured by the quick process of industrialization. 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ...


Syracuse today has about 125,000 inhabitants and numerous attractions for the visitor interested in historical sites (such as the Ear of Dionysius). A process of recovering and restoring the historical centre has been ongoing since the 1990s. Nearby places of note include Catania, Noto, Modica and Ragusa. The Ear of Dionysius (Italian: Orecchio di Dionisio) is an artificial limestone cave carved out of the Temenites hill in the city of Syracuse, on the island of Sicily in Italy. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... Location within Italy Catania is the second largest city of Sicily and is the capital of the province which bears its name. ... Noto, a city of Sicily, in the province of Syracuse, and 20 miles southwest of it, 520 feet above sea-level. ... The cathedral of San Giorgio, Modica Modica is a city in the Province of Ragusa, Sicily. ... Ragusa Ragusa is a city in southern Italy. ...


See also

This is the List of Tyrants of Syracuse, Italy: Gelo (491-478) Hiero I (478-466) Thrasybulus (466-465) democracy (465-405) Dionysius the Elder (405-367) Dionysius the Younger (367-356) Dion (356-347) Calippus (rival, 354-352) and then. ...

Main sights

The Roman amphitheatre.
The Roman amphitheatre.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 526 KB) Author : Urban Description : Amphithéâtre romain, Syracuse, Italy, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Syracuse, Italy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 526 KB) Author : Urban Description : Amphithéâtre romain, Syracuse, Italy, Sicilia Body : Canon Powershot A80 Date : August, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Syracuse, Italy Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital...

Ancient buildings

  • The Temple of Apollo, adapted to a church in Byzantine times and to a mosque under Arab rule.
  • The Fount of Arethusa, in the Ortygia island. According to a legend, the nymph Arethusa, hunted by Alpheus, took shelter here. This locale recently served as a checkpoint for the 9th season of CBS's The Amazing Race.
  • The Theatre, whose cavea is one of the largest ever built by the ancient Greeks: it has 67 rows, divided into 9 sections with 8 aisles. Only traces of the scene and the orchestra remain. The edifice (still used today) was modified by the Romans, who adapted it to their different style of spectacles, including also circus games. Near the theatre are the latomìe, stone quarries, also used as prisons in ancient times. The most famous latomìa is the Orecchio di Dionisio ("Ear of Dionysius").
  • The Roman amphitheatre, of Roman Imperial age. It was partly carved out from the rock. In the centre of the area is a rectangular space which was used for the scenic machinery.
  • The so-called Tomb of Archimede, in the Grotticelli Nechropolis. Decorated with two Doric columns, it was a Roman tomb.
  • The Temple of Olympian Zeus, about 3 km outside the city, built around 6th century BC.

Hylas and the Nymphs by John William Waterhouse In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, sometimes bound to a particular location or landform. ... Arethusa means the waterer. In Greek mythology, Arethusa was one of the Hesperides. ... For other uses, see CBS (disambiguation). ... The Amazing Race is a reality game show normally broadcast in one-hour episodes in which teams of two or four race around the world in competition with other teams. ... In Roman times the cavea were the subterranean cells in which wild animals were confined before the combats in the Roman arena or amphitheatre. ... The Boston Pops orchestra performing on the Charles River Esplanade in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Ear of Dionysius (Italian: Orecchio di Dionisio) is an artificial limestone cave carved out of the Temenites hill in the city of Syracuse, on the island of Sicily in Italy. ... Statue of Zeus Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th-century engraving. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time of learning and philosophy. ...

Churches

  • The Cathedral was built by bishop Zosimo in the 7th century over the great Temple of Athens (5th century BC), on the Ortygia island. This was a Doric edifice with 6 columns on the short sides and 14 on the long ones: these can still be seen incorporated in the walls of the current church. The base of the Greek edifice had three steps. The interior of the church has a nave and two aisles. The roof of the nave is from Norman times, as well as the mosaics in the apses. The façade was rebuilt by Andrea Palma in 1725-1753, with a double order of Corinthian columns, and statues by Ignazio Marabitti. The most interesting artipieces of the interior are a font with marble basin (12th-13th century), a silver statue of St. Lucy by Pietro Rizzo (1599), a ciborium by Luigi Vanvitelli, and a statue of the Madonna della Neve ("Madonna of the Snow", 1512) by Antonello Gagini.
  • Basilica of Santa Lucia extra Moenia, a Byzantine church built, according to tradition, in the same place of the martyrdom of the saint in 303 AD. The current appearance is from the 15th-16th centuries. The most ancient parts still preserved include the portal, the three half-circular apses and the first two orders of the belfry. Under the church are the Catacombs of St. Lucy.
  • Church of San Paolo (18th century).
  • Church of San Cristoforo (14th century, rebuilt in the 18th century).
  • Church of Santa Lucìa alla Badìa, a Baroque edifice built after the 1693 earthquake.
  • Church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli (13th century).
  • Church of the Spirito Santo (18th century).
  • Church of the Jesuite College, a majestic, Baroque building.
  • Church of St. Benedict (16th century, restored after 1693). It houses a painting of the Death of Saint Benedict by the Caravaggisti Mario Minniti.
  • Chiesa della Concezione (14th century, rebuilt in the 18th century), with the annexed Benedictine convent.
  • Church of San Francesco all'Immacolata, with a convex façade intermingled by columns and pilaster strips. It housed and ancient celebration, the Svelata ("Revelation"), in which an image of the Madonna was unveiled at dawn of November 29.
  • Basilica of St. John the Evangelist, built by the Normans and destroyed in 1693. Only partially restored it was erected over an ancient crypt of the martyr San Marciano, later destroyed by the Arabs. The main altar is Byzantine. It includes the Catacombs of San Giovanni, featuring a maze of tunnels and passages, with thousands of tombs and several frescoes.
The Maniace Castle.
Enlarge
The Maniace Castle.

// Overview Events The Roman-Persian Wars end. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) The 5th and 6th centuries BC are a period of philosophical brilliance among advanced civilizations. ... The uncompleted Doric temple at Segesta, Sicily, has been waiting for finishing of its surfaces since 430–420 BC The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... Cathedral in Syracuse Andrea Palmas cathedral facade (begun in 1728). ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... Events The Jesuit educational plan known as the Ratio Studiorum is issued (January 8). ... A Ciborium is a container, used in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and related Churches rituals to store Holy Communion. ... Luigi Vanvitelli (Naples, May 12, 1700 – March 1, 1773, Caserta), an engineer as well as the most prominent 18th-century Italian architect, practiced a sober classicizing academic Late Baroque style that made an easy transition to Neoclassicism. ... Antonello Gagini (1478-1536); was a Sicilian sculptor. ... Events Diocletian launched the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire; Hierocles was said to have been the instigator of the fierce persecution of the Christians under February 24 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Empire. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Caravaggio re-directs here; for alternate uses see Caravaggio (disambiguation) Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610), often short Caravaggio after his hometown, was an Italian Renaissance painter, whose large religious works portrayed saints and other biblical figures as ordinary people. ... The Five Signs, workshop of Mario Minniti, showing characteristic Caravaggistic chiaroscuro and use of colour. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 156 KB) Summary Photographer: frabuleuse Title: Castello Maniace, Siracusa, Italy Taken on: 2005-08-18 Original source: Flickr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 156 KB) Summary Photographer: frabuleuse Title: Castello Maniace, Siracusa, Italy Taken on: 2005-08-18 Original source: Flickr. ...

Other edifices and sights

  • The Castello Maniace, constructed between 1232 and 1240, is an example of the military architecture of Frederick II's reign. It is a square structure with circular towers at each of the four corners. The most striking feature is the pointed portal, decorated with polychrome marbles.
  • The important Archaeological Museum, with collections including findings from the mid-Bronze Age to 5th century BC.
  • Palazzo Lanza Buccheri (16th century).
  • Palazzo Mergulese-Montalto (14th century), which conserves the old façade from the 14th century, with a pointed portal.
  • The Archbishop's Palace (17th century, modified in the following century). It houses the Alagonian Library, founded in the late 18th century.
  • The Palazzo Vermexio, the current Town Hall, which includes fragments of an Ionic temple of the 5th century BC.
  • Palazzo Francica Nava, with parts of the original 16th century building surviving.
  • Palazzo Beneventano del Bosco, originally built in the Middle Ages but extensively modified between 1779 and 1788. It has a pleasant internal court.
  • Palazzo Migliaccio (15th century), with notable lava inlay decorations.
  • The Senate Palace, housing in the court an 18th century coach.
  • The Castle of Euryalos, built nine kilometres outside the city by Dionysius the Elder and which was one of the most powerful fortresses of ancient times. It had three moats with a series of underground galleries which allowed the defenders to remove the materials the attackers could use to fill them.

Part of the castle. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) The Ionic order forms one of the three orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... // Original meaning and etymology The original meaning of the term coach was: a horse-drawn vehicle designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger — and of mail — and covered for protection from the elements. ...

Namesakes

One city and six small municipalities in the United States have been named after Syracuse: A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ...

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Siracusa

Aerial View of Syracuse Syracuse is an American city in Central New York. ... Syracuse is a town located in Kosciusko County, Indiana. ... Syracuse is a city located in Hamilton County, Kansas. ... Syracuse is a city located in Morgan County, Missouri. ... Syracuse is a city located in Otoe County, Nebraska. ... Syracuse is a village located in Meigs County, Ohio. ... Location of Syracuse in Utah. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Syracuse, Italy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2568 words)
Syracuse was founded in 734 or 733 BC by Greek settlers from Corinth, led by the oecist Archias, who called it Sirako, referring to a nearby swamp.
In 1194 Henry VI of Swabia occupied Syracuse.
The 17th century destruction changed forever the appearance of Syracuse, as well as the entire Val di Noto, whose cities were rebuilt along the typical lines of Sicilian Baroque, considered one of the most typical expressions of art of Southern Italy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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