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Encyclopedia > Syr Darya
Syr Darya
Map of area around the Aral Sea. Aral Sea boundaries are circa 1960. Countries at least partially in the Aral Sea watershed are in yellow.
Origin Naryn and Kara Darya rivers
Mouth Aral Sea
Basin countries Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
Length 2,212 km
Avg. discharge 1180 m³/s (near mouth)[1]
Basin area 219,000 km²

Syr Darya (Kazakh: Сырдария; Tajik: Сирдарё; Uzbek: Sirdaryo; Persian: سيردريا, also transliterated Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia, sometimes known as the Jaxartes or Yaxartes from its Ancient Greek name ὁ Ιαξάρτης. The Greek name is derived from Old Persian, Yakhsha Arta ("Great Pearly"), a reference to the color of the river's water. In medieval Islamic writings, the river is uniformly known as Sayhoun (سيحون) - after one of the four rivers of Paradise. (Amu Darya was likewise known as Jayhoun, the name of another one of the four). Image File history File links Aral_map. ... River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... The Naryn River rises in the Tien Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, flowing west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan. ... The Gay Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Drainage basin. ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ...


The name, which comes from Persian and has long been used in the East, is a relatively recent one in western writings; prior to the early 20th century, the river was known by various versions of its ancient Greek name. It marked the northernmost limit of Alexander of Macedon's conquests. Greek historians have claimed that here in 329 BC he founded the city Alexandria Eschate (literally, "Alexandria the Furthest") as a permanent garrison. The city is now known as Khujand. In reality, he had just renamed (and possibly, expanded) the city of Cyropolis founded by king Cyrus the Great of Persia, more than two centuries earlier. Farsi redirects here. ... Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC 330 BC - 329 BC - 328 BC 327 BC 326... Alexandria Eschate (Greek , “Alexandria the Furthest”) was founded by Alexander the Great in 329 BCE as his most advanced base in Central Asia. ... Khujand (Tajik Хуҷанд or خجند, also transliterated as Khudzhand, Russian: , formerly Khodjend or Khodzhent until 1939 and Leninabad until 1992), is the second largest city of Tajikistan. ... Cyrus redirects here. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


The river rises in two headstreams in the Tian Shan Mountains (ancient Mount Imeon) in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan -- the Naryn River and the Kara Darya River -- and flows for some 2,212 km (1,380 miles) west and north-west Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the remains of the Aral Sea. The Syr Darya drains an area of over 800,000 square kilometres, but no more than 200,000 square kilometres actually contribute water to the river. Its annual flow is a very modest 37 cubic kilometres[2] (30 million acre feet) per year - half that of its sister river, the Amu Darya. The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... The Naryn River rises in the Tien Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, flowing west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan. ... The Gay Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... An acre foot is a unit of volume commonly used in the United States in reference to large-scale water resources, such as reservoirs, aqueducts, canals, and river flows. ...


Along its course, the Syr Darya irrigates the most fertile cotton-growing region in the whole of Central Asia, together with the towns of Kokand, Khujand, Kyzylorda and Turkestan. Kokand (or Khokand or Kokhand or Quqon or Коканд) is a city in Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana Valley. ... Khujand (Tajik Хуҷанд or خجند, also transliterated as Khudzhand, Russian: , formerly Khodjend or Khodzhent until 1939 and Leninabad until 1992), is the second largest city of Tajikistan. ... Qyzylorda (formerly Kyzyl-Orda) is a city in Kazakhstan, capital of Qyzylorda Province. ... The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ...

Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
Map showing the location of Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.

An extensive system of canals, many built in the 18th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand, spans the regions the river flows through. Massive expansion of irrigation canals during the Soviet period, to irrigate cotton fields, wrought ecological carnage to the area, with the river drying up long before reaching the Aral Sea which, as a result, has shrunk to a small remnant of its former size. With millions of people now settled in these cotton areas (and highly repressive post-Soviet regimes in power in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan), it is not clear how the situation can be rectified. Image File history File links Map_baikonur_cosmodrome. ... Image File history File links Map_baikonur_cosmodrome. ... A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with airport for aircraft. ... The Khanate of Kokand is a formar state in Asia that existed from 1709-1876 within the territory of modern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... CCCP redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... The Gay Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ...


See also

The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ...

References

Title page of the 3rd ed. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... The location of Kazakhstan By far the largest of the Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union, independent Kazakhstan is the worlds ninth-largest nation in geographic area. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. ... The Qarluq (Karluk) were originally a nomadic turkic tribe based on the transoxania steppes (roughly east and south of the Aral Sea) in Central Asia. ... The Muslim, Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate is not to be confused with the Sinitic, Khitan Kara-Khitan Khanate. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... The Nogai Horde was the Tatar horde that controlled the Caucasus Mountain region after the Mongol invasion. ... The White Horde was a the name of a Mongolian state of the 14th century. ... Flag¹ Motto Alash! Capital Hazrat-e Turkestan Language(s) Kazakh Religion Sunni Islam Government Monarchy Khan  - 1465—1480 Janybek Khan and Kerei Khan (first) History  - Established 1456  - Disestablished 1731 Kazakh Khanate (Kazakh: Қазақ хандығы, Russian: Казахское ханство) was a Kazakh state that existed in 1456-1731, located roughly on the territory of present day... It has been suggested that Modern Kazakh tribes be merged into this article or section. ... Russian traders and soldiers began to appear on the northwestern edge of Kazakh territory in the 17th century, when Cossacks established the forts that later became the cities of Oral (Uralsk) and Atyrau (Guryev). ... The Kazakh ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Kazakhstan_(flat). ... Politics of Kazakhstan takes place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Kazakhstan is head of state and nominates the head of government. ... List of Presidents of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev (1990 - present) See also Politics of Kazakhstan Categories: Stub | Kazakhstan ... This is a list of prime ministers and heads of government of Kazakhstan and its predecessor republic of the Soviet Union. ... The Parliament of Kazakhstan is a bicameral legislature consisting of the upper house Senate of Kazakhstan and the lower house Majilis. ... The legislature, known as the Parliament (Parlamenti), has two chambers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Political parties in Kazakhstan lists political parties in Kazakhstan. ... Politics of Kazakhstan Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Kazakhstan ... Foreign relations of Kazakhstan are primarily based on economic and military security. ... Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces oblystar (singular - oblys): Note: in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Bayqongyr (Baykonur) space launch facilities and the city of... The following is a list of cities in Kazakhstan: Ak-mechet (Kyzyl-Orda, Perovsk) Aktau Aktobe Almati (Alma-Ata, Verny) Aral Astana - capital of Kazakhstan Atirau Ayaguz Beyneu Baikonur Chapayev Chu Ekibastuz Emba Karaganda Khorogos Kizilyar Koksetau Kostanay Oktyabrsk Oral Oskemen Pavlodar Petropavl (Petropavlovsk) Rudni Saryshagan Semey (Semipalatinsk) Chimkent... The steppes of Eastern Kazakhstan in Altyn Emeil National Park, where Genghis Khan reportedly once rode, appear to stretch out forever. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The Gay Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Lake Balkhash from space, April 1991 Lake Balkhash: NASA image, taken 18 April 2000 by SeaWiFS Lake Balkhash, or Lake Balqash, is a large lake in southeastern Kazakhstan, the second largest in Central Asia after the Aral Sea. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... Semirechye (Russian: , also written Semiryechye, Semireche, Semirechiye, Semirechie, Semireche) is a historical name of a part of Russian Turkestan, which corresponds to the South-Eastern part of modern Kazakhstan, known as Zhetysu (Jetysu, Jity-su, Жетысу, Джетысу). It owes its name (Jity-su, Semirechie, i. ... Charyn Canyon is an 80km canyon in Kazakhstan on the Charyn River 200km east of Almaty close to the Chinese border. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Khan Tengri (Chinese, translated as Lord of the spirits, or Lord of the sky; or Turkic translated as Ruler of Skies, ruler Tengri) is a mountain of the Tian Shan mountain range. ... The Kyzyl Kum (Uzbek: red sand; also called Qyzylqum) is a desert in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. ... The Aral Karakum desert lies north of the Aral Sea in Kazakhstan. ... The National Bank of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: ) is the central bank of Kazakhstan. ... ISO 4217 Code KZT User(s) Kazakhstan Inflation 8. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 1. ... Kazakhstan owns large reserves of energy resources, and therefore the energy policy of Kazakhstan has influence over the worlds overall energy supply. ... Population of Kazakhstan. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... Bukharan Jews got their name from the Uzbek city of Bukhara, which once had a large community. ... The human rights situation in Kazakhstan has been an area of concern for many outside governmental and non-governmental observers. ... By tradition the Kazaks are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school, and the Russians are Russian Orthodox. ... Christianity in Kazakhstan is the second most practiced religion after Islam, with 46% of the population Christian and 47% Muslim. ... Kazakh food preparation Kazakh culture began to develop in the 13th century. ... The coat of arms of the country of Kazakhstan The coat of Kazakhstan exists since the dissolving of the Soviet Union 25 December 1991. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The current flag of Kazakhstan was adopted on June 4, 1992. ... My Kazakhstan (Kazakh: ) is the current national anthem of Kazakhstan, adopted on January 7, 2006. ... The Kazakh alphabets are the alphabets used to write the Kazakh language. ... Traditional Kazakh food revolves around mutton and horse meat as well as sour milk products. ... The modern state of Kazakhstan is home to the Kazakh State Kurmangazy Orchestra of Folk Instruments, Kazakh State Philharmonic Orchestra, Kazakh National Opera and the Kazakh State Chamber Orchestra. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
MSN Encarta - Print Preview - Uzbekistan (1228 words)
The Syr Darya is formed in the fertile Fergana (Farghona) Valley by the convergence of two rivers flowing from the east, the Naryn and Qoradaryo.
The Syr Darya then flows westward through this valley and northern Tajikistan, turns north to cut through Uzbekistan, and enters Kazakhstan, eventually reaching the northern section of the Aral Sea.
The shrinkage is due to irrigation withdrawals from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, a practice that began on a massive scale in the early 1960s as part of the Soviet Union’s ill-conceived drive to increase cotton yields in Central Asia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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