FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Syphilis" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Syphilis
Syphilis
Classification and external resources
Image of spiral-shaped organisms responsible for causing syphilis
ICD-10 A50.-A53.
ICD-9 090-097
MedlinePlus 001327
eMedicine med/2224  emerg/563 derm/413

Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. The route of transmission of syphilis is almost always by sexual contact, although there are examples of congenital syphilis via transmission from mother to child in utero. The signs and symptoms of syphilis are numerous; before the advent of serological testing, precise diagnosis was very difficult. In fact, the disease was dubbed the "Great Imitator" because it was often confused with other diseases, particularly in its tertiary stage. Syphilis (unless antibiotic-resistant) can be easily treated with antibiotics including penicillin. The oldest and still most effective method is an intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. If not treated, syphilis can cause serious effects such as damage to the heart, aorta, brain, eyes, and bones. In some cases these effects can be fatal. In 1998, the complete genetic sequence of T. pallidum was published which may aid understanding of the pathogenesis of syphilis. Image File history File links Treponema_pallidum. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ... Families Brachyspiraceae Leptospiraceae Spirochaetaceae The spirochaetes are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ... In Utero is the third and final studio album by the American grunge band Nirvana, released on September 21, 1993 by DGC Records. ... The term symptom (from the Greek syn = con/plus and pipto = fall, together meaning co-exist) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: A symptom can be a physical condition which shows that one has a particular illness or disorder (see e. ... Serology is a medical blood test to detect the presence of antibodies against a microorganism. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtə] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the sight organ. ... A miserable stubborn cantankerous old mans, whos actually quite good humoured & an enjoyable compadre to play online alongside if you catch him on a good day. ... A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine), and typically these are... Pathogenesis is the mechanism by which a certain etiological factor causes disease (pathos = disease, genesis = development). ...

Contents

Alternative names

The name "syphilis" was coined by the Italian physician and poet Girolamo Fracastoro in his epic noted poem, written in Latin, entitled Syphilis sive morbus gallicus (Latin for "Syphilis or The French Disease") in 1530. The protagonist of the poem is a shepherd named Syphilus (perhaps a variant spelling of Sipylus, a character in Ovid's Metamorphoses). Syphilus is presented as the first man to contract the disease, sent by the god Apollo as punishment for the defiance that Syphilus and his followers had shown him. From this character Fracastoro derived a new name for the disease, which he also used in his medical text De Contagionibus ("On Contagious Diseases").[1] Girolamo Fracastoro (Fracastorius) (1478‑1553) was an Italian physician, scholar and poet. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Shepherd in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... Disambiguation: This article is about the poem Metamorphoses written by the poet Ovid. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ...


Until that time, as Fracastoro notes, syphilis had been called the "French disease" in Italy and Germany, and the "Italian disease" in France. In addition, the Dutch called it the "Spanish disease", the Russians called it the "Polish disease", the Turks called it the "Christian disease" or "Frank disease" (frengi) and the Tahitians called it the "British disease". These 'national' names are due to the disease often being present among invading armies or sea crews, due to the high instance of unprotected sexual contact with prostitutes. It was also called "Great pox" in the 16th century to distinguish it from smallpox. In its early stages, the Great pox produced a rash similar to smallpox (also known as variola). However, the name is misleading, as smallpox was a far more deadly disease. The terms "Lues" (or Lues venerea, Latin for "venereal plague") and "Cupid's disease" have also been used to refer to syphilis. In Scotland, Syphilis was referred to as the Grandgore. The ulcers suffered by British soldiers in Portugal was termed "The Black Lion".[2] Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... This article is about the Roman god. ... This article is about the country. ...


Origins

There have been three theories on the origin of syphilis which formed an ongoing debate in anthropological and historical fields. Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ...


The pre-Columbian theory holds that syphilis symptoms are described by Hippocrates in Classical Greece in its venereal/tertiary form. There are other suspected syphilis findings for pre-contact Europe, including at a 1314th century Augustinian friary in the northeastern English port of Kingston upon Hull. This city's maritime history is thought to have been a key factor in the transmission of syphilis.[3] Carbon dated skeletons of monks who lived in the friary showed bone lesions typical of venereal syphilis. Skeletons in pre-Columbus Pompeii and Metaponto in Italy demonstrating signs of congenital syphilis have also been found[4][5], although the interpretation of the evidence has been disputed.[6] The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Location Map Metaponto is a small town of about a 1000 people in the province of Matera, Basilicata, Italy. ...


The Columbian Exchange theory holds that syphilis was a New World disease brought back by Columbus and Martin Alonzo Pinzon. Supporters of the Columbian theory find syphilis lesions on pre-contact Native Americans and cite documentary evidence linking crewmen of Columbus's voyages to the Naples outbreak of 1494.[7] A recent study of the genes of venereal syphilis and related bacteria has supported this theory, by locating an intermediate disease between yaws and syphilis in Guyana, South America.[8][9] Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Martin Alonzo Pinzón ( c. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...


Historian Alfred Crosby suggests both theories are correct in a combination theory. Crosby's argument is built on the similarities of the species of bacteria which cause yaws and syphilis. The bacterium that causes syphilis belongs to the same phylogenetic family as the bacteria which cause yaws and several other diseases. Despite a tradition of assigning yaws's homeland to sub-Saharan Africa, Crosby notes that there is no unequivocal evidence of any related disease being present in pre-Columbian Europe, Africa, or Asia, while there is indisputable evidence of syphilis' presence in the pre-Columbian Americas. Conceding this point, Crosby writes, "It is not impossible that the organisms causing treponematosis arrived from America in the 1490s...and evolved into both venereal and non-venereal syphilis and yaws."[10] Alfred W. Crosby is a historian, professor and well-respected author. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Yaws (also Frambesia tropica, thymosis, polypapilloma tropicum or pian) is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pertenue. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area African countries considered sub-Saharan Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ...


However, Crosby considers it somewhat more likely that a highly contagious ancestral species of bacteria moved with early human ancestors across the land bridge of the Bering Straits many thousands of years ago without dying out in the original source population. He hypothesizes that "the differing ecological conditions produced different types of treponematosis and, in time, closely related but different diseases."[10] Thus, a weak, non-syphilitic bacteria survived in the Old World to eventually give rise to yaws or bejel, while a New World version evolved into the milder pinta and the more aggressive syphilis. Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Bering Strait is also a country music band The Bering Strait is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, the eastmost point of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point of the American continent, about 85 km in width, with a... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ... Bejel, or endemic syphilis, is a chronic skin and tissue disease caused by infection by a subspecies of the spirochete Treponema pallidum. ... Pinta is a human skin disease endemic to Mexico, Central America, and South America. ...


Going further than Crosby in arguing for worldwide incidence of syphilis prior to Columbus, Douglas Owsley, the famed physical anthropologist at the Smithsonian Institution, has written that many medieval European cases of leprosy, colloquially called "lepra," were actually cases of syphilis. Although folklore claimed that syphilis was unknown in Europe until the return of the diseased sailors of the Columbian voyages, {{cquote|. . . syphilis probably cannot be "blamed"—as it often is—on any geographical area or specific race. The evidence suggests that the disease existed in both hemispheres from prehistoric times. It is only coincidental with the Columbus expeditions that the syphilis previously thought of as "lepra" flared into virulence at the end of the fifteenth century.[11] Owsley noted that a Chinese medical case recorded in 2637 B.C.E. seems to be describing a case of syphilis, and that a European writer who recorded an outbreak of "lepra" in 1303 C.E. is "clearly describing syphilis".[11] Physical anthropology, sometimes called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...


History

Portrait of Gerard de Lairesse by Rembrandt van Rijn, ca. 1665–67, oil on canvas. De Lairesse, himself a painter and art theorist, suffered from congenital syphilis that severely deformed his face and eventually blinded him.
Portrait of Gerard de Lairesse by Rembrandt van Rijn, ca. 1665–67, oil on canvas. De Lairesse, himself a painter and art theorist, suffered from congenital syphilis that severely deformed his face and eventually blinded him.[12]

While working at the Rockefeller University (then called the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research) in 1913, Hideyo Noguchi, a Japanese scientist, demonstrated the presence of the spirochete Treponema pallidum in the brain of a progressive paralysis patient, proving that Treponema pallidum was the cause of the disease. [13] Prior to Noguchi's discovery, syphilis had been a burden to humanity in many lands, sometimes misdiagnosed and often misattributed to political enemies. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 494 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,024 × 2,454 pixels, file size: 452 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 494 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,024 × 2,454 pixels, file size: 452 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Gerard de Lairesse, Rembrandt van Rijn. ... Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15, 1606 - October 4, 1669) is generally considered one of the greatest painters in European art history, and the most important United Provinces (Netherlands) painter of the seventeenth century. ... Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ... Noguchi Hideyo (野口 英世 November 9, 1876 - May 21, 1928) was a prominent Japanese bacteriologist who discovered the agent of syphilis disease in 1911. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ...


Some famous historical personages, including Franz Schubert, Charles VIII, Hernando Cortez of Spain, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Ivan the Terrible, have been alleged to have had syphilis. Guy de Maupassant and possibly Friedrich Nietzsche are thought to have been driven insane and ultimately killed by the disease. Al Capone contracted syphilis as a young man. By the time he was incarcerated at Alcatraz, it reached its third stage, neurosyphilis, leaving him confused and disoriented. Syphilis led to the death of artist Edouard Manet and artist Paul Gauguin is also said to have suffered from syphilis. Composers who succumbed to syphilis include Hugo Wolf, Frederick Delius, Scott Joplin and possibly Franz Schubert and Niccolò Paganini. Schubert redirects here. ... Charles VIII, called the Affable (French: ; 30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Guy de Maupassant. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... “Capone” redirects here. ... Alcatraz Island is located in the middle of San Francisco Bay in California. ... Édouard Manet (portrait by Nadar) Édouard Manet (January 23, 1832 - April 30, 1883) was a noted French painter. ... Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist painter. ... Photograph of Hugo Wolf Hugo Wolf (March 13, 1860 – February 22, 1903) was an Austrian composer of Slovene origin, particularly noted for his art songs, or Lieder. ... Frederick Albert Theodore Delius CH (January 29, 1862, – June 10, 1934) was an English composer born in Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire in the north of England. ... Scott Joplin Scott Joplin (born between June 1867 and January 1868,[1] died April 1, 1917) was an American musician and composer of ragtime music. ... Schubert redirects here. ... Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (October 27, 1782 – May 27, 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. ...


The insanity caused by late-stage syphilis was once one of the more common forms of dementia; this was known as the general paresis of the insane. One suspected example is the insanity of noted composer Robert Schumann, although the precise cause of his death is still disputed by scholars. For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... General paresis, also known as general paralysis of the insane or paralytic dementia, is a now-rare neuropsychiatric disorder affecting the brain and central nervous system. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ...


The Russian author Leo Tolstoy suffered from syphilis during his youth, which was cured using arsenic treatment.[14] Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ...


A recent article in the European Journal of Neurology (June 2004) hypothesized that the founder of communism in Russia, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, died of neurosyphilis.[15] Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ...


The rock critic Lester Bangs caught syphilis and was cured of it in his youth. Lester Bangs during an interview Leslie Conway Bangs (December 14, 1948 – April 30, 1982) was an American music journalist, author and musician. ...


Karen Blixen, the author of Out of Africa, contracted syphilis from her husband while living in Africa. He had contracted the disease from an African woman with whom he had been unfaithful. After having undergone treatment in Denmark, she returned to Africa. Blixen was unable to have children. Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke (April 17, 1885 – September 7, 1962), née Karen Dinesen, was a Danish author also known under her pen name Isak Dinesen. ...


European outbreak

A medical illustration attributed to Albrecht Dürer (1496) depicting a person with syphilis. Here, the disease is believed to have astrological causes.
A medical illustration attributed to Albrecht Dürer (1496) depicting a person with syphilis. Here, the disease is believed to have astrological causes.

The first well-recorded European outbreak of what is now known as syphilis occurred in 1494 when it broke out among French troops besieging Naples.[16] The French may have caught it via Spanish mercenaries serving King Charles of France in that siege.[11] From this centre, the disease swept across Europe. As Jared Diamond describes it, "when syphilis was first definitely recorded in Europe in 1495, its pustules often covered the body from the head to the knees, caused flesh to fall from people's faces, and led to death within a few months." In addition, the disease was more frequently fatal than it is today. Diamond concludes that "by 1546, the disease had evolved into the disease with the symptoms so well known to us today."[17] The epidemiology of this first syphilis epidemic shows that the disease was either new or a mutated form of an earlier disease. Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An abscess is a collection of pus collected in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (e. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ...


Known and suspected notable syphilis-infected people in previous centuries

Keys: S - suspected case; - died of syphilis

Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ... Born Herbert Arthur Chamberlayne Blyth, Maurice Barrymore (1849 – 1905) was the forefather of the Barrymore family of American actors. ... “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... Mrs Beeton aged about 26 Isabella Mary Mayson (March 12, 1836 - January 1865), universally known as Mrs Beeton, was the author of Mrs Beetons Book of Household Management and is the most famous cookery writer in British history. ... Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke (April 17, 1885 – September 7, 1962), née Karen Dinesen, was a Danish author also known under her pen name Isak Dinesen. ... Manuel Maria Barbosa de Bocage (1765-1805), Portuguese poet, was a native of Setubal. ... António Botto (Concavada, Portugal, August 17, 1897 - Rio de Janeiro, March 16, 1959), Portuguese aesthete and modernist poet. ... Camilo Castelo Branco (16th March 1825 - 1st June 1890) (sometimes called the Portuguese Balzac) was a portuguese writer born in Lisbon, he is creditted with 100 volumes of poems and plays, but is best known for his 58 novels. ... Brummell, engraved from a miniature portrait. ... “Capone” redirects here. ... Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill (13 February 1849 – 24 January 1895) was a British statesman. ... The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill KG, OM, CH, FRS (November 30, 1874 - January 24, 1965) was a British politician, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and legislator, Churchill is generally regarded as one... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... Frederick Albert Theodore Delius CH (January 29, 1862, – June 10, 1934) was an English composer born in Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire in the north of England. ... Gaetano Donizetti Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was a famous Italian opera composer. ... Edward Tudor redirects here. ... Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ) (January 15, 1850 – June 15, 1889), born Mihail Eminovici, was a late Romantic poet, the best-known and most influential Romanian poet celebrated in both Romania and Moldova. ... Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist painter. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... Hitler redirects here. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... Ivan the Terrible redirects here. ... Scott Joplin Scott Joplin (born between June 1867 and January 1868,[1] died April 1, 1917) was an American musician and composer of ragtime music. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Manet redirects here. ... Guy de Maupassant. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... John Charles Smith (August 18, 1896 - January 3, 1933) was a Canadian-born American actor. ... Martin Alonzo Pinzón ( c. ... Schubert redirects here. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Portrait of BedÅ™ich Smetana BedÅ™ich Smetana (pronounced ; 2 March 1824 - 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer. ... The Tong Zhi Emperor, born Zai Chun (April 27, 1856–January 12, 1875) was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1861 to 1875. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (IPA ) (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the decadent and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an oeuvre of provocative images of modern life. ... John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester (April 1, 1647 - July 26, 1680) was an English nobleman, a friend of King Charles II of England, and the writer of much satirical and bawdy poetry. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Photograph of Hugo Wolf Hugo Wolf (March 13, 1860 – February 22, 1903) was an Austrian composer of Slovene origin, particularly noted for his art songs, or Lieder. ... Self-portrait, 1885 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel (Russian: Михаил Александрович Врубель;March 17, 1856 - April 14, 1910, all n. ... There have been three monarchs named Mary I: Mary I of England a. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ...

Syphilis infection

Different manifestations occur depending on the stage of the disease:


Primary syphilis

Primary chancre of syphilis at the site of infection on the hand
Primary chancre of syphilis at the site of infection on the hand

Primary syphilis is typically acquired via direct sexual contact with the infectious lesions of a person with syphilis.[18] Approximately 10-90 days after the initial exposure (average 21 days), a skin lesion appears at the point of contact, which is usually the genitalia, but can be anywhere on the body. This lesion, called a chancre, is a firm, painless skin ulceration localized at the point of initial exposure to the spirochete, often on the penis, vagina or rectum. Rarely, there may be multiple lesions present although typically only one lesion is seen. The lesion may persist for 4 to 6 weeks and usually heals spontaneously. Local lymph node swelling can occur. During the initial incubation period, individuals are otherwise asymptomatic. As a result, many patients do not seek medical care immediately. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Primary syphilis is manifested after an incubation period of 10-90 days (average 21 days) after exposure with a primary sore. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Primary syphilis is manifested after an incubation period of 10-90 days (average 21 days) after exposure with a primary sore. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... In medicine, a disease is asymptomatic when it is at a stage where the patient does not experience symptoms. ...


Syphilis can not be contracted through toilet seats, daily activities, hot tubs, or sharing eating utensils or clothing.[19]

Typical presentation of secondary syphilis rash on the palms of the hands and usually also seen on soles of feet
Typical presentation of secondary syphilis rash on the palms of the hands and usually also seen on soles of feet

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (2077 × 1389 pixel, file size: 896 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ID# 6809 Source: CDC Public Health Image Library (PHIL) Copyright Restrictions: None - This image is in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (2077 × 1389 pixel, file size: 896 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ID# 6809 Source: CDC Public Health Image Library (PHIL) Copyright Restrictions: None - This image is in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. ...

Secondary syphilis

Secondary syphilis occurs approximately 1-6 months (commonly 6 to 8 weeks) after the primary infection. There are many different manifestations of secondary disease. There may be a symmetrical reddish-pink non-itchy rash on the trunk and extremities.[20] The rash can involve the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. In moist areas of the body, the rash becomes flat broad whitish lesions known as condylomata lata. Mucous patches may also appear on the genitals or in the mouth. All of these lesions are infectious and harbor active treponeme organisms. A patient with syphilis is most contagious when he or she has secondary syphilis. Other symptoms common at this stage include fever, sore throat, malaise, weight loss, headache, meningismus, and enlarged lymph nodes. Rare manifestations include an acute meningitis that occurs in about 2% of patients, hepatitis, renal disease, hypertrophic gastritis, patchy proctitis, ulcerative colitis, rectosigmoid mass, arthritis, periostitis, optic neuritis, intersitial keratitis, iritis, and uveitis. An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Sore Throat were a British noisegrind band, credited with contributing to the creation of that genre. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Meningism is the triad of nuchal rigidity, photophobia (intolerance of bright light) and headache. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa. ... Proctitis (Noun) Inflammation of the rectum. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Shin splints are a condition where there is pain in the anterior tibia caused by overuse of the legs. ... Optic neuritis, sometimes called retrobulbar neuritis, is the inflammation of the optic nerve that may cause a complete or partial loss of vision. ... Iritis is a form of anterior uveitis and refers to the inflammation of the iris of the eye. ... Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, termed the uvea but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye. ...


Latent syphilis

Latent syphilis is defined as having serologic proof of infection without signs or symptoms of disease.[18] Latent syphilis is further described as either early or late. Early latent syphilis is defined as having syphilis for two years or less from the time of initial infection without signs or symptoms of disease. Late latent syphilis is infection for greater than two years but without clinical evidence of disease. The distinction is important for both therapy and risk for transmission. In the real-world, the timing of infection is often not known and should be presumed to be late for the purpose of therapy. Early latent syphilis may be treated with a single intramuscular injection of a long-acting penicillin. Late latent syphilis, however, requires three weekly injections. For infectiousness, however, late latent syphilis is not considered as contagious as early latent syphilis.


Tertiary syphilis

Tertiary syphilis usually occurs 1-10 years after the initial infection, though in some cases it can take up to 50 years. This stage is characterized by the formation of gummas which are soft, tumor-like balls of inflammation known as granulomas. The granulomas are chronic and represent an inability of the immune system to completely clear the organism. Gummas were once readily seen in the skin and mucous membranes although they tend to occur internally in recent history. They may appear almost anywhere in the body including in the skeleton. The gummas produce a chronic inflammatory state in the body with mass-effects upon the local anatomy. Other characteristics of untreated tertiary syphilis include neuropathic joint disease, which is a degeneration of joint surfaces resulting from loss of sensation and fine position sense (proprioception). The more severe manifestations include neurosyphilis and cardiovascular syphilis. In a study of untreated syphilis, 10% of patients developed cardiovascular syphilis, 16% had gumma formation, and 7% had neurosyphilis.[21] A gumma is a soft, non-cancerous growth resulting from the tertiary stage of syphilis. ... H&E section of non-caseasting granuloma seen in the colon of a patient with Crohns disease In medicine (anatomical pathology), a granuloma is a group of epithelioid macrophages surrounded by a lymphocyte cuff. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into inflammation. ... // Definition Neuropathic osteoarthropathy refers to progressive degeneration of a weight-bearing joint, a process marked by bony destruction, bone resorption, and eventual deformity. ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... need information on neurosyphillis infection This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Neurological complications at this stage can be diverse. In some patients, manifestations include generalized paresis of the insane which results in personality changes, changes in emotional affect, hyperactive reflexes, and Argyll-Robertson pupil. This is a diagnostic sign in which the small and irregular pupils constrict in response to focusing the eyes, but not to light. Tabes dorsalis, also known as locomotor ataxia, a disorder of the spinal cord, often results in a characteristic shuffling gait. See below for more information about neurosyphilis. The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... General paresis, also known as general paralysis of the insane or paralytic dementia, is a now-rare neuropsychiatric disorder affecting the brain and central nervous system. ... In medical terminology, Argyll Robertson pupils are small, irregular pupils that accommodate but do not react normally to light. ... // Tabes dorsalis is a slow degeneration of the nerve cells and nerve fibers that carry sensory information to the brain. ... Tabes dorsalis (also called locomotor ataxia) is a late form of syphilis resulting in a degeneration of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and marked by shooting pains, emaciation, loss of muscular coordination (resulting in the wide-based unsteady gait characteristic of the disease), and disturbances of sensation and... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ...


Cardiovascular complications include syphilitic aortitis, aortic aneurysm, aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, and aortic regurgitation. Syphilis infects the ascending aorta causing dilation and aortic regurgitation. This can be heard with a stethoscope as a heart murmur. The course can be insidious, and heart failure may be the presenting sign after years of disease. The infection can also occur in the coronary arteries and cause narrowing of the vessels. Syphilitic aortitis can cause de Musset's sign,[22] a bobbing of the head that de Musset first noted in Parisian prostitutes. The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... A pathological state of the aorta associated with the tertiary stage of syphilis infection. ... An aortic aneurysm is a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location. ... Aneurysm of the aortic sinus, also known as the sinus of Valsalva. ... Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtÉ™] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... Dilation in physiological context may mean: pupil dilation (mydriasis) dilation of blood vessels (vasodilation) cervical dilation (or dilation of the cervix) in childbirth Dilation and curettage (surgical dilation) In mathematics: Dilation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. ... Murmurs are abnormal heart sounds that are produced as a result of turbulent blood flow which is sufficient to produce audible noise. ... The coronary circulation consists of the blood vessels that supply blood to, and remove blood from, the heart. ... Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. ...


Neurosyphilis

Neurosyphilis refers to a site of infection involving the central nervous system (CNS). Neurosyphilis may occur at any stage of syphilis. Before the advent of antibiotics, it was typically seen in 25-35% of patients with syphilis. Neurosyphilis is now most common in patients with HIV infection. Reports of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected persons are similar to cases reported before the HIV pandemic. The precise extent and significance of neurologic involvement in HIV-infected patients with syphilis, reflected by either laboratory or clinical criteria, have not been well characterized. Furthermore, the alteration of host immunosuppression by antiretroviral therapy in recent years has further complicated such characterization. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... HAART redirects here. ...


Approximately 35% to 40% of persons with secondary syphilis have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement, as demonstrated by any of these on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination: In medicine, a disease is asymptomatic when it is at a stage where the patient does not experience symptoms. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ...

  • An abnormal leukocyte cell count, protein level, or glucose level
  • Demonstrated reactivity to Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) antibody test

There are four clinical types of neurosyphilis: VDRL is a four-letter abbreviation that can refer to Veneral Disease Research Laboratory. ...

The late forms of neurosyphilis (tabes dorsalis and general paresis) are seen much less frequently since the advent of antibiotics. The most common manifestations today are asymptomatic or symptomatic meningitis. Acute syphilitic meningitis usually occurs within the first year of infection; 10% of cases are diagnosed at the time of the secondary rash. Patients present with headache, meningeal irritation, and cranial nerve abnormalities, especially the optic nerve, facial nerve, and the vestibulocochlear nerve. Rarely, it affects the spine instead of the brain, causing focal muscle weakness or sensory loss. General paresis of the insane, also known as paralytic dementia, is now known to be a result of syphilis. ... // Tabes dorsalis is a slow degeneration of the nerve cells and nerve fibers that carry sensory information to the brain. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... This article is about the anatomical structure. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The vestibulocochlear nerve (also known as the auditory or acoustic nerve) is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves, and is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain. ...


Meningovascular syphilis occurs a few months to 10 years (average, 7 years) after the primary syphilis infection. Meningovascular syphilis can be associated with prodromal symptoms lasting weeks to months before focal deficits are identifiable. Prodromal symptoms include unilateral numbness, paresthesias, upper or lower extremity weakness, headache, vertigo, insomnia, and psychiatric abnormalities such as personality changes. The focal deficits initially are intermittent or progress slowly over a few days. However, it can also present as an infectious arteritis and cause an ischemic stroke, an outcome more commonly seen in younger patients. Angiography may be able to demonstrate areas of narrowing in the blood vessels or total occlusion. The term symptom (from the Greek syn = con/plus and pipto = fall, together meaning co-exist) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: A symptom may loosely be said to be a physical condition which shows that one has a particular illness or disorder (see... Paresthesia or paraesthesia (in British English) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a persons skin with no apparent long-term physical effect, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles or of a limb being asleep (but not directly related to the phenomenon of... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Vertigo, a specific type of dizziness, is a major symptom of a balance disorder. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Arteritis is inflammation of the walls of arteries, usually as a result of infection or auto-immune response. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique in which an X-ray picture is taken to visualize the inner opening of blood filled structures, including arteries, veins and the heart chambers. ...


General paresis, otherwise known as general paresis of the insane, is a severe manifestation of neurosyphilis. It is a chronic dementia which ultimately results in death in as little as 2-3 years. Patients generally have progressive personality changes, memory loss, and poor judgment. More rarely, they can have psychosis, depression, or mania. Imaging of the brain usually shows atrophy. For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ...


Diagnostic tests

Early 20th century

In 1906, the first effective test for syphilis, the Wassermann test, was developed. Although it had some false positive results, it was a major advance in the prevention of syphilis. By allowing testing before the acute symptoms of the disease had developed, this test allowed the prevention of transmission of syphilis to others, even though it did not provide a cure for those infected. In the 1930s the Hinton test, developed by William Augustus Hinton, and based on flocculation, was shown to have fewer false positive reactions than the Wassermann test. Both of these early tests have been superseded by newer analytical methods. Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Wassermann test is a complement-fixation antibody test for syphilis, named after the bacteriologist August von Wassermann. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... William Augustus Hinton (1883 - 1959) was a black bacteriologist, pathologist and educator. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Type I errors (or α error, or false positive) and type II errors (β error, or a false negative) are two terms used to describe statistical errors. ...


Modern diagnostic tests

It was only in the 20th century that effective tests and treatments for syphilis were developed. Microscopy of fluid from the primary or secondary lesion using darkfield illumination can diagnose treponemal disease with high accuracy. As there are other treponemes that may be confused with T. pallidum, care must be taken in evaluating with microscopy to correlate symptoms with the correct disease. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye, using a microscope or other magnification tool. ...


Present-day syphilis screening tests, such as the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) tests are cheap and fast but not completely specific, as many other conditions can cause a positive result. These tests are routinely used to screen blood donors. Notably, the spirochete that causes syphilis does not survive the conditions used to store blood and the number of transfusion transmitted cases of syphilis is minuscule, but the test is used to identify donors that might have contracted HIV from high risk sexual activity. The requirement to test for syphilis has been challenged due to the vast improvements in HIV testing. False positives on the rapid tests can be seen in viral infections (Epstein-Barr, hepatitis, varicella, measles), lymphoma, tuberculosis, malaria, endocarditis, connective tissue disease, pregnancy, intravenous drug abuse, or contamination.[18] As a result, these two screening tests should always be followed up by a more specific treponemal test. Tests based on monoclonal antibodies and immunofluorescence, including Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) and Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption (FTA-ABS) are more specific and more expensive. Unfortunately, false positives can still occur in related treponomal infections such as yaws and pinta. Tests based on enzyme-linked immunoassays are also used to confirm the results of simpler screening tests for syphilis. Rapid Plasma Reagin, a modern screening test for antibodies in the serum of patients with syphilis. ... The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) is a nontreponemal serological screening for syphilis, the monitoring of the response to therapy, the detection of CNS involvement, and as an aid in the diagnosis of congenital syphilis. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ... Give blood redirects here. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Several medical tests exist to detect the presence of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. These HIV tests are often called AIDS tests, although they actually measure HIV, rather than AIDS. However, one medical test, the CD4 T-cell count although not an HIV test, is so commonly used in... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus), and one of the most common viruses in humans. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Varicella is a Latin name for chickenpox. ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... A connective tissue disease is any disease that has the connective tissues of the body as a primary target of pathology. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... // Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell and are all clones of a single parent cell. ... Immunofluorescence is the labeling of antibodies or antigens with fluorescent dyes. ... The Syphilis TPHA test is a classic, indirect hemagglutination test used for the detection and titration of antibodies against the causative agent of syphilis,Treponema pallidum. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yaws (also Frambesia tropica, thymosis, polypapilloma tropicum or pian) is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pertenue. ... Pinta is a human skin disease endemic to Mexico, Central America, and South America. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the concentration of a substance in a biological liquid, typically serum or urine, using the reaction of an antibody or antibodies to its antigen. ...


Neurosyphilis is diagnosed by finding high numbers of leukocytes in the CSF or abnormally high protein concentration in the setting of syphilis infection.[18] In addition, CSF should be tested with the VDRL test although some advocate using the FTA-ABS test to improve sensitivity. There is anecdotal evidence that the incidence of neurosyphilis is higher in HIV patients, and some have recommended that all HIV-positive patients with syphilis should have a lumbar puncture to look for asymptomatic neurosyphilis.[24] White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... A patient undergoes a lumbar puncture at the hands of a neurologist. ...


Diseases caused by other species of Treponema

These diseases are caused by other species or subspecies of Treponema: Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ...

  • Yaws is a tropical disease characterized by an infection of the skin, bones and joints; it is caused by a spirochete bacterium, Treponema pallidum, sp. pertenue, also called Treponema pertenue
  • Pinta - caused by Treponema carateum
  • Bejel - caused by Treponema endemicum

Yaws (also Frambesia tropica, thymosis, polypapilloma tropicum or pian) is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pertenue. ... Pinta is a human skin disease endemic to Mexico, Central America, and South America. ... Bejel, or endemic syphilis, is a chronic skin and tissue disease caused by infection by a subspecies of the spirochete Treponema pallidum. ...

Treatment

Depression-era U.S. poster advocating early syphilis treatment
Depression-era U.S. poster advocating early syphilis treatment
Application of mercury.
Application of mercury.

Download high resolution version (421x640, 55 KB) Depression-era poster urging syphilis treatment File links The following pages link to this file: Syphilis Categories: United States government images ... Download high resolution version (421x640, 55 KB) Depression-era poster urging syphilis treatment File links The following pages link to this file: Syphilis Categories: United States government images ...

Prevention

While abstinence from any sexual activity is very effective at helping prevent syphilis, it should be noted that T. pallidum readily crosses intact mucosa and cut skin, including areas not covered by a condom. Proper and consistent use of a latex condom can reduce, but not eliminate, the spread of syphilis.[1] The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ...


Individuals sexually exposed to a person with primary, secondary, or early latent syphilis within 90 days preceding the diagnosis should be assumed to be infected and treated for syphilis, even if they are currently seronegative. If the exposure was more than 90 days before the diagnosis, presumptive treatment is recommended if serologic testing is not immediately available or if follow-up is uncertain. Patients with syphilis of unknown duration and nontreponemal serologic titers ≥1:32 may be considered as having early syphilis for purposes of partner notification and presumptive treatment of sex partners. Long-term sex partners of patients with late syphilis should be evaluated clinically and serologically and treated appropriately. All patients with syphilis should be tested for HIV. Patient education is important as well. Seronegative is a general term that means absent from the blood. More specifically, it almost always is used to refer to antibodies being absent from the blood. ...


History

There were originally no effective treatments for syphilis. The Spanish priest Francisco Delicado wrote El modo de adoperare el legno de India (Rome, 1525) about the use of Guaiacum in the treatment of syphilis. He himself suffered from syphilis. Another common remedy was mercury: the use of which gave rise to the saying "A night in the arms of Venus leads to a lifetime on Mercury".[25] It was administered multiple ways including by mouth and by rubbing it on the skin. One of the more curious methods was fumigation, in which the patient was placed in a closed box with his head sticking out. Mercury was placed in the box and a fire was started under the box which caused the mercury to vaporize. It was a grueling process for the patient and the least effective for delivering mercury to the body. Francisco Delicado (or Delgado) (c. ... Species Six species, including: Guaiacum officinale Guaiacum sanctum Guaiacum is a small genus of six species of shrubs and trees in the family Zygophyllaceae, native to subtropical and tropical regions of the Americas. ... This article is about the element. ... Venus is the Roman goddess of love, equivalent to Greek Aphrodite and Etruscan Turan. ... Mercury is a god, also known as the god of trade, profit and commerce. ...


As the disease became better understood, more effective treatments were found. The first antibiotic to be used for treating disease was the arsenic-containing drug Salvarsan, developed in 1908 by Sahachiro Hata while working in the laboratory of Nobel prize winner Paul Ehrlich. This was later modified into Neosalvarsan. Unfortunately, these drugs were not 100% effective, especially in late disease. It had been observed that some who develop high fevers could be cured of syphilis. Thus, for a brief time malaria was used as treatment for tertiary syphilis because it produced prolonged and high fevers. This was considered an acceptable risk because the malaria could later be treated with quinine which was available at that time. This discovery was championed by Julius Wagner-Jauregg, who won the 1927 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work in this area. Malaria as a treatment for syphilis was usually reserved for late disease, especially neurosyphilis, and then followed by either Salvarsan or Neosalvarsan as adjuvant therapy. These treatments were finally rendered obsolete by the discovery of penicillin, and its widespread manufacture after World War II allowed syphilis to be effectively and reliably cured.[26] General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Arsphenamine is a drug that was used to treat syphilis and trypanosomiasis. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sahachiro Hata ); (23 March 1873 – 22 November 1938) is a Japanese physician who developed the Arsphenamine drug in 1908 in the laboratory of Paul Ehrlich. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Neosalvarsan (generic name, neoarsphenamine) is a synthetic antibiotic drug containing organic arsenic. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Julius Wagner Ritter von Jauregg, after the abolition of titles of nobility in Austria in 1919 Julius Wagner-Jauregg, (March 7, 1857 Wels, Upper Austria – September 27, 1940 Vienna) was an Austrian physician. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Current treatment

The first-choice treatment for all manifestations of syphilis remains penicillin in the form of penicillin G.[27] The effect of penicillin on syphilis was widely known before randomized clinical trials were used; as a result, treatment with penicillin is largely based on case series, expert opinion, and years of clinical experience. Parenteral penicillin G is the only therapy with documented effect during pregnancy. For early syphilis, one dose of penicillin is sufficient. Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ...


Non-pregnant individuals who have severe allergic reactions to penicillin (e.g., anaphylaxis) may be effectively treated with oral tetracycline or doxycycline although data to support this is limited. Ceftriaxone may be considered as an alternative therapy, although the optimal dose is not yet defined. However, cross-reactions in penicillin-allergic patients with cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone are possible. Azithromycin was suggested as an alternative. However, there have been reports of treatment failure due to resistance in some areas.[28] If compliance and follow-up cannot be ensured, the CDC recommends desensitization with penicillin followed by penicillin treatment. All pregnant women with syphilis should be desensitized and treated with penicillin. Follow-up includes clinical evaluation at 1 to 2 weeks followed by clinical and serologic evaluation at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Ceftriaxone (INN) (IPA: ) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Azithromycin is an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... For medical purposes, desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organisms negative reaction to a substance or stimulus. ...


Azithromycin has been used to treat syphilis in the past because of easy once-only dosing. However, in one study in San Francisco, azithromycin-resistance rates in syphilis, which were 0% in 2000, were 56% by 2004.[29]


Late latent and infections of unknown duration

Late latent syphilis is defined as latency for greater than one year. If CSF examination yields no evidence of neurosyphilis, then penicillin G is recommended as weekly doses for 3 weeks. If allergic, then tetracycline or doxycycline may also be used for this stage, but for 28 days instead of the normal 14. As with before, the data to support use of tetracycline and ceftriaxone are limited.


Neurosyphilis

For patients diagnosed with neurosyphilis including ocular or auditory syphilis with or without positive CSF results, aqueous crystalline penicillin G is the treatment of choice. The recommended regimen is intravenous treatment every 4 hours or continuously for 10-14 days. If intravenous administration is not possible, then procaine penicillin is an alternative (administered daily with probenecid for two weeks). Procaine injections are painful, however, and patient compliance may be difficult to ensure. To approximate the 21-day course of therapy for late latent disease and to address concerns about slowly dividing treponemes, most experts now recommend 3 weekly doses of benzathine penicillin G after the completion of a 14-day course of aqueous crystalline or aqueous procaine penicillin G for neurosyphilis. No oral antibiotic alternatives are recommended for the treatment of neurosyphilis. The only alternative that has been studied and shown to be effective is intramuscular ceftriaxone daily for 14 days. Neurosyphilis dementia is also a psychiatric diagnosis where as a multitude of atypical anti-psychotic medications are used to help control the patient's irrational behaviors with limited sucess. Also used in traditional classification of Organic Disorders in the brain. Also commonly called Brain Syphilis. Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Probenecid is a uricosuric drug, primarily used in treating gout or hyperuricemia, that increases uric acid removal in the urine. ... Ceftriaxone (INN) (IPA: ) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ...


Alternative regimens

Alternative regimens such as tetracyclines are not well studied in HIV infection and a careful follow-up is recommended. Tetra-cyclines are contraindicated in pregnancy.


HIV-infected patients with early syphilis may have a higher risk of neurological complications and a higher rate of treatment failure with currently recommended regimens. The magnitude of these risks, however, although not precisely defined, is probably small. Skin testing or desensitization is recommended in latent syphilis and neurosyphilis in other patients with HIV infection.


Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction

Before administering any treatment, clinicians should warn all patients about the possibility of a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, which occurs most often in secondary syphilis and with penicillin therapy, and may be more common in HIV-infected patients.[30] This reaction is characterized by fever, fatigue, and transient worsening of any mucocutaneous symptoms, and usually subsides within 24 hours. These symptoms can be alleviated with acetaminophen (paracetamol) and should not be mistaken for drug allergy. In addition, clinicians should inform HIV-infected patients that currently recommended regimens may be less effective for them than for patients without HIV infection and that close serologic follow-up is therefore essential. Both Adolph Jarisch, an Australian dermatologist, and Karl Herxheimer, a German dermatologist, are credited with the discovery of the Herxheimer reaction. ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ...


Tuskegee syphilis study

One of the best-documented cases of unethical human medical experimentation in the twentieth century was the Tuskegee syphilis study. The study took place in Tuskegee, Alabama and was supported by the Tuskegee Institute and the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS).[31] The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male[1] also known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, Pelkola Syphilis Study, Public Health Service Syphilis Study or the Tuskegee Experiments was a clinical study, conducted between 1932 and 1972 in Tuskegee, Alabama, in which 399 (plus 201 control group without... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... // The Pelkola Syphilis Study (1932–1972), also known as the Public Health Service Syphilis Study or the Tuskegee Experiment(s) was a clinical study, conducted around Tuskegee, Alabama, where 399 (plus 200 control group without syphilis) poor -- and mostly illiterate -- African American sharecroppers became part of a study on the... Tuskegee is a city in Macon County, Alabama, United States. ... There is also the Tuskegee Airmen, a corps of African-American military pilots trained there during World War II Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama. ... The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ...


The study began in 1932 using a group of 600 black sharecroppers. Of these 600, 399 of the men had the disease and 201 were uninfected control patients. The PHS stated at first that treatment was supposed to be a part of the study, but they were unable to produce any useful data. It was then discovered that the PHS had decided to leave the men untreated and follow the course of the disease to these men's eventual deaths. They thought they were receiving experimental treatment for "bad blood" in exchange for free meals and a $50 death benefit. However, the study was designed to measure the progression of untreated syphilis and to determine whether syphilis caused cardiovascular damage more often than neurological damage, and to determine if the natural course of the disease was different in black men versus white men. By 1947 penicillin had become the standard treatment of syphilis. The men were never advised that they had syphilis, nor were they offered a treatment including Salvarsan or the other arsenical drugs that were in use at the beginning of the study. Chopping cotton on rented land near White Plains, Greene County, Ga. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Arsphenamine, also known under its trade name Salvarsan, is a drug that was used to treat syphilis. ...


The original study was meant to last six to nine months, but continued for 40 years, ending in 1972, long after forty wives and nineteen children had been infected, and many of the men had died of syphilis. Twenty-eight men died directly from syphilis, and one hundred from other complications, during the study. The study ended because of a story printed in the Washington Star. A class-action lawsuit was then filed against the federal government for the study. This lawsuit was settled out of court and the living subjects and their descendants were awarded a total of ten million dollars. After the settlement was awarded, the government passed the National Research Act, which required the government to review and approve all medical studies involving human subjects. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Star, previously known as the Washington Star-News and the Washington Evening Star, was a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C. between 1852 and 1982. ... Pub. ...


Syphilis in art and literature

Art

The artist Kees van Dongen produced a series of illustrations for the anarchist publication L'Assiette au Beurre showing the descent of a young prostitute from poverty to her death from syphilis as a criticism of the social order at the end of the 19th century. Cornelis Theodorus Maria van Dongen (January 26, 1877 – May 28, 1968), was a Dutch painter born in Delfshaven, in the suburbs of Rotterdam, and is generally known as Kees van Dongen or just van Dongen. He was one of the les Fauves and gained a reputation for his sensuous, at... Anarchist redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The artist Jan van der Straet, also known as Johannes Stradanus or simply Stradanus, painted a scene of a wealthy man receiving treatment of syphilis with the tropical wood guaiacum sometime around 1580.[32] The title of the work is "Preparation and Use of Guayaco for Treating Syphilis." That the artist chose to include this image in a series of works celebrating the New World indicates how important a "cure" (however ineffective) for syphilis was to the European elite at that time. The richly colored and detailed work depicts four servants preparing the concoction while a physician looks on, hiding something behind his back while the hapless patient drinks.[33] The Alchemists Studio (1571) Giovanni Stradano or Jan Van der Straet or van der Straat or Stradanus or Stratesis was a Flanders-born mannerist artist active mainly in 16th century Florence. ... Species Six species, including: Guaiacum officinale Guaiacum sanctum Guaiacum is a small genus of six species of shrubs and trees in the family Zygophyllaceae, native to subtropical and tropical regions of the Americas. ...


The Norwegian, Edvard Munch painted "The sins of the father", a portrayal of a horrified woman with her baby, covered in a rash and with a deformed face lying on a cloth across her knees. This was to portray congenital syphilis, presumably common at the time.


Classic and antique literature

Delicado also featured the effects of syphilis in his Portrait of Lozana: The Lusty Andalusian Woman (1528). The Portrait of Lozana: The Lusty Andalusian Woman (original title in Spanish: Retrato de la Loçana Andaluza) is a book written in Venice by the Spanish editor of the Renaissance Francisco Delicado in 1528, after he escaped from Rome due to the anti-spanish sentiment that uprose after the sack...


There are references to syphilis in William Shakespeare's play Measure for Measure, particularly in a number of early passages spoken by the character Lucio. For example, Lucio says "[...] thy bones are hollow"; this is a reference to the brittleness of bones engendered by the use of mercury which was then widely used to treat syphilis. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Claudio and Isabella (1850) by William Holman Hunt Measure for Measure is a play by William Shakespeare, written in 1603. ... This article is about the element. ...


In Shakespeare's play Othello, the clown at the beginning of Act III makes jest of Cassio, who is leading a musician troupe for Othello, by asking him if he had just arrived from Naples and playing with his nose. (Alluding to the reputation of Naples of being a likely place to contract syphilis, which eats away at the bridge of the nose.) For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...


It has been suggested that the main character in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Tell-Tale Heart" may have been infected with neurosyphilis, due to his strange obsessions and apparent insanity.[citation needed]


Francisco de Quevedo puns in his Buscón[34] about a nose entre Roma y Francia meaning both "between Rome and France" and "between dull and eaten by the French illness". Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas (September 17, 1580 – September 8, 1645) was a Spanish writer during the . ...


Jonathan Swift's poetry mentions syphilis as a condition of prostitution which reaches the highest ranks of society. See, for example, "A Beautiful Young Nymph Going To Bed" and "The Progress of Beauty". Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... Whore redirects here. ...

Moll dies of syphillis, Hogarth's A Harlot's Progress.
Moll dies of syphillis, Hogarth's A Harlot's Progress.

William Hogarth's works frequently show his subject's infection with syphilis. Two examples are A Harlot's Progress and Marriage à-la-mode. In both instances it is used to indicate the moral profligacy of the infected. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x1184, 1806 KB) Summary William Hogarths A Harlots Progress, plate 5: John Misabaun and Richard Rock argue over treatment while Moll Hackabout dies of venereal disease. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x1184, 1806 KB) Summary William Hogarths A Harlots Progress, plate 5: John Misabaun and Richard Rock argue over treatment while Moll Hackabout dies of venereal disease. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... A Harlots Progress (also known as The Harlots Progress) is a series of six paintings (1731, now lost) and engravings (1732) by William Hogarth. ... Marriage à-la-mode, scene two of six. ...


Some critics have argued that the character of Edward Rochester's first wife, Bertha, in Charlotte Brontë's novel Jane Eyre, suffers from the advanced stages of syphilitic infection, general paresis of the insane, and point to corroborative evidence within the text to substantiate this view. Charlotte Brontë (IPA: ) (April 21, 1816 – March 31, 1855) was an English novelist and the eldest of the three Brontë sisters whose novels have become enduring classics of English literature. ... This article is about the Victorian novel. ...


The novel Candide by Voltaire describes Candide's mentor and teacher, Pangloss, as having contracted syphilis from a maidservant he slept with; the syphilis has ravaged and deformed his body. Pangloss explains to Candide that syphilis is 'necessary in the best of worlds' because the line of infection - which he explains - leads back to Christopher Columbus. If Columbus had not sailed to America and brought back syphilis, Pangloss states, the Europeans would not have been able to enjoy 'New World wonders' such as chocolate. (One of the purposes of the novel was to satirize Leibniz's philosophy as Pangloss's disingenuous rose-tinted viewpoint.) Pangloss eventually loses an eye and an ear to the syphilis before he is cured. For the Bernstein operetta based on the book, see Candide (operetta). ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Voltaire Pangloss is a character in Voltaires novel Candide. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Leibniz redirects here. ...


Also, in Charles Dickens' novel Tale of Two Cities, references are made that allude to the main character, Sydney Carton, having syphilis. Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities is a historical novel by Charles Dickens; it is moreover a moral novel strongly concerned with themes of guilt, shame and retribution. ... Sydney Carton is a significant character in the novel A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens. ...


In Eça de Queiroz's novel written in 1870, "The Mystery of the Sintra Road", some of the characters have syphilis, and it plays an important role in the plot of a recent movie adaptation.[35] Eça de Queirós José Maria Eça de Queirós or Queiroz (pron. ...


Henrik Ibsen's once-controversial play Ghosts has a young man who is suffering from a mysterious unnamed disease. Though it is never named, the events of the play make it plain that this is syphilis, an inheritance from his dissolute father. However, the young man's mother remains unaffected - this is because it is possible for a woman to carry syphillis and transmit it to her child in the womb without exhibiting any noticeable symptoms. Dr. Rank in Ibsen's play A Doll's House also has inherited syphilis. Ibsen redirects here. ... Ghosts (original Norwegian title: Gengangere) is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ... Cover page to manuscript of A Dolls House, Henrik Ibsen, 1879 For other uses, see A Dolls House (disambiguation). ...


Modern literature

Unnamed American medical students described syphilis in a series of early 20th-century American limericks, using medical terminology to ghastly comic effect in the Journal of the American Medical Association January 1942.[36] JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ...


Thomas Disch in his novel Camp Concentration describe a fictional strain of syphilis that enhances intelligence but is lethal. Thomas M. Disch Thomas M. Disch (February 2, 1940 – ) is an American science fiction author. ... Camp Concentration is a 1968 science fiction novel by Thomas M. Disch. ...


In Thomas Mann's novel Doktor Faustus, the Faust character, Adrian Leverkühn, acquires his genius for musical composition from the neurological effects of syphilis. For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... Doktor Faustus is a German novel written by Thomas Mann, begun in 1943 and published in 1947 as . ...


In Dick Francis' novel, Bonecrack the character Enso Rivera is suffering from megalomania caused by syphilis. The cover of the Pan 1988 paperback edition of Bolt Dick Francis CBE (born October 31, 1920) is a British author and retired jockey. ... This article is about the psychopathological condition. ...


Neal Stephenson's trilogy The Baroque Cycle has multiple characters and historical figures who have syphilis, most notably James II of England and Jack Shaftoe; the latter is cured of the disease by running a high fever. Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... The Baroque Cycle, a series of books written by Neal Stephenson, appeared in print in 2003 and 2004. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... Jack Shaftoe is a fictional character featured in the novels of Neal Stephensons The Baroque Cycle. ...


In Leonard Cohen's second novel Beautiful Losers, the character F. is described in detail as having the terminal stages of syphilis. Leonard Norman Cohen, CC (born September 21, 1934 in Westmount, Quebec) is a Canadian singer-songwriter, poet and novelist. ... A paperback edition of Beautiful Losers Beautiful Losers is a novel by Leonard Cohen. ...


In Christina Garcia's novel "Dreaming in Cuban," Felica contracts syphilis from her unfaithful husband. The syphilis and her family history lead Felica down a path towards insanity.


In Ken Follett's novel "A Dangerous Fortune," the wealthy Edward Pilaster contracts syphilis from his frequency of using brothels. When Edward's cohort Micky Miranda finds out, it looks as though his diabolical plans may have a snag. Ken Follett (born June 5, 1949) is a British author of thrillers and historical novels. ...


In Josilyn Jackson's novel "Between, Georgia", the protagonist Nonny Frett suffers from syphilis from a cheating husband she can't seem to rid herself of. Between is a town in Walton County, Georgia, United States. ...


Film, Television and Stage

Syphilis is used as a plot device in many dramatic films, television shows, and plays. While some, such as the Warner Brothers film Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet (1940), focus on the history of the disease, most involve late-stage syphilis because the neurological damage common to late-stage syphilis provides an excuse for strange behaviors. In recent years, syphilis has been mentioned on Grey's Anatomy, House M.D., Law & Order: SVU, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Angel, and other television shows. A few particularly notable appearances include: Warner Bros. ... The Magic Bullet, also known as Dr. Ehrlichs Magic Bullets, is a 1940 movie starring Edward G. Robinson, based on a true story. ... This article is about the television series. ... House, M.D. (commonly promoted as just House) is an American television series aired by the Fox Broadcasting Company. ... Law & Order: Special Victims Unit - Season 5 DVD Law & Order: Special Victims Unit (also known as Law & Order: SVU) is the first of three spin-offs of Law & Order (the other two being Law & Order: Criminal Intent and Law & Order: Trial by Jury; all series are presented on the NBC... For other uses, see Buffy the Vampire Slayer (disambiguation). ... For the South Korean TV series of the same name, see Angel (2007 TV series). ...

  • Miss Evers' Boys is a 1992 stage play written by Dr. David Feldshuh based on the true story of the decades-long Tuskegee syphillis experiment. The play was subsequently adapted into a 1997 HBO TV movie directed by Joseph Sargent and starring Alfre Woodard and Laurence Fishburne. The film was nominated for eleven Emmy Awards and won in four categories, including Outstanding Made for Television Movie.
  • In big budget Spanish film Alatriste, the main character finds the love of his life, actress María de Castro, dying in a hospital for syphilitics. It is implied that she caught the disease from an affair with Philip IV of Spain.
  • In the Masterpiece Theatre version of Bram Stoker's Dracula, Arthur Holmwood, whose father dies of syphilitic insanity, enlists the services of Count Dracula in hopes of curing his congenital syphilis.
  • In The Libertine, a 2004 film with Johnny Depp, the main character John Wilmot, second Earl of Rochester, is portrayed as having died of syphilis.

Miss Evers Boys is a 1997 HBO television film starring Alfre Woodard and Laurence Fishburne, based on the true story of the decades-long Tuskegee experiment. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Miss Evers Boys is a 1997 HBO television film starring Alfre Woodard and Laurence Fishburne, based on the true story of the decades-long Tuskegee experiment. ... Joseph Sargent (born 22 July 1925, Jersey City, New Jersey) is an American film director. ... Alfre Ette Woodard (born November 8, 1952) is an American actress. ... Laurence John Fishburne III[1] (born July 30, 1961) is an American Academy Award-nominated, Emmy- and Tony Award-winning actor of screen and stage, as well as playwright, director, and producer. ... An Emmy Award. ... Kurosawa redirects here. ... The Quiet Duel is a film. ... Toshiro Mifune in Yojimbo Toshiro Mifune (三船 敏郎 Mifune Toshirō) (April 1, 1920 - December 24, 1997) was a charismatic Japanese actor who appeared in almost 170 feature films. ... Alatriste is a film-in-progress by the Spanish director Agustín Díaz Yanes, based on the main character of a series of novels written by Arturo Pérez-Reverte, Las aventuras del Capitán Alatriste (The Adventures of Captain Alatriste in English). ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Masterpiece Theatre is a long-running anthology television series produced by WGBH which premiered on PBS on January 10, 1971. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Libertine (La Matriarca) is a 1969 film (also known as The Matriarch) and stars Catherine Spaak. ... John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester (April 1, 1647 - July 26, 1680) was an English nobleman, a friend of King Charles II of England, and the writer of much satirical and bawdy poetry. ...

Historical studies

Amalia's Tale, published in 2008, is a study by David I. Kertzer about a poor peasant woman, Amalia Bagnacavalli, in the Italy of the 1890s. She was believed to have contracted syphilis from an infant child of a foundling hospital after serving as a wet-nurse for the baby. The book explores the story of a long court case and her lawyer Augusto Barbieri's untiring pursuit of compensation from that hospital on behalf of his client.


See also

Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... TB or tb can stand for: Terbium (Tb, chemical symbol for the chemical element) Tuberculosis Terabyte (TB) Trombone Thunderbird news and email client Hyundai TB Tony Blair Terry Bradshaw TrackBack Thoroughbred Taco Bell Tomboy, Hong Kong slang Teen Baby (A common term relating to infantilism) Turbo Basic, computer language Toledo... Diphtheria (Greek διφθερα (diphthera) — “pair of leather scrolls”), is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore throat, low-grade fever, and an adherent membrane (a pseudomembrane) on the tonsils, pharynx, and/or nasal cavity. ... Side-chain theory is a theory proposed by Paul Ehrlich (1854 - 1915) to explain the immune response living cells. ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ...

References

  1. ^ Syphilis. Online Etymology Dictionary (2001).
  2. ^ Rudy's List of Archaic Medical Terms (04/27/2007). "B". Antiquus Morbus. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
    Referencing:
    Robley Dunglison (1874). Dunglison's Medical Dictionary -- A Dictionary of Medical Science. Philadelphia, USA: Collins. 
  3. ^ Keys D (2007). English syphilis epidemic pre-dated European outbreaks by 150 years. Independent News and Media Limited. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  4. ^ Henneberg M, Henneberg RJ (1994). "Treponematosis in an Ancient Greek colony of Metaponto, Southern Italy 580-250 BCE", in O Dutour, G Palfi, J Berato, J-P Brun (eds): The Origin of Syphilis in Europe, Before or After 1493?. Toulon-Paris: Centre Archeologique du Var, Editions Errance, pp. 92-98. 
  5. ^ Henneberg M, Henneberg RJ (2002). "Reconstructing Medical Knowledge in Ancient Pompeii from the Hard Evidence of Bones and Teeth", in J Renn, G Castagnetti (eds): Homo Faber: Studies on Nature. Technology and Science at the Time of Pompeii,. Rome: “L’ERMA” di Bretschneider, pp.169-187. 
  6. ^ Rose M (January/February 1997). "Origins of Syphilis". Archaeology 50 (1). 
  7. ^ Baker, et al.[citation needed]
  8. ^ Debora MacKenzie. "Columbus blamed for spread of syphilis", NewScientist, 15 January 2008. 
  9. ^ Harper KN, Ocampo PS, Steiner BM, et al (2008). "On the origin of the treponematoses: a phylogenetic approach". PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2 (1): e148. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000148. PMID 18235852. 
  10. ^ a b ref:225 Crosby[citation needed]
  11. ^ a b c Lobdell J, Owsley D (August 1974). "The origin of syphilis". Journal of Sex Research 10 (1): 76-79. Retrieved on [[2007-08-05 (via JSTOR)]]. 
  12. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Summer 2007, pp. 55-56.
  13. ^ "Noguchi, Hideyo", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 
  14. ^ Wilson, A. G. (2001). Tolstoy: A Biography. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-32122-3. 
  15. ^ Lerner V, Finkelstein Y, Witztum E (June 2004). "The enigma of Lenin's (1870-1924) malady". Eur. J. Neurol. 11 (6): 371–6. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2004.00839.x. PMID 15171732. 
  16. ^ Oriel, J.D. (1994). The Scars of Venus: A History of Venereology. London: Springer-Verlag. 
  17. ^ Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton, 210. 
  18. ^ a b c d Pickering LK, ed. (2006), "Syphilis", Red Book, Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, pp. 631-644 
  19. ^ Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (05-2004). STD Facts - Syphilis. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  20. ^ Dylewski J, Duong M (2007 Jan 2). "The rash of secondary syphilis". CMAJ. 176 (1): 33-5. doi:10.1503/cmaj.060665. 
  21. ^ Clark EG, Danbolt N (1964). "The Oslo study of the natural course of untreated syphilis: An epidemiologic investigation based on a re-study of the Boeck-Bruusgaard material". Med Clin North Am. 48: 613. 
  22. ^ Sapira JD (April 1981). "Quincke, de Musset, Duroziez, and Hill: some aortic regurgitations". South. Med. J. 74 (4): 459–67. PMID 7013091. 
  23. ^ Richard B. Jamess, MD, PhD (2002). "Syphilis- Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2006.". Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. 
  24. ^ Walter T, Lebouche B, Miailhes P, et al. (2006). "Symptomatic relapse of neurologic syphilis after benzathine penicillin G therapy for primary or secondary syphilis in HIV-infected patients". Clin Infect Dis 43 (6): 787-90. doi:10.1086/507099. PMID 16912958. 
  25. ^ Hanlon M. "The magical properties of Mercury, the metal the EU wants to ban", The Daily Mail, 7th June 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-07. 
  26. ^ Brown, Kevin (2006). The Pox: The Life and Near Death of a Very Social Disease. Stroud: WSutton, 85-111, 185-91. 
  27. ^ Centers for Disease Control (08-04-2006). "Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006". MMWR 55 (RR-11): 24-32. 
  28. ^ Lukehart SA, Godornes C, Molini BJ, et al (July 2004). "Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum in the United States and Ireland". N. Engl. J. Med. 351 (2): 154–8. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa040216. PMID 15247355. 
  29. ^ Mitchell SJ, Engelman J, Kent CK, Lukehart SA, Godornes C, Klausner JD (February 2006). "Azithromycin-resistant syphilis infection: San Francisco, California, 2000-2004". Clin. Infect. Dis. 42 (3): 337–45. doi:10.1086/498899. PMID 16392078. 
  30. ^ Rolfs RT, Joesoef MR, Hendershot EF, et al (July 1997). "A randomized trial of enhanced therapy for early syphilis in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Syphilis and HIV Study Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 337 (5): 307–14. doi:10.1056/NEJM199707313370504. PMID 9235493. 
  31. ^ A A World . Reference Room . Articles . Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
  32. ^ Johannes Stradanus undated brief review of works hosted at the University of York in the United Kingdom. Accessed August 6, 2007.
  33. ^ Jan van der Straet's "Preparation..." at commercial art site. Accessed August 6, 2007.
  34. ^ wikisource:es:Historia de la vida del Buscón: Libro Primero: Capítulo III: continues with [...] porque se le había comido de unas búas de resfriado, que aun no fueron de vicio porque cuestan dinero;: "[...] because it had been eaten by the bubons of a cold, which were not of vice because they cost money;".
  35. ^ O Mist�rio da Estrada de Sintra. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
  36. ^ http://www.ucolick.org/~randi/aecom/syphilis.txt

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the British university. ... Species including: Athamantha daucifolia Athamantha macedonica Athamantha turbith Synonyms Bubon L. Athamantha is a genus of flowering plant in the Apiaceae, with 5 or 6 species. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Binomial name Haemophilus ducreyi A chancroid is an STD characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... The term Chlamydia refers to an infection by any one of the species in the bacterial genus, Chlamydia—Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia suis or Chlamydia muridarum—but of these, only C. trachomatis is found in humans. ... Binomial name Chlamydia trachomatis Busacca, 1935 Chlamydia trachomatis is a species of the chlamydiae, a group of obligately intracellular bacteria. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), also known as lymphopathia venerea, tropical bubo, climatic bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease and lymphogranuloma inguinale, is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... The clap redirects here. ... Binomial name Neisseria gonorrhoeae Zopf, 1885 Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the disease gonorrhoea. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ... Binomial name Ureaplasma urealyticum Shepard et al. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as trich, is a common sexually transmitted disease that affects 7. ... Binomial name Trichomonas vaginalis (Donné 1836) Trichomonas vaginalis, an anaerobic, parasitic flagellated protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, and is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... Binomial name (L., 1758, originally Pediculus pubis) The pubic or crab louse (Phthirus pubis) is a parasitic insect which spends its entire life on human hair and feeds exclusively on blood. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... HPV redirects here. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This article is about the disease. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) This article is about the virus. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... Inflammation of the tissues of the cervix is known as cervicitis. ... Epididymitis is a medical condition in which the epididymis becomes inflamed. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is an inflammation of the urethra which is not caused by gonorrheal infection. ... Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) is a generic term for inflammation of the female uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... Proctitis (Noun) Inflammation of the rectum. ... Prostatitis is any form of inflammation of the prostate gland. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria is also the fictional name of a warring nation under Benzino Napaloni as dictator, in the 1940 film The Great Dictator... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... Pseudomembranous colitis is an infection of the colon often, but not always, caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas within tissues in gangrene. ... The group A streptococcus bacterium (Streptococcus pyogenes, or GAS) is a form of Streptococcus bacteria responsible for most cases of streptococcal illness. ... It has been suggested that Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease be merged into this article or section. ... Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. ... This page is about the bacterial class. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Species See text. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Visible cavities in later stage tuberculosis; Ghon focuses are smaller. ... Ghons complex is a pathological entity caused by the the progression of tuberculosis, an infectious respiratory disease. ... Tuberculous meningitis is also called TB meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the meninges. ... Tuberculosis of the spine in an Egyptian mummy Potts disease is a presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the spine, a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the intervertebral joints. ... King Henry IV of France touching a number of sufferers of scrofula who are gathered about him in a circle. ... Bazin disease is a skin ulceration on the back of the calves. ... Lupus vulgaris are cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around nose and ears. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans, from the same family of bacteria which causes tuberculosis and leprosy. ... Suborders Actinomycineae Corynebacterineae Frankineae Glycomycineae Micrococcineae Micromonosporineae Propionibacterineae Pseudonocardineae Streptomycineae Streptosporangineae Actinomycetales is an order of Actinobacteria. ... Erythrasma is a skin disease that can result in pink patches, which can turn into brown scales. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Bejel, or endemic syphilis, is a chronic skin and tissue disease caused by infection by a subspecies of the spirochete Treponema pallidum. ... Yaws (also Frambesia tropica, thymosis, polypapilloma tropicum or pian) is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pertenue. ... Pinta is a human skin disease endemic to Mexico, Central America, and South America. ... Noma (from Greek numein: to devour) also known as cancrum oris or gangrenous stomatitis, is a gangrenous disease leading to tissue destruction of the face, especially the mouth and cheek. ... Trench mouth is a polymicrobial infection of the gums leading to inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and necrotic gum tissue, there may also be fever. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... Sodoku is a bacterial zoonotic disease. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Genera Chlamydia Chlamydophila Parachlamydia Simkania Waddlia The Chlamydiae are a group of bacteria, all of which are intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. ... Species See text. ... In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis -- also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis -- is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma psittaci and contracted from parrots, macaws, cockatiels, and parakeets. ... Species Chlamydia muridarum Chlamydia suis Chlamydia trachomatis For the disease in humans, see Chlamydia infection. ... The term Chlamydia refers to an infection by any one of the species in the bacterial genus, Chlamydia—Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia suis or Chlamydia muridarum—but of these, only C. trachomatis is found in humans. ... Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), also known as lymphopathia venerea, tropical bubo, climatic bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease and lymphogranuloma inguinale, is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... A rickettsiosis is a disease casused by Rickettsiales. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Scrub typhus is a form of typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by chiggers, which are found in areas of heavy scrub vegetation. ... Binomial name Wolbach, 1919 Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... Boutonneuse fever (also called Mediterranean Fever) is a fever as a result of a Rickettsial infection. ... Trench Fever is a moderately serious disease, transmitted by body lice. ... Rickettsialpox is caused by bacteria found in the Rickettsia family (Rickettsia akari) but humans contract the disease through a much less direct route. ... For other uses, see Catscratch and Cat Scratch Fever. ... Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a bacterial infection caused by either Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Species S. bongori S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Species S. enterica Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. ... Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. ... Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ... Melioidosis, also known as pseudoglanders and Whitmores disease (after Capt Alfred Whitmore) is an uncommon infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water. ... Pasteurellosis is an infection with a species of the bacteria genus Pasteurella, which is found in humans and animals. ... Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium, Bordetella pertussis; it derived its name from a characteristic severe hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like whoop; a similar, milder disease is caused by B. parapertussis. ... Binomial name Neisseria meningitidis Albrecht & Ghon, 1901 Neisseria meningitidis, also simply known as meningococcus is a gram-negative bacterium best known for its role in meningitis. ... Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. ... Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is massive, usually bilateral, hemorrhage into the adrenal glands caused by fulminant meningococcemia. ... Legionellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. ... Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) is a fulminant sceptacaemic illness of children caused by the gram negative bacteria Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius Category: ... Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... The clap redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Syphilis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2704 words)
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum.
The epidemiology of the first syphilis epidemic indicates that the disease was either new or a mutated form of an earlier disease.
Congenital syphilis is syphilis present in utero and at birth, and occurs when a child is born to a mother with secondary or tertiary syphilis.
Syphilis (444 words)
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted or congenital infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum.
Syphilis is widespread in the United States and primarily involves sexually active adults between 20-29 years of age.
The final stage of syphilis is called tertiary syphilis and is characterized by brain or central nervous system involvement (neurosyphilis), cardiovascular involvement with inflammation of the aorta (aortitis or aneurysms), and gummatous syphilis (destructive lesions of the skin and bones).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m