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Encyclopedia > Synthetic rubber

Synthetic rubber is any type of artificially made polymer material which acts as an elastomer. An elastomer is a material with the mechanical (or material) property that it can undergo much more elastic deformation under stress than most materials and still return to its previous size without permanent deformation. Synthetic rubber serves as a substitute for natural rubber in many cases, especially when improved material properties are needed. Polymer is a term used to describe large molecules consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... The term elastomer is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, and is preferred when referring to vulcanisates. ... Look up Elastic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In engineering mechanics, deformation is a change in shape due to an applied force. ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of a number of plants but can also be produced synthetically. ...

Natural rubber coming from latex is mostly polymerized isoprene with a small percentage of impurities in it. This will limit the range of properties available to it. Also, there are limitations on the proportions of cis and trans double bonds resulting from methods of polymerizing natural latex. This also limits the range of properties available to natural rubber, although addition of sulfur and vulcanization are used to improve the properties. Isoprene is a common synonym for the chemical compound 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... This is the article about the process. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... Vulcanization, or curing of rubber, is a chemical process in which individual polymer molecules are linked to other polymer molecules by atomic bridges. ...

However, synthetic rubber can be made from the polymerization of a variety of monomers including isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene), and isobutylene (methylpropene) with a small percentage of isoprene for cross-linking. Furthermore, these and other monomers can be mixed in various desirable proportions to be copolymerized for a wide range of physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The monomers can be produced pure and addition of impurities or additives can be controlled by design to give optimal properties. Polymerization of pure monomers can be better controlled to give a desired proportion of cis and trans double bonds. In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ... Chemical Structure of Chloroprene Chloroprene is the common name for the organic compound 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, which has the chemical formula C4H5Cl. ... 1-butene cis-2-butene trans-2-butene methylpropene There are four alkenes which have four carbon atoms and one double bond in their chemical structure. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ... A heteropolymer, also called a copolymer, is a polymer formed when two different types of monomer are linked in the same polymer chain. ...

An urgent need for synthetic rubber that is derived from widely distributed feedstocks grew out of the expanded use of motor vehicles, and particularly motor vehicle tires, starting in the 1890s. Political problems that resulted from great fluctuations in the cost of natural rubber led to enactment of the Stevenson Act in 1921. This act essentially created a cartel which supported rubber prices by regulating production (see OPEC). By 1925 the price of natural rubber had increased to the point that companies such as DuPont were exploring methods of producing synthetic rubber to compete with natural rubber. In the case of Dupont the effort lead to the discovery of Neoprene which is a synthetic rubber that is too expensive to be used in tires, but has some very desirable properties that make it possible to use rubber in applications that would be un-suitable for natural rubber. The Stevenson Plan was an effort by the British government to stabilize low rubber prices resulting from a glut of rubber following World War I. // Background In the early 1900s increased reliance on the automobile and the use of rubber in common products such as boots was driving demand... A cartel is a group of legally independent producers whose goal it is to fix prices, limit supplies and limit competition. ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... This article is about the DuPont company. ... Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ...

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Selecting The Right Glove - Understanding Latex Allergy And Glove Chemistry (2712 words)
However, type I natural latex allergy does not occur in response to synthetic rubber and these gloves are therefore required when treating a patient with known type I hypersensitivity, or for the health care worker who has either become type I sensitized or cannot find a suitable latex glove because of type IV allergy.
Alternately, the surgeon might consider that perhaps the ideal surgical glove is a synthetic rubber, such as polychloroprene (Neoprene) or one of the copolymers that contain styrene and butadiene.
And the surgeon who chooses synthetic rubber gloves should be prepared to potentially sacrifice on glove comfort, dexterity, and grip because the fit, feel, and elasticity of the synthetic materials differ from natural rubber latex.
  More results at FactBites »



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