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Encyclopedia > Synthetic radioisotope

A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. Examples include Technetium-95 and Promethium-146. Many of these are found in, and harvested from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies. Some must be manufactured in particle accelerators. A radioisotopes is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Atomic mass (98) g/mol Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block _ , 6, f Density, Hardness 7264 kg/m3, no data Appearance metallic Atomic properties Atomic weight 145 u Atomic radius (calc. ... One of the early particle accelerators responsible for development of the atomic bomb. ...

Contents


Production

Uses

Most synthetic radioisotopes are extremely radioactive and have a short half life. Though a health hazard, radioactive materials have many medical and industrial uses. Half-Life is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game developed by Valve Software and published by Sierra Entertainment in 1998, based on a heavily-modified Quake game engine. ...


Nuclear medicine

The general field of Nuclear medicine covers any use of radioisotopes for diagnosis or treatment. Nuclear medicine is the branch of medicine that uses unsealed radioactive substances in diagnosis and therapy. ...


Diagnosis

Radioactive tracer compounds are used to observe the function of various organs and body systems. These compounds use a chemical tracer which is attracted to or concentrated by the activity which is being studied. That chemical tracer incorporates a short lived radioactive isotope, usually one which emits a Gamma ray which is energetic enough to travel through the body and be captured outside by a Gamma camera to map the concentrations. Gamma cameras and other similar detectors are highly efficient, and the tracer compounds are generally very effective at concentrating at the areas of interest, so the total amounts of radioactive material needed are very small. This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... A gamma camera is a medical imaging device used in nuclear medicine. ...


Treatment

Radiopharmaceuticals are any of a number of compounds using a radioisotope for medical treatment, usually by bringing the radioactive isotope to a high concentration in the body near a particular organ. For example, Iodine-131 is used for treating some disorders and tumors of the thyroid gland. A radiopharmaceutical is a radioactive pharmaceutical. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Atomic mass 126. ...


Industrial radiation sources

Alpha particle, beta particle, and gamma ray radioactive emissions are industrially useful. Most sources of these are synthetic radioisotopes. An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles or alpha rays (named after the first letter in the greek alphabet) are a form of particle radiation which are highly ionizing and have low penetration. ... Beta particles are high-energy electrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei such as potassium-40. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ...


External links

Map of the Nuclides at LANL T-2 Website


 
 

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