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Encyclopedia > Synthetic oil
Mobil 1 synthetic motor oil
Mobil 1 synthetic motor oil

Synthetic oil is oil consisting of chemical compounds which were not originally present in crude oil (petroleum) but were artificially made (synthesized) from other compounds. Synthetic oil could be made to be a substitute for petroleum or specially made to be a substitute for a lubricant oil such as conventional (or mineral) motor oil refined from petroleum. When a synthetic oil or synthetic fuel is made as a substitute for petroleum, it is generally produced because of a shortage of petroleum or because petroleum is too expensive. When synthetic oil is made as a substitute for lubricant refined from petroleum, it is generally to provide superior mechanical and chemical properties than those found in traditional mineral oils. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1114, 116 KB) Summary Mobil 1 Synthetic motor oil. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1114, 116 KB) Summary Mobil 1 Synthetic motor oil. ... Mobil was a major oil company which merged with the Exxon Corporation in 1999 to form ExxonMobil. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Petro redirects here. ... Look up artificial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... // A typical container of motor oil, with some in a glass. ... Synthetic fuel or synfuel is any liquid fuel obtained from coal, natural gas, or biomass. ... Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ...

Contents

Synthetic oil as a substitute for petroleum-based oil

One form of synthetic oil is that manufactured using the Fischer-Tropsch process which converts carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. This process was developed and used extensively in World War II by Germany, which had limited access to crude oil supplies. Germany's yearly synthetic oil production reached millions of tons in 1944. It is today used in South Africa to produce most of that country's diesel. Dr. Hermann Zorn of I.G. Farben Industrie in Germany actually began to search for lubricants with the properties of natural oils but without the tendencies to gel or gum when used in an engine environment. His work led to the preparation of over 3500 esters in the late 1930s and early 1940s including diesters and polyol esters. Petro redirects here. ... // The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point Flammable gas Related Compounds Related oxides carbon dioxide; carbon suboxide; dicarbon monoxide; carbon trioxide Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Look up Hydrocarbon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the fuel. ... IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... For the Biblical Ester, see Esther. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ...


Another form of synthetic oil is that produced at Syncrude sands plant in Alberta, Canada. This huge facility removes highly viscous bitumen from oil sands mined nearby, and uses a variety of processes of hydrogenation to turn it into high-quality synthetic crude oil. The Syncrude plant supplies about 14% of Canada's petroleum output. A similar plant is the smaller nearby facility owned by Suncor. See synthetic fuel. This article is about Syncrude Canada Ltd. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... Suncor Energy Inc. ... Synthetic fuel or synfuel is any liquid fuel obtained from coal, natural gas, or biomass. ...


Synthetic engine oil

In the mid 1960s Chevron U.S.A was the first to market and produced a complete range of 100% synthetic Polyalphaolefins based lubricants, which began to be marketed as a substitute for mineral oils for engine lubrication. Although in use in the aerospace industry for some year’s prior, synthetic oil first became commercially available in an API-approved formula for automobile engines when standards were formalized for synthetic based lubricants. Lubrication occurs when opposing surfaces are separated by a lubricant film. ... API may refer to: In computing, application programming interface In petroleum industry, American Petroleum Institute In education, Academic Performance Index This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Other early synthetic motor oils marketed included NEO Oil Company formally EON in 1970 which were dibasic acide esters or diesters and polyol esters based synthetic lubricants and still today use these high end foundation for lubricants; In 1971 All-Proof now called Redline; followed fourth by Amsoil who packaged and resold a diester-based 10W40 formula from Hatco in 1972 and then Mobil 1, introduced in North America in 1974[1] (with a PAO-based 5W20 formula). Tachometer showing red lines above 14,000 rpm. ... Amsoil, Inc. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Mobil was a major oil company which merged with the Exxon Corporation in 1999 to form ExxonMobil. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Synthetic Base Stocks

Synthetic motor oils have been made from the following classes of lubricants: A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ...

  • Polyalphaolefin (PAO) = American Petroleum Institute (API) Group IV base oil
  • Synthetic esters, etc = API Group V base oils (non-PAO synthetics, including diesters, polyolesters, alklylated napthlenes, alkyklated benzenes, etc.)
  • Hydrocracked/Hydroisomerized = API Group III base oils. Chevron, Shell, and other petrochemical companies developed processes involving catalytic conversion of feed stocks under pressure in the presence of hydrogen into high quality mineral lubricating oil. In 2005 production of GTL (Gas-to-liquid) Group III base stocks began. The best of these perform much like polyalphaolefin. Group III base stocks are considered synthetic motor oil in North America.[2]

A polyolefin is a polymer produced from a simple olefin, or alkene as a monomer. ... The American Petroleum Institute, commonly referred to as API, is the main U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry, representing about 400 corporate members involved in all aspects of the industry. ... For the Biblical Ester, see Esther. ...

Required applications

Many vehicle manufacturers specify synthetic motor oils.

For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ... Early Hemi in a 1957 Chrysler 300C See also: Chrysler Hemi engine Hemi (from hemisphere) is a design of internal-combustion engines in which the cylinder heads combustion chamber is of hemispherical form. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... The Chevrolet Cobalt is a compact car introduced by Chevrolet in 2004 for the 2005 model year. ... For an outline of all the Chevrolet Corvette generations see Main article: Chevrolet Corvette The Chevrolet Corvette C5 is a sports car which started in 1997 and ended with the 2004 model year. ... For an outline of all the Chevrolet Corvette generations see Main article: Chevrolet Corvette The Chevrolet Corvette C6 is the sixth and current generation of Chevrolet Corvettes built and marketed by Chevrolet. ... The Chevrolet TrailBlazer is a mid-size SUV from the Chevrolet division of General Motors. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... This article is about the auto company. ... Briggs & Stratton is the worlds largest manufacturer of air-cooled gasoline engines for primarily outdoor power equipment. ... Volkswagen (VW) is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ...

Advantages

The technical advantages of synthetic motor oils include:

  • Measurably better low and high temperature viscosity performance[citation needed]
  • Better chemical & shear stability
  • Decreased evaporative loss[citation needed]
  • Resistance to oxidation, thermal breakdown and oil sludge problems
  • Extended drain intervals with the environmental benefit of less oil waste.[citation needed]
  • Improved fuel economy in certain engine configurations.[citation needed]

Numerous late-model piston engines from many manufacturers have suffered from failures due to oil sludge contamination. ...

Disadvantages

The disadvantages of synthetic motor oils include:

  • Initial costs are usually four times greater than petroleum-based oils, though at one time, man-made oils cost ten times more than petroleum[citation needed]. Initial costs are often mitigated by extended change intervals, which individuals may confirm through used oil analysis (UOA).
  • The lower friction may make them unsuitable for break-in (i.e. the initial run-in period of the vehicle) where friction is desirable to cause wear. As many vehicles now use synthetic oils as factory fill, this is less of an issue than it once was.
  • Potential decomposition problems in certain chemical environments (industrial use dominantly)
  • Potential stress cracking of plastic components like POM (polyoxymethylene) in the presence of PAOs (polyalphaolefins).
  • Potential on some older pushrod race engines with roller lifters for the roller itself not to spin with camshaft movement, but rather slide while the roller itself remains either stationary or at a lower circumferential speed than that of the camshaft lobe[citation needed]
  • In July 1996, Consumer Reports published the results of a two year motor oil test involving a fleet of 75 New York taxi cabs and found no noticeable advantage of synthetic oil over regular oil[4]. In their article, they noted that "Big-city cabs don't see many cold start-ups or long periods of high speed driving in extreme heat. But our test results relate to the most common type of severe service - stop-and-go city driving." According to their study, synthetic oil is "worth considering for extreme driving conditions: high ambient temperatures and high engine load, or very cold temperatures." [5] This research was criticized by some because most engine damage appears to be caused by cold starts, and their research method may not have included enough cold starts to be representative of personal vehicle use.[6]

The routine activity of analyzing lubricant properties and suspended contaminants for the purpose of monitoring and reporting timely, meaningful and accurate information on lubricant and machine condition. ... It has been suggested that Delrin be merged into this article or section. ... A polyolefin is a polymer produced from a simple olefin, or alkene as a monomer. ... For the fictional characters of the same name, see Camshaft (Transformers). ... Consumer Reports is an American magazine published monthly by Consumers Union. ... // A typical container of motor oil, with some in a glass. ... Alternative meaning: taxicab geometry. ...

Semi-synthetic oil

Semi-synthetic oils (also called 'synthetic blends') are blends of mineral oil with no more than 30% synthetic oil. Designed to have many of the benefits of synthetic oil without matching the cost of pure oil. MOTUL introduced the first semi-synthetic motor oil in 1966.[7]


See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... The theory of abiogenic petroleum origin holds that natural petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. ... // The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Synthetic fuel or synfuel is any liquid fuel obtained from coal, natural gas, or biomass. ...

Notes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2][3]
  3. ^ [4]
  4. ^ Consumer Reports Oil Testing Results. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  5. ^ (July 1996) "The surprising truth about motor oils". Consumer Reports: 10-13. Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
  6. ^ Statistical problems of Consumer Reports auto ratings (English). Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  7. ^ [5]

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Synthetic oil - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (559 words)
Synthetic oil is oil consisting of chemical compounds which were not originally present in crude oil (petroleum) but were artificially made (synthesized) from other compounds.
Synthetic oil could be made to be a substitute for petroleum or specially made to be a substitute for a lubricant oil such as conventional (or mineral) motor oil refined from petroleum.
When a synthetic oil is made as a substitute for petroleum, it is generally produced because of a shortage of petroleum or because petroleum is too expensive.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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