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Encyclopedia > Synthetic fiber

Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ...


In general, synthetic fibres, or man-made fibres, are created by forcing, usually through extrusion, fibre forming materials through holes (called spinnerets) into the air, forming a thread. Extruded aluminium; slots allow bars to be joined with special connectors. ...


Common synthetic fibres include:

Specialty synthetic fibres include: Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Cellulose acetate, first prepared in 1865, is the acetate ester of cellulose. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Modacrylic, Synthetic copolymer fiber. ... Acrylic fibers are a strong and mouldable plastic that is a thermoplastic. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into polylactic acid. ...

Other synthetic materials used in fibres include: Vinyon is a synthetic fiber made from polyvinyl chloride. ... Saran is the trade name for a number of polymers made from vinylidene chloride (especially polyvinylidene chloride or PVDC), along with other monomers. ... Example of spandex Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity (stretchability). ... North Korean workers in a Vinalon factory. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Modal® is a bio-based fiber made by spinning reconstituted cellulose from beech trees. ... PolyBenzImidazole or PBI fiber (1983) is a synthetic fiber with an extremely high melting point that also does not ignite. ... Sulfar fiber (1983) is a nonconductive fiber that has excellent resistance to chemical and thermal attack; it has changed industry with filter fabrics for coal boilers, papermaker felts, electrical insulation, specialty membranes, gaskets, and packings. ... The label of a coat with Tencel® Lyocell is a fibre made from wood pulp cellulose. ... Dyneema or Spectra is a synthetic fiber based on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene which is 15 times stronger than steel and up to 40% stronger than Kevlar. ... M5 Fiber is a new ultra high performance fiber produced by Magellan Systems International in partnership with DuPont Advanced Fiber Systems. ... Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a strong and durable plastic. ... poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) Zylon is a trademarked name for a range of thermoset polyurethane materials manufactured by the Toyobo Corporation. ... Vectran is a manufactured fibre, spun from a liquid crystal polymer created by Celanese Acetate LLC. These fibres are noted for thermal stability at high temperatures, high strength, and good chemical stability. ...

Modern fibres that are made from older artificial materials include: Acrylonitrile (CH2=CH-C≡N), is a pungent smelling, extremely flammable organic liquid. ...

  • Glass Fiber is used for:
    • industrial, automotive, and home insulation (Fiberglass)
    • reinforcement of composite and plastics
    • specialty papers in battery separators and filtration
  • Metallic fiber (1946) is used for:
    • adding metallic properties to clothing for the purpose of fashion (usually made with composite plastic and metal foils)
    • elimination and prevention of static charge build-up
    • conducting electricity to transmit information
    • conduction of heat

There is a disputed proposal to merge this article with glass-reinforced plastic. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Metallic fibers are manufactured fibers composed of metal, plastic-coated metal, metal-coated plastic, or a core completely covered by metal[1]. Gold and silver have been used since ancient times as yarns for fabric decoration. ...

References

  • The original source of this article and much of the synthetic fiber articles (copied with permission) is Whole Earth magazine, No. 90, Summer 1997. www.wholeearth.com

See also

  • Inventory of Synthetic Fibers

  Results from FactBites:
 
Synthetic fur and process for preparation thereof - Patent 4332585 (4622 words)
For example, polyester fibers and polyamide fibers may be used in combination, while formic acid, phenol or dimethyl sulfoxide is used as the solvent, to produce the guard hair-like raised fibers consisting of the undissolved polyester fibers and the underfur-like raised fibers consisting of the partially dissolved and thus shortened polyamide fibers.
The staple fibers were blended with staple fibers (circular cross-section, monofilament fineness of 3 deniers, fiber length of 51 mm) made of an ethylene terephthalate polymer containing 5% by mole of copolymerized polyoxyethylene glycol (molecular weight of 600) at a ratio of 40:60.
Polyethylene terephthalate staple fibers were prepared as described in Example 3 for the preparation of the staple fibers A. A blend of modified polyethylene terephthalate containing 2.0% by mole of copolymerized sodium 3,5-di-(carboxy)-benzenesulfonate and having an intrinsic viscosity of 0.50, as measured in an o-chlorophenol solution at 35.degree.
DuPont Heritage: Synthetic Textile Fibers (681 words)
The first to be developed was Orlon® acrylic fiber, a DuPont invention which proved an effective substitute for wool in sweaters, pile fabrics and carpeting.
Dacron® polyester fiber, a British invention licensed by DuPont in the late 1940s, was briefly the company’s most profitable fiber when double-knits became fashionable in the early 1970s and was a steady seller as a component of wash-and-wear fabrics.
Synthetic textile fibers were generally produced in one of two ways.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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