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Encyclopedia > Synthesizer

A synthesizer (or synthesiser) is an electronic instrument capable of producing musical sounds. The term originates from the Greek syntithetai < synthesis (συντίθεται < σύνθεσις). Look up synthesizer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Question_mark. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. ...


Synthesizers create electrical signals, which are then converted into a sound by a speaker. Analog synthesizers create sound by electrical oscillators which are fed to filters, and digital synthesizers by performing mathematical operations in a microprocessor. Sometimes both methods are used side by side. Both analog and digital synthesized sounds may sound dramatically different than recordings of natural sounds, though digital sampling synthesizers significantly blur this distinction. An analog synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses analog circuits and analog computer techniques to generate sound electronically. ... A digital synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to make musical sounds. ... Sample-based synthesis is a form of audio synthesis that can be similar in structure to either subtractive synthesis or additive synthesis. ...


Many synthesizers include a keyboard, which makes them reminiscent of traditional keyboard instruments. Various alternative or additional pitch controllers, such as fingerboards and "ribbons", have been employed as well. (See sound module.) Alternately, they may be controlled via a series of signals over a digital bus such as MIDI. The layout of a typical musical keyboard A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers on a musical instrument which cause the instrument to produce sounds. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ... A Sound module (sometimes referred to as tone generator) is an electronic musical instrument without a human-playable interface such as a keyboard, for example. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ...


The term "speech synthesizer" is also used in electronic speech processing, often in connection with vocoders. Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. ... Speech processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of these signals. ... A vocoder (name derived from voice encoder, formerly also called voder) is a speech analyzer and synthesizer. ...

Contents

Sound basics

All sounds are comprised of some combination of pure sine waves. Generally, a single "sound" will include a fundamental frequency, and any number of overtones. The frequencies of these overtones are either integer multiples of the fundamental frequency, or integer fractions thereof (subharmonics). This study of how complex waveforms can be alternately represented is covered in Laplace and Fourier transforms. Vibration and standing waves in a string, The fundamental and the first 6 overtones The fundamental tone, often referred to simply as the fundamental and abbreviated fo, is the lowest frequency in a harmonic series. ... Approximate harmonic overtones on a string An overtone is a natural resonance or vibration frequency of a system. ... Sub-harmonic frequencies are frequencies below the fundamental frequency of an oscillator in a ratio of 1/x. ... In the branch of mathematics called functional analysis, the Laplace transform, , is a linear operator on a function f(t) (original ) with a real argument t (t ≥ 0) that transforms it to a function F(s) (image) with a complex argument s. ... In mathematics, the Fourier transform is a certain linear operator that maps functions to other functions. ...


When natural tonal instruments' sounds are analyzed in the frequency domain (as on a spectrum analyzer), the spectra of their sounds will exhibit amplitude spikes at each of the fundamental tone's harmonics. Some harmonics may have higher amplitudes than others. The specific set of harmonic-vs-amplitude pairs is known as a sound's harmonic content. Frequency domain is a term used to describe the analysis of mathematical functions with respect to frequency. ... Familiar concepts associated with a frequency are colors, musical notes, radio/TV channels, and even the regular rotation of the earth. ... It has been suggested that pulse amplitude be merged into this article or section. ... Pitched musical instruments are usually based on a harmonic oscillator such as a string or a column of air. ...


When analyzed in the time domain, a sound does not necessarily have the same harmonic content throughout the duration of the sound. Typically, high-frequency harmonics will die out more quickly than the lower harmonics. For a synthesized sound to "sound" right, it requires accurate reproduction of the original sound in both the frequency domain and the time domain. Time-domain is a term used to describe the analysis of mathematical functions, or real-life signals, with respect to time. ...


Percussives and rasps have very low harmonic content, and exhibit spectra that are comprised mainly of noise shaped by the resonant frequencies of the structures that produce the sounds. However, the resonant properties of the instruments (the spectral peaks of which are also referred to as formants) also shape an instrument's spectrum (esp. in string, wind, voice and other natural instruments). Percussion redirects here. ... Spectra are conditions or values that vary over a continuum. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... Spectrogram of American English vowels showing the formants f1 and f2 A formant is a peak in an acoustic frequency spectrum which results from the resonant frequencies of any acoustical system. ...


In most conventional synthesizers, for purposes of resynthesis, recordings of real instruments are composed of several components.


These component sounds represent the acoustic responses of different parts of the instrument, the sounds produced by the instrument during different parts of a performance, or the behaviour of the instrument under different playing conditions (pitch, intensity of playing, fingering, etc.) The distinctive timbre, intonation and attack of a real instrument can therefore be created by mixing together these components in such a way as resembles the natural behaviour of the real instrument. Nomenclature varies by synthesizer methodology and manufacturer, but the components are often referred to as oscillators or partials. A higher fidelity reproduction of a natural instrument can typically be achieved using more oscillators, but increased computational power and human programming is required, and most synthesizers use between one and four oscillators by default. Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... jake faulkner is partially retarded. ...

Schematic of ADSR
Schematic of ADSR

One of the most important parts of any sound is its amplitude envelope. This envelope determines whether the sound is percussive, like a snare drum, or persistent, like a violin string. Most often, this shaping of the sound's amplitude profile is realized with an "ADSR" (Attack Decay Sustain Release) envelope model applied to control oscillator volumes. Apart from Sustain, each of these stages is modeled by a change in volume (typically exponential). An ADSR envelope is a parameter used in synthesizers, including those that produce sound by subtractive synthesis, to control the sound produced. ... An ADSR envelope is a parameter used in synthesizers, including those that produce sound by subtractive synthesis, to control the sound produced. ...

  • Attack time is the time taken for initial run-up of the sound level from nil (or blank sustainment) to 100%.
  • Decay time is the time taken for the subsequent run down from 100% to the designated Sustain level.
  • Sustain level is the steady volume produced when a key is held down.
  • Release time is the time taken for the sound to decay from the Sustain level to nil when the key is released. If a key is released during the Attack or Decay stage, the Sustain phase is usually skipped. Similarly, a Sustain level of zero will produce a more-or-less piano-like (or percussive) envelope, with no continuous steady level, even when a key is held. Exponential rates are commonly used because they closely model real physical vibrations, which usually rise or decay exponentially.

Although the oscillations in real instruments also change frequency, most instruments can be modeled well without this refinement. This refinement is necessary to generate a vibrato. A quantity is said to be subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its value. ... Vibrato is a musical effect where the pitch or frequency of a note or sound is quickly and repeatedly raised and lowered over a small distance for the duration of that note or sound. ...


Overview of popular synthesis methods

Subtractive synthesizers use a simple acoustic model that assumes an instrument can be approximated by a simple signal generator (producing sawtooth waves, square waves, etc...) followed by a filter which represents the frequency-dependent losses and resonances in the instrument body. For reasons of simplicity and economy, these filters are typically low-order lowpass filters. The combination of simple modulation routings (such as pulse width modulation and oscillator sync), along with the physically unrealistic lowpass filters, is responsible for the "classic synthesizer" sound commonly associated with "analog synthesis" and often mistakenly used when referring to software synthesizers using subtractive synthesis. Although physical modeling synthesis, synthesis wherein the sound is generated according to the physics of the instrument, has superseded subtractive synthesis for accurately reproducing natural instrument timbres, the subtractive synthesis paradigm is still ubiquitous in synthesizers with most modern designs still offering low-order lowpass or bandpass filters following the oscillator stage. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A square wave is a kind of basic waveform. ... An audio filter is a type of filter used for processing sound signals. ... Pulse-width modulation of a signal or power source involves the modulation of its duty cycle to either convey information over a communications channel or control the amount of power sent to a load. ... Physical modelling synthesis is the synthesis of sound by using a set of equations and algorithms to simulate a physical source of sound. ...


One of the newest systems to evolve inside music synthesis is physical modeling. This involves taking up models of components of musical objects and creating systems which define action, filters, envelopes and other parameters over time. The definition of such instruments is virtually limitless, as one can combine any given models available with any amount of sources of modulation in terms of pitch, frequency and contour. For example, the model of a violin with characteristics of a pedal steel guitar and perhaps the action of piano hammer ... physical modeling on computers gets better and faster with higher processing.


One of the easiest synthesis systems is to record a real instrument as a digitized waveform, and then play back its recordings at different speeds to produce different tones. This is the technique used in "sampling". Most samplers designate a part of the sample for each component of the ADSR envelope, and then repeat that section while changing the volume for that segment of the envelope. This lets the sampler have a persuasively different envelope using the same note.. See also: Sample-based synthesis. Sample-based synthesis is a form of audio synthesis that can be similar in structure to either subtractive synthesis or additive synthesis. ...


Synthesizer basics

There are three major kinds of synthesizers, analog, digital and software. In addition there are synthesizers that rely upon combinations of those three kinds, known as hybrid synthesizers. An analog synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses analog circuits and analog computer techniques to generate sound electronically. ... A digital synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to make musical sounds. ... A software synthesizer, also known as a softsynth or virtual instrument is a computer program for digital audio generation. ...


There are also many different kinds of synthesis methods, each applicable to both analog and digital synthesizers. These techniques tend to be mathematically related, especially frequency modulation and phase modulation.

Subtractive synthesis is a method of sound synthesis characterised by the application of an audio filter to a source signal. ... Additive synthesis is a technique of audio synthesis which creates musical timbre. ... Granular synthesis is a sound synthesis method that operates on the microsound time scale. ... Wavetable synthesis is used in digital musical instruments (synthesizers) to produce natural tone-like sounds. ... Frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) is a form of audio synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform is changed by frequency modulating it with a modulating frequency that is also in the audio range, resulting in a more complex waveform and a different-sounding tone. ... Figure A depicting the saw wave phase distortion transform Phase distortion synthesis is a synthesis method introduced 1984 by Casio in its CZ range of synths, and similar to Frequency modulation synthesis in the sense that they are both build on phase modulation. ... Physical modelling synthesis is the synthesis of sound by using a set of equations and algorithms to simulate a physical source of sound. ... Sample-based synthesis is a form of audio synthesis that can be similar in structure to either subtractive synthesis or additive synthesis. ...

The start of the analogue synthesizer era

Main article: analog synthesizers

The first electric musical synthesizer was invented in 1876 by Elisha Gray [2], who was also an independent inventor of the telephone. The "Musical Telegraph" was a chance by-product of his telephone technology. An analog synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses analog computer techniques to generate sound electronically. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1917 × 2488 pixel, file size: 893 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 462 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1917 × 2488 pixel, file size: 893 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The trautonium is a monophonic electronic musical instrument invented ca. ... Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an electrical engineer and is best known for his development of a telephone prototype in 1876 in Highland Park, Illinois, U.S.A.. // Born into a Quaker family in Barnesville, Ohio, Gray was brought up on a farm. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...


Gray accidentally discovered that he could control sound from a self vibrating electromagnetic circuit and in doing so invented a basic single note oscillator. The Musical Telegraph used steel reeds whose oscillations were created and transmitted, over a telephone line, by electromagnets. Gray also built a simple loudspeaker device in later models consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field to make the oscillator audible.


Other early synthesizers used technology derived from electronic analog computers, laboratory test equipment, and early electronic musical instruments. Ivor Darreg created his microtonal 'Electronic Keyboard Oboe' in 1937. Another one of the early synthesizers was the ANS synthesizer, a machine that was constructed by the Russian scientist Evgeny Murzin from 1937 to 1957. Only one copy of ANS was built, and it is currently kept at the Lomonosov University in Moscow. In the 1950s, RCA produced experimental devices to synthesize both voice and music. The giant Mark II Music Synthesizer, housed at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in New York City in 1958, was only capable of producing music once it had been completely programmed. The vacuum tube system had to be manually patched to create each new type of sound. It used a paper tape sequencer punched with holes that controlled pitch sources and filters, similar to a mechanical player piano but able to generate a wide variety of sounds. A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden bombsight. ... An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. ... Ivor Darreg (May 5, 1917 - 1994) was a leading proponent of and composer of microtonal or xenharmonic music. ... 19 scale piano Microtonal music is music using microtones — intervals of less than an equally spaced semitone, or as Charles Ives put it, the notes between the cracks of the piano. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ANS synthesizer is a photoelectronic musical instrument created by Russian engineer Evgeny Murzin in 1937 - 1957. ... Evgeny Murzin or Eugeny Murzin In 1938 Murzin invented a design for composers based on synthesizing complex musical sounds from a limited number of pure tones; this proposed system was to perform music without musicians or musical instruments. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ... RCA Mark II with Babbit, Mauzey, Ussachevsky The RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer (nicknamed Victor) was the flagship piece of equipment at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center. ... The Computer Music Center (CMC) at Columbia University is the oldest center for electronic and computer music research in the United States. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Jan. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... A roll of punched tape Punched tape is an old-fashioned form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. ... The word sequencer can mean: a microsequencer in a computer CPU a music sequencer in the field of electronic music a DNA sequencer or a protein sequencer in the field of biology Sequencer (album) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... The player piano is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist to depress the normal keys or pedals. ...


In 1958 Daphne Oram at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop produced a novel synthesizer using her "Oramics" technique, driven by drawings on a 35mm film strip. This was used for a number of years at the BBC. Hugh Le Caine, John Hanert, Raymond Scott, the composer Percy Grainger (with Burnett Cross), and others built a variety of automated electronic-music controllers during the late 1940s and 1950s. Daphne Oram (December 31, 1925 - January 5, 2003), pioneering British composer and electronic musician. ... The BBC Radiophonic Workshop, one of the sound effects units of the BBC, was created in 1958 to produce effects and new music for radio, and was closed in March 1998, although much of its traditional work had already been outsourced by 1995. ... Oramics is a drawn sound technique developed, beginning in 1962, by musician Daphne Oram after receiving a grant from the Gulbenkian Foundation. ... Hugh Le Caine (b. ... Raymond Scott, 1937 Raymond Scott (born Harry Warnow, September 10, 1908 – February 8, 1994), was an American composer, orchestra leader, pianist, engineer, recording studio maverick, and electronic instrument inventor. ... Percy Grainger. ...


By the 1960s, synthesizers were developed that could be played in real time but were confined to studios because of their size. These synthesizers were usually configured using a modular design, with standalone signal sources and processors being connected with patch cords or by other means, and all controlled by a common controlling device. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ...


Modular synthesizers

Buchla Music Easel
Buchla Music Easel

Early synthesizers were often experimental special-built devices, usually based on the concept of modularity. Don Buchla, Hugh Le Caine, Raymond Scott and Paul Ketoff were among the first to build such instruments, in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Only Buchla later produced a commercial modular synthesizer. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 768 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Luther Rochester I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 768 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Luther Rochester I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Don Buchla (1937— ) is a pioneer in the field of music synthesizers, releasing his first units months after Robert Moogs first synthesizers. ... Hugh Le Caine (b. ... Raymond Scott, 1937 Raymond Scott (born Harry Warnow, September 10, 1908 – February 8, 1994), was an American composer, orchestra leader, pianist, engineer, recording studio maverick, and electronic instrument inventor. ... Buchla & Associates is a manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, notably synthesizers. ... Sine, square, triangle, and sawtooth waveforms The modular synthesizer is a type of synthesizer consisting of separate modules which must be connected by wires (patch cords) to create a so-called patch. ...


Robert Moog, who had been a student of Peter Mauzey, one of the engineers of the RCA Mark II, created a revolutionary synthesizer that could be easily used by musicians. Moog designed the circuits used in his synthesizer while he was at Columbia-Princeton. The Moog synthesizer was first displayed at the Audio Engineering Society convention in 1964. Like the RCA Mark II, it required a lot of experience to set up the machine for a new sound, but it was smaller and more intuitive. Less like a machine and more like a musical instrument, the Moog synthesizer was at first a curiosity, but by 1968 had caused a sensation. Dr. Robert Arthur Moog (pronounced // to rhyme with vogue, not //) (May 23, 1934 – August 21, 2005) was a pioneer of electronic music, best known as the inventor of the Moog synthesizer. ... Peter Mauzey is an electrical engineer associated with the development of electronic music in the 1950s and 1960s at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center. ... Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from amongst engineers, scientists, manufacturers and other organisations and individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...

Micky Dolenz of The Monkees bought one of the first three Moog synthesizers and the first commercial release to feature a Moog synthesizer was The Monkees' fourth album, Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd., in 1967, which also became the first album featuring a synthesizer to hit #1 on the charts. Also among the first music performed on this synthesizer was the million-selling 1968 album Switched-On Bach by Wendy Carlos. Switched-On Bach was one of the most popular classical-music recordings ever made. During the late 1960s, hundreds of other popular recordings used Moog synthesizer sounds. The Moog synthesizer even spawned a subculture of record producers who made novelty "Moog" recordings, depending on the odd new sounds made by their synthesizers (which were not always Moog units) to draw attention and sales. Image File history File links SwitchedOnBach. ... Image File history File links SwitchedOnBach. ... Switched-On Bach is a musical album by Wendy Carlos (then Walter Carlos) on CBS Records, released in 1968. ... George Michael Dolenz, Jr. ... The Monkees were a pop-rock quartet created and based in Los Angeles in 1965 for an NBC American television series of the same name. ... The Monkees were a pop-rock quartet created and based in Los Angeles in 1965 for an NBC American television series of the same name. ... Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Switched-On Bach is a musical album by Wendy Carlos (then Walter Carlos) on CBS Records, released in 1968. ... Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos, November 14, 1939) is an American composer and electronic musician. ...


Moog also established standards for control interfacing, with a logarithmic 1-volt-per-octave pitch control and a separate pulse triggering signal. This standardization allowed synthesizers from different manufacturers to operate together. Pitch control is usually performed either with an organ-style keyboard or a music sequencer, which produces a series of control voltages over a fixed time period and allows some automation of music production. In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was traditionally a device or piece of software that allows the user to record, play back and edit musical patterns. ...

Wendy Carlos - Switched-On Bach Image File history File links Carlos_brandenburg_3. ...

First Movement (Allegro) of Brandenburg Concerto Number 3.

Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Other early commercial synthesizer manufacturers included ARP, who also started with modular synthesizers before producing all-in-one instruments, and British firm EMS. ARP Instruments, Inc. ... Electronic Music Studios (London) Ltd. ...

The Minimoog was one of the most popular synthesizers ever built
The Minimoog was one of the most popular synthesizers ever built

Image File history File links Minimoog. ... Image File history File links Minimoog. ... The Minimoog is a monophonic analog synthesizer, invented by David van Koevering and Robert Moog. ...

Popular synthesizers

In 1970, Moog designed an innovative synthesizer with a built-in keyboard and without modular design--the analog circuits were retained, but made interconnectable with switches in a simplified arrangement called "normalization". Though less flexible than a modular design, it made the instrument more portable and easier to use. This first prepatched synthesizer, the Minimoog, became very popular, with over 12,000 units sold. The Minimoog also influenced the design of nearly all subsequent synthesizers, with integrated keyboard, pitch wheel and modulation wheel, and a VCO->VCF->VCA signal flow. The Minimoog is a monophonic analog synthesizer, invented by David van Koevering and Robert Moog. ... The Minimoog is a monophonic analog synthesizer, invented by David van Koevering and Robert Moog. ...


In the 1970s miniaturized solid-state components allowed synthesizers to become self-contained, portable instruments. They began to be used in live performances. Soon, electronic synthesizers had become a standard part of the popular-music repertoire.


The first movie to make use of synthesized music was the James Bond film On Her Majesty's Secret Service, in 1969. From that point on, a large number of movies were made with synthesized music. A few movies, like 1982's John Carpenter's "The Thing", used all synthesized music in their musical scores. This article is about the spy series. ... For the Ian Fleming novel, see On Her Majestys Secret Service. ... This article is about the 1982 remake of The Thing from Another World. ...


Homemade synthesizers

The Maplin 5600 synthesizer could be built from a kit
The Maplin 5600 synthesizer could be built from a kit

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, it was relatively easy to build one's own synthesizer. Designs were published in hobby electronics magazines (notably the Formant modular synth, an impressive DIY clone of the Moog system, published by Elektor) and complete kits were supplied by companies such as Paia in the US, and Maplin Electronics in the UK. Image File history File links The Maplin 5600 analogue synthesiser (I used to have one!) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links The Maplin 5600 analogue synthesiser (I used to have one!) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ...


Microprocessor controlled and polyphonic analog synthesizers

Early analog synthesizers were always monophonic, producing only one tone at a time. A few, such as the Moog Sonic Six, ARP Odyssey and EML 101, were capable of producing two different pitches at a time when two keys were pressed. Polyphony (multiple simultaneous tones, which enables chords), was only obtainable with electronic organ designs at first. Popular electronic keyboards combining organ circuits with synthesizer processing included the ARP Omni and Moog's Polymoog and Opus 3. The ARP Odyssey was an analog synthesizer introduced in 1972. ... Polyphony is the property of an electronic musical instrument which describes how many notes it can sound at one time. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ...


By 1976, the first true music synthesizers to offer polyphony had begun to appear, most notably in the form of the Yamaha GX1, CS-50, CS-60 and Yamaha CS-80 and the Oberheim Four-Voice. These early instruments were very complex, heavy, and costly. Another feature that began to appear was the recording of knob settings in a digital memory, allowing the changing of sounds quickly. The Yamaha GX1, along with its predecessor, the Electone GX-707, was an analog polyphonic synthesizer developed by Yamaha as a test bed for later consumer synths. ... The Yamaha CS-80 was a polyphonic analog synthesizer released in 1977. ...


When microprocessors first appeared on the scene in the early 1970s, they were expensive and difficult to apply.


The first practical polyphonic synth, and the first to use a microprocessor as a controller, was the Sequential Circuits Prophet-5 introduced in 1978. For the first time, musicians had a practical polyphonic synthesizer that allowed all knob settings to be saved in computer memory and recalled by pushing a button. The Prophet-5 was also physically compact and lightweight, unlike its predecessors. This basic design paradigm became a standard among synthesizer manufacturers, slowly pushing out the more complex (and more difficult to use) modular design. Sequential Circuits Inc. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


One of the first real-time polyphonic digital music synthesizers was the Coupland Digital Music Synthesizer. It was much more portable than a piano but never reached commercial production. The Coupland Digital Music Synthesizer was a 16-voice polyphonic real-time instrument with a full 88 key keyboard introduced in the 1970’s. ...


The Kurzweil K250, first produced in 1983, was the first polyphonic digital music synthesizer to be commercially successful and is the grandfather of modern synthesis - over 4,000 units were produced. The Kurzweil 250 a. ...


MIDI control

Synthesizers became easier to integrate and synchronize with other electronic instruments and controllers with the introduction in 1983 of MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). First proposed in 1981 by Dave Smith of Sequential Circuits, the MIDI standard was developed by a consortium now known as the MIDI Manufacturers Association. MIDI is an opto-isolated serial interface and communication protocol. It provides for the transmission, from one device or instrument to another, of real-time performance data including note events, commands for the selection of instrument presets (i.e. sounds [a.k.a. programs or patches] previously stored in the instrument's memory), the control of performance-related parameters such as volume, effects levels and the like, as well as synchronisation, transport control and other types of data. MIDI interfaces are now almost ubiquitous on music equipment, and commonly available on personal computers (PCs). MIDI redirects here. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... Dave Smith // Dave Smith is generally known as the driving force behind the generation of the MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) specification, in fact, in 1981 he coined the acronym. ... Sequential Circuits Inc. ... An opto-isolator integrated circuit. ... In telecommunications and computer science, serial communications is the process of sending data one bit at one time, sequentially, over a communications channel or computer bus. ... This article concerns communication between pairs of electronic devices. ...


The General MIDI (GM) software standard was devised in 1991 to serve as a consistent way of describing a set of over 200 tones (including percussion) available to a PC for playback of musical scores. For the first time, a given MIDI preset would consistently produce e.g. an oboe or guitar sound on any GM-conforming device. The Standard MIDI File (SMF) format (extension .mid) combined MIDI events with delta times - a form of time-stamping - and became a popular standard for exchange of music scores between computers. In the case of SMF playback using integrated synthesizers (as in computers and cell phones), the hardware component of the MIDI interface design is often unneeded. General MIDI or GM is a specification for synthesizers which imposes several requirements beyond the more abstract MIDI standard. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... ... A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to indicate its type. ...


OSC, OpenSound Control, is a proposed replacement for MIDI which was designed for networking. In contrast with MIDI, OSC is fast enough to allow thousands of synthesizers or computers to share music performance data over the internet in realtime. Open Sound Control Open Sound Control (OSC) is a protocol for communication among computers, sound synthesizers, and other multimedia devices that is optimized for modern networking technology. ...


FM synthesis/Yamaha

FM Synthesis is the use of the output of one oscillator to modulate the frequency of another oscillator. Low frequency FM modulation produces siren-like sounds, but when the modulating oscillator frequency enters the audio range the results are very complex waves with many harmonic sidebands. A frequency-modulated oscillator can be used to modulate another oscillator or a parameter of the synth or 'patch' such as rate, depth, etc. of LFOs (Low Frequency Oscillators). These usually control parameters, but oscillators can modulate the LFOs to give a more complex sound. Oscillators can in turn modulate themselves and produce White Noise. John Chowning of Stanford University is generally considered to be the first researcher to conceive of producing musical sounds by causing one oscillator to modulate the pitch of another. This is called FM, or frequency modulation, synthesis. Chowning's early FM experiments were done with software on a mainframe computer. Frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) is a form of audio synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform is changed by frequency modulating it with a modulating frequency that is also in the audio range, resulting in a more complex waveform and a different-sounding tone. ... Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... Modulate Bob Moulds fifth solo album, released in 2002 after a four-year layoff. ... Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... Modulate Bob Moulds fifth solo album, released in 2002 after a four-year layoff. ... Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... Calculated spectrum of a generated approximation of white noise White noise is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. ... John M. Chowning (1934 - Present) Contribution Born in Salem New Jersey, John M. Chowning is most famously known for having discovered the frequency modulation (FM) algorithm, in which both the carrier frequency and the modulating frequency are within the audio band. ... Stanford redirects here. ... Frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) is a form of audio synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform is changed by frequency modulating it with a modulating frequency that is also in the audio range, resulting in a more complex waveform and a different-sounding tone. ...


Most FM synthesizers use sine-wave oscillators (called operators) which, in order for their fundamental frequency to be sufficiently stable, are normally generated digitally (several years after Yamaha popularized this field of synthesis, they were outfitted with the ability to generate waveforms other than a sine wave). Each operator's audio output may be fed to the input of another operator, via an ADSR or other envelope controller. The first operator modulates the pitch of the second operator, in ways that can produce complex waveforms. Although FM synthesis is in some ways a form of additive synthesis (albeit with much less control), filters used in subtractive synthesizers were typically not used in FM synthesizers until the mid-1990s. By cascading operators and programming their envelopes appropriately, some subtractive synthesis effects can be simulated, though the sound of a resonant analog filter is almost impossible to achieve. FM is well-suited for making sounds that subtractive synthesizers have difficulty producing, particularly non-harmonic sounds, such as bell timbres. For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Chowning's patent covering FM sound synthesis was licensed to the Japanese manufacturer Yamaha, and made millions for Stanford during the 1980s. In 1980, Chowning's patent was Stanford's single most lucrative patent, exceeding others in electronics, computer science, and genetic engineering. Yamaha's first FM synthesizers, the GS-1 and GS-2, were costly and heavy. Keyboardist Brent Mydland of the Grateful Dead used a GS-1 extensively in the 1980s. They soon followed the GS series with a pair of smaller, preset versions - the CE20 and CE25 Combo Ensembles [3]- which were targeted primarily at the home organ market and featured four-octave keyboards. Their third generation, consisting of the DX-7 and DX-9 (1983), were about the same size and weight as the Prophet-5, were reasonably priced, and depended on custom digital integrated circuits to produce FM tonalities. The DX-7 was a smash hit and can be heard on many recordings from the mid-1980s. Yamaha later licensed its FM technology to other manufacturers. By the time the Stanford patent ran out, almost every personal computer in the world contained an audio input-output system with a built-in 4-operator FM digital synthesizer -- a fact most PC users are not aware of. It's also notable that FM patches are very simple to wire up on modular synths, and thus had been used long before Yamaha adopting this technology. Buchla instruments in particular used FM, as well as AM synthesis, very successfully as early as the late 1960s. The headquarters of Yamaha Corporation Yamaha redirects here. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... Brent Mydland (October 21, 1952 – July 26, 1990) was the fourth keyboardist to play for the United States rock band the Grateful Dead. ... This article is about the band. ... The Yamaha DX7 was a synthesizer manufactured by the Yamaha Corporation from 1983 to 1986, based on FM synthesis developed by John Chowning. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Buchla & Associates is a manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, notably synthesizers. ...


The GS1 and GS2 had their small memory strips "programmed" by a hardware-based machine that existed only in Hamamatsu (Yamaha Japan headquarters) and Buena Park (Yamaha's U.S. headquarters). It had four 7" monochrome video monitors, each displaying the parameters of one of the four operators within the GS1/2. At that time a single "operator" was a 14"-square circuit board -- this was of course long before Yamaha condensed the FM circuitry to a single ASIC. The GS1/GS2 programmer's envelope circuitry had well over 50 "break points"...but these proved quite ineffective in modifying sounds, hence the subsequent regress to the analog-synth type ADSR envelope generators in the design of the DX series instruments.


During the time period from 1981-1984, Yamaha built a recording studio on Los Feliz Boulevard in Los Angeles dubbed the "Yamaha R&D Studio". Besides operating as a commercial recording studio facility, it served as a test area for new musical instrument products sold by what then was called the "Combo" division of Yamaha.


The Japanese engineers in Hamamatsu failed to create more than a handful of pleasing sounds for the GS1 with the 4-monitor programming machine, although one of them was used on the recording of "Africa" by Toto. At one point, Mr. John Chowning was invited to try to assist in creating new sounds with FM Synthesis. He came to the Yamaha R&D Studio, and spent a long time trying to make the FM theory result in a useful musical sound in practice. He gave up by the end of the week.


Thereafter, a select group of prominent studio synthesists was hired by Yamaha to try to create the voice library for the GS1 (with that same programming tool). They included Gary Leuenberger (who at that time owned an acoustic piano outlet in San Francisco), and Bo Tomlyn (who later founded Key Clique, a third-party DX7 software manufacturer).


Between Gary and Bo (and a third programmer hired in the United Kingdom named David Bristow), they created the bulk of the voices for the GS1 and GS2 that really caught the attention of both musicians and musical instrument dealers in the Yamaha channel, through both NAMM (National Association of Music Merchants) demonstrations and in-store demonstrations. Yamaha reports indicated that only 16 GS-1's were ever produced, and they were all either showcase pieces or donated to Yamaha-sponsored artists, which included (in the U.S.) Stevie Wonder, Toto, Herbie Hancock, and Chick Corea. Despite the fact that it wasn't actually sold (in the U.S.), the GS-1 bore a retail price of about $16,000, and the GS-2 was priced around $8,000.


The CE20 and CE25 "combo ensembles" were sold in the home piano/organ channel in the U.S., but they were accepted to a limited extent in the "professional" music scene. Their sounds were programmed in Japan by some of the engineering staff members who had been working on the GS1 and GS2.


The hardware-based FM "programmer" for the CE20/25 was a rack of breadboard electronics about the size of a telephone booth. The first DX7 print brochure distributed around the world included a picture of that programmer.


At one time, a young Yamaha engineer was assigned the odious task of listening to real instrument recordings, and trying to emulate them with that crude FM synthesis programmer for the CE20/25's EPROM's. That particular engineer was supposedly "locked" in a laboratory for an extended period of time, but eventually failed to produce what the U.S. market thought of as good results in terms of viable synthesizer voices.[citation needed]


Even though the CE20/25 lacked very many commercially pleasing sounds, there were a couple of notable recordings produced in the U.S. utilizing the CE20, including Al Jarreau's "Mornin'".


Further, despite the fact that there was a lot of internal pressure from product management within the Yamaha International US division, (fueled by the fact that was going on at the time in terms of the adoption of the MIDI standard by many other companies in the industry), it was decided that the CE20 and CE25 did not need MIDI, since they were relegated to the "home" channel.


While all of this was going on, the DX7 development team was working on what would be the most successful Yamaha professional keyboard to date at the Nippon Gakki headquarters in Hamamatsu.


They called in the Yamaha International Corporation product managers from the U.S., and held a series of critical meetings in Hamamatsu to review their design concepts.


The Nippon Gakki engineering team was headed by "Karl" Hirano. At that time, many of the Japanese engineers who interfaced with US product managers adopted "American" nicknames. Hirano selected "Karl" because he liked Karl Malden (who at the time, was on the long-running television show, "Streets of San Francisco" with Michael Douglas.)


Key to their design approach during the development stage(1981-82) was that, like the CE20 and CE25, the DX7 should be a "pre-set" synth, with only factory sounds, and no programming capability. Their rationale behind this was the extreme difficulty that the Yamaha team, Bo, Gary, and others had experienced at wielding FM synthesis and the multi-operator algorithms to make good sounds.


Luckily, the American product management staff had their way: to make the DX7 (and the relatively unsuccessful DX9) completely programmable instruments. As a result, the DX7 was an unheralded success, literally hundreds of great sounds were created, and an entire industry surrounding 3rd-party sounds was spawned. Further, as mentioned previously, OEM chipsets in PCs with the FM synthesis engine became standard fare in that industry.


Many of the preset "General MIDI" sounds in Wintel PCs are exact-DNA clones of numerous sounds originally created by Bo, Gary, Dave Bristow, and a handful of other synthesists. Some even retain the same or similar names that were given them during the DX7 era.


When the DX7 was finally introduced in the U.S., Bo Tomlyn, Peter Rochon (from Yamaha Canada) and other Yamaha staff went on the road to show off the product to the North American Yamaha dealer network. Those seminars included what was thought then to be a key element....training the dealers in how to operate and program the DX7. This was a vivid indication that the concern raised in Hamamatsu over the difficulty level of programming the machine had still persisted.


But, demand was so high for the DX7 the first year of introduction that a "grey market" influx of units originally purchased in Akihabara and other electronics outlets in Tokyo and other parts of Japan, quickly developed, and that became a serious concern for Yamaha International Corporation management.


A rumor was propagated by unknown people at Yamaha (or dealers) that the Japanese units would "blow up" upon being plugged into 120V AC outlets in the U.S., and that the sounds were different from the U.S. version. The latter "rumor" was true. The ROM cartridges included in the Japanese version of the DX7 were different from the American release....the U.S. version had many more of the pleasing sounds created by Bo Tomlyn and Gary Leuenberger.


The DX7 exceeded Yamaha's wildest expectations in terms of unit sales; it took many months for production to catch up with demand. The DX9 failed, most prominently because it was a four-operator (vs six in the DX7) FM and had a cassette tape storage system for voice loading/recording.


The rack-mounted TX216 and TX816, although relatively powerful studio instruments at that time, were also poor sellers, due to lack of support and difficult user interface.


After the successful introduction of the DX series, Bo Tomlyn, along with Mike Malizola (the original DX-7 Yamaha product manager) and Chuck Monte (founder of Dyno-My-Piano), founded "Key Clique, Inc.", which sold thousands of ROM cartridges with new FM/DX7 sounds (programmed by Bo) to DX7 owners around the world. Ironically, Key Clique's "Rhodes-electric-piano" voices led to the relative demise of the Fender Rhodes piano, and even the business started by co-founder Monte (Dyno-My-Piano's principal product was a Rhodes modification kit). Later, however, Key Clique's strong dominance in that marketplace was eventually eroded by people "sharing" Tomlyn voice parameter settings over Bulletin Boards on early computers, and many competitors entered the market all at once.


The final outcome was not far afield from what the Yamaha engineers had originally been concerned about....the huge library of sounds that propagated throughout the music industry for the FM instruments were actually created by only a handful of synth programmers. In numerous interviews and case studies conducted by Yamaha product management with both retail store owners and keyboardists, it was discovered that the average DX7 purchaser hardly ever wanted...or needed...to program his or her own synthesizer voices, since it was so difficult, and because there were so many great sounds available "off the shelf".


At the time when the FM Synthesis technology was first licensed from Stanford University, just about everyone in management at both Nippon Gakki and Yamaha International in the U.S. thought that FM would be "long-gone" by the time the license ran out (about 1996). That turned out to be completely untrue - witness the flourishing of the technology in the OPL chipsets in the majority of PCs around the world over the past many years (as mentioned previously in this article).


The list of prominent musical recordings utilizing the DX7 and the myriad of other FM synthesizers that were introduced later is significant, and new compositions utilizing FM are added to the world music library all the time. Software emulation of the DX7 voice library (including many of the Key Clique sounds) exists today in a wide range of both professional and 'pro-sumer' studio software products.


PCM synthesis

One kind of synthesizer starts with a binary digital recording of an existing sound. This is called a PCM sample, and is replayed at a range of pitches. Sample playback takes the place of the oscillator found in other synthesizers. The sound is (by most) still processed with synthesizer effects such as filters, LFOs, ring modulators and the like. Most music workstations use this method of synthesis. Often, the pitch of the sample isn't changed, but it is simply played back at a faster speed. For example, in order to shift the frequency of a sound one octave higher, it simply needs to be played at double speed. Playing a sample at half speed causes it to be shifted down by one octave, and so on. PCM redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By contrast, an instrument which primarily records and plays back samples is called a sampler. If a sample playback instrument neither records samples nor processes samples as a synthesizer, it is a rompler. An AKAI MPC2000 sampler Playing a Yamaha SU10 Sampler A sampler is an electronic music instrument closely related to a synthesizer. ... Rompler is a nickname for an electronic musical instrument that specializes in the playback of samples stored in ROM chips. ...


Because of the nature of digital sound storage (sound being measured in fractions of time), anti-aliasing and interpolation techniques (among others) have to be involved to get a natural sounding waveform as end result - especially if more than one note is being played, and/or if arbitrary tone intervals are used. The calculations on sample-data needs to be of great precision (for high quality, >32bits, more like 64bits at least) especially if a lot of different parameters are needed to make a specific sound: more than a few parameters, a lot of calculations need to be made, to avoid the rounding errors of the different calculations taking place. In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. ... In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points from a discrete set of known data points. ...


PCM-sound is obtainable even with a 1-bit system, but the sound is terrible with mostly noise, as there are only two levels, on and off (for example, the MS Windows PC Speaker Driver[1] allows to play a WAV file by only switching on and off quickly the simple built-in beep speaker). Since the beginning of PCM synthesis (<1970), almost all number of bits from 1 to 32 have been used, but today the most common ones are 16 and 24bits, going towards 32bits as the next jump up in quality. Microsoft Windows is a range of commercial operating environments for personal computers. ... WAV (or WAVE), short for Waveform audio format, is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing audio on PCs. ...


The physical modeling synthesizer

Physical modeling synthesis is the synthesis of sound by using a set of equations and algorithms to simulate a physical source of sound. When an initial set of parameters is run through the physical simulation, the simulated sound is generated. Physical modelling synthesis is the synthesis of sound by using a set of equations and algorithms to simulate a physical source of sound. ...


Although physical modeling was not a new concept in acoustics and synthesis, it wasn't until the development of the Karplus-Strong algorithm, the subsequent refinement and generalization of the algorithm into digital waveguide synthesis by Julius O. Smith III and others, and the increase in DSP power in the late 1980s that commercial implementations became feasible. Karplus-Strong string synthesis is a method of physical modelling synthesis that loops a short waveform through a filtered delay line to simulate the sound of a hammered or plucked string or some types of percussion. ... Digital waveguide synthesis is the synthesis of audio using a digital waveguide. ...


Following the success of Yamaha's licensing of Stanford's FM synthesis patent, Yamaha signed a contract with Stanford University in 1989 to jointly develop digital waveguide synthesis. As such, most patents related to the technology are owned by Stanford or Yamaha. A physical modeling synthesizer was first realized commercially with Yamaha's VL-1, which was released in 1994. Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


The modern digital synthesizer and the analogue revival

Since the mid to late 1980s most new synthesizers have been completely digital. At the same time analogue synthesizers have also revived in popularity, so in recent years the two trends have sometimes combined in the appearance of virtual analog synthesizers, digital synthesizers which model analog synthesis using digital signal processing techniques. New analogue instruments now also accompany the large number from the digital world (see Analog synthesizer and Digital synthesizer). For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... For the Analog Science Fiction and Science Fact publication, see Astounding Magazine. ... Analog Modeling Synthesizer, also referred to as Virtual Analog or VA is a synthesizer that emulates the sounds of traditional analog synthesizers using digital signal processing high quality samples of analog sound waves. ... An analog synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses analog circuits and analog computer techniques to generate sound electronically. ... A digital synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to make musical sounds. ...


Digital Synthesis

Digital synthesizers use digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to make musical sounds. Some digital synthesizers now exist in the form of 'softsynth' software that synthesizes sound using conventional PC hardware. Others use specialized DSP hardware. Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. ... A software synthesizer, also known as a softsynth or virtual instrument is a computer program for digital audio generation. ...


Digital synthesizers generate a digital sample, corresponding to a sound pressure, at a given sampling frequency (typically 44100 samples per second). In the most basic case, each digital oscillator is modeled by a counter. For each sample, the counter of each oscillator is advanced by an amount that varies depending on the frequency of the oscillator. For harmonic oscillators, the counter indexes a table containing the oscillator's waveform. For random-noise oscillators, the most significant bits index a table of random numbers. The values indexed by each oscillator's counter are mixed, processed, and then sent to a digital-to-analog converter, followed by an analog amplifier.


To eliminate the difficult multiplication step in the envelope generation and mixing, some synthesizers perform all of the above operations in a logarithmic coding, and add the current ADSR and mix levels to the logarithmic value of the oscillator, to effectively multiply it. To add the values in the last step of mixing, they are converted to linear values.


Fingerboard synthesizer

A fingerboard synthesizer is a synthesizer with a ribbon controller or other fingerboard-like user interface used to control parameters of the sound processing. A ribbon controller is similar to a touchpad, however most of ribbon controllers only register linear motion. Although it could be used to operate any sound parameter, a ribbon controller is most commonly associated with pitch control or pitch bending. A ribbon controller is a user interface used to control parameters of electronic musical instruments, primarily used with analogue synthesizers. ... For other uses, see Fingerboard (disambiguation). ... Touchpad and a pointing stick on an IBM Laptop Low resolution close up of a touchpad with a locking button. ... A variable speed pitch control (or vari-speed) is a control on an audio device such as a turntable, reel-to-reel, tape deck or CD player that allows the operator to deviate from a standard speed (such as 33⅓ or 45 rpm in the case of a turntable). ... Portamento is a musical term currently used to mean pitch bending or sliding, and in 16th century polyphonic writing refers to a type of musical ornamentation. ...


Old types of fingerboard were resistor-based with the long wire pressed to the resistive plate. The modern ribbon controller has no moving parts. Instead, a finger pressed down and moved along it creates an electrical contact at some point along a pair of thin, flexible longitudinal strips whose electric potential varies from one end to the other.


Different fingerboards instruments were developed like the Ondes Martenot, the Hellertion, the Heliophon, the Trautonium, the Electro-Theremin, the Fingerboard-Theremin, The Persephone, etc. Ondes martenot demonstrated by inventor Maurice Martenot The Ondes Martenot (or Ondes-Martenot or Ondes martenot or Ondium Martenot or Martenot or ondes musicale) is an early electronic musical instrument with a keyboard and slide invented in 1928 by Maurice Martenot, and originally very similar in sound to the Theremin. ... The trautonium is a monophonic electronic musical instrument invented ca. ... The Electro-Theremin aka Tannerin is a unique electronic musical instrument developed by trombonist Paul Tanner and amateur inventor Bob Whitsell in the late 1950s. ... The Persephone is an analogue fingerboard synthesizer in the tradition of the first ribbon controled instruments from the 1920s. ...


Ribbon controller is used as an additional controller in the Yamaha CS-80, the Korg Prophecy, the Kurzweil synthesizers, Moog synthesizers etc. Ribbon controller can serve as a main MIDI controller instead of keyboard (Continuum). The Yamaha CS-80 was a polyphonic analog synthesizer released in 1977. ... The Korg Prophecy is considered one of the earliest (mid-nineties) virtual analog (a. ... Kurzweil Music Systems is a company that produces electronic musical instruments for professionals and home users. ... The term Moog(pronounced // as in moan) synthesizer can refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Dr. Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for analog and digital music synthesisers. ... The Continuum is a music performance controller developed by Lippold Haken and sold by Haken Audio, located in Champaign, Illinois. ...


Software-only synthesis

The earliest digital synthesis was performed by software synthesizers on mainframe computers using methods exactly like those described in digital synthesis, above. Music was coded using punch cards to describe the type of instrument, note and duration. The formants of each timbre were generated as a series of sine waves, converted to fixed-point binary suitable for digital-to-analog converters, and mixed by adding and averaging. The data was written slowly to computer tape and then played back in real time to generate the music. A software synthesizer, also known as a softsynth or virtual instrument is a computer program for digital audio generation. ...


Today, a variety of software is available to run on modern high-speed personal computers. DSP algorithms are commonplace, and permit the creation of fairly accurate simulations of physical acoustic sources or electronic sound generators (oscillators, filters, VCAs, etc). Some commercial programs offer quite lavish and complex models of classic synthesizers--everything from the Yamaha DX7 to the original Moog modular. Other programs allow the user complete control of all aspects of digital music synthesis, at the cost of greater complexity and difficulty of use. The Yamaha DX7 Digital Synthesizer The Yamaha DX7 was a synthesizer manufactured by the Yamaha Corporation from 1983 to 1986, based on FM synthesis. ...


Virtual Orchestra

A digital musical instrument, or musical network, capable of simulating the sonic and behavioral characteristics of a traditional acoustic orchestra in real time. The instrument often incorporates various synthesis and sound generating techniques. The Virtual Orchestra is demarcated from traditional keyboard-based synthesizers due to its live performance capabilities which include the ability to follow a conductor's tempo and respond to a variety of musical nuances in real time. The instrument's intelligence is achieved through sophisticated decision making algorithms that utilize knowledge and information from relevant areas of specialization including acoustics, psychoacoustics, music history, and music theory, for example. Virtual Orchestra Is a term used to identify a variety of different types of technology and art forms. ...


Commercial synthesizer manufacturers

Notable synthesizer manufacturers past and present include:

For a more complete list see Category:Synthesizer manufacturers Access Music is the music company that produced the Virus synthesizer product line. ... Alesis is a manufacturer of electronic musical instruments owned by Numark and based in Cumberland, Rhode Island. ... ARP Instruments, Inc. ... Arturia is a software company, located in Grenoble, France, and founded in 1999 by Frédéric Brun and Gilles Pommereuil, both INPG-qualified engineers. ... Akai () was a Japanese consumer electronics producer founded in 1929. ... Buchla & Associates is a manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, notably synthesizers. ... Casio Computer Co. ... Clavia is a Swedish virtual analog synthesizer and digital percussion system manufacturer founded in Stockholm, Sweden in 1983 by Hans Nordelius and Mikael Carlsson. ... Crumar is an Italian company which manufactured synthesizers and keyboards in the 70s and 80s. ... Doepfer Musikelektronik GmbH Doepfer is a manufacturer of audio hardware based in Gräfelfing/Germany, founded in 1992 by Dieter Döpfer. ... Electronic Music Studios (London) Ltd. ... E-mu Systems was a synthesizer maker and pioneer in the manufacture of low-cost digital sampling music workstations. ... Ensoniq Corp. ... This article is about the demo/warez group. ... Generalmusic is an Italy based musical company which focuses on Digital&Acoustic Pianos, Synthesizers and Arranger Workstations. ... The Kawai Musical Instruments Mfg. ... For comic book character, see Korg (comics). ... Kurzweil Music Systems is a company that produces electronic musical instruments for professionals and home users. ... M-Audio logo M-Audio (formerly Midiman), a business unit of Avid Technology, is a manufacturer of a variety of digital audio workstation interfaces, keyboard MIDI controllers, condenser microphones, and studio monitors, among other products. ... The Moog Music logo Moog Music Inc. ... It has been suggested that Traktor DJ Studio be merged into this article or section. ... New England Digital Corp. ... Novation (full title: Novation Electronic Music Systems), is an English based company founded in 1992. ... Oberheim Electronics is a company, founded in 1973 by Tom Oberheim (a former design engineer at Maestro), which manufactured audio synthesizers and a variety of other electronic musical instruments. ... PAiA Electronics, Inc. ... Palm Products GmbH, commonly abbreviated to PPG, was a synthesizer manufacturing company. ... Roland Corporation ) TYO: 7944 is a Japanese manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, electronic equipment and software. ... Sequential Circuits Inc. ... Technics is a brand name of the Japanese company Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Waldorf Music AG is a now insolvent german synthesizer company. ... The headquarters of Yamaha Corporation Yamaha redirects here. ...


Classic synthesizer designs

This is intended to be a list of classic instruments which marked a turning point in musical sound or style, potentially worth an article of their own. They are listed with the names of performers or styles associated with them. For more synthesizer models see Category:Synthesizers.

The Andromeda A6 is a 16-voice, 16-channel multitimbral analogue synthesizer by Alesis and was released in 2000, before the company went bankrupt and was acquired by Numark Industries. ... Duran Duran are an English pop group notable for a long series of popular singles and vivid music videos. ... Nine Inch Nails (abbreviated as NIN) is an American industrial rock band, founded in 1988 by Trent Reznor in Cleveland, Ohio. ... The ARP 2600 was semi-professional before being made popular. ... The Who are a British rock band that first formed in 1964, and grew to be considered one of the greatest[1] and most influential[2] bands in the world. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music group formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ... Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins on May 13, 1950, name later changed to Stevland Hardaway Morris),[1] is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and record producer. ... For the song Weather Report by The American Analog Set, see The Golden Band. ... Edgar Winter (born December 28, 1946 in Beaumont, Texas) is an American musician who had significant success in the 1970s and 1980s. ... Jean-Michel André Jarre (born August 24, 1948 in Lyon, France) is a French composer, performer and music producer. ... The ARP Odyssey was an analog synthesizer introduced in 1972. ... For the video game programmer Garry Newman, see Garrys Mod. ... Ultravox (formerly Ultravox!) was one of the primary exponents of the British electronic pop music movement of the early 1980s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Styx (pronounced sticks) is an American rock band that was popular in the 1970s and 1980s, with such hits as Come Sail Away, Babe, Lady, Suite Madame Blue, Mr. ... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940) is an Academy Award and multiple Grammy Award-winning jazz pianist and composer from Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Hancock is one of jazz musics most important and influential pianists and composers. ... Buchla & Associates is a manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, notably synthesizers. ... Morton Subotnick (born April 13, 1933) is an American composer of electronic music, best known for his Silver Apples of the Moon, the first electronic work commissioned by a record company, Nonesuch, and composed on the Buchla modular synthesizer which he helped to design. ... Suzanne Ciani is a pioneer in electronic music and one of the few women to blaze a trail in the genre. ... Casio made programmable synthesizers very affordable in the mid-1980s with their CZ series of Phase distortion synthesizers. ... This article is about the a musical group Erasure. ... This article is about the musical group. ... Not to be confused with Mooby. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Photograph of a Casio VL-Tone VL-1 The VL-1 was the first synthesizer of Casios VL-Tone product line, and is sometimes referred to as the VL-Tone. ... Trio (1981) album cover Trio (sometimes written TRIO) was a German band that formed in 1980 and disbanded in 1985. ... Clavia Nord Lead is the first virtual analog subtractive synthesizer developed in Sweden, being released to the public by Clavia in 1995. ... Polysics are a Japanese new wave/Rock band from Tokyo, who personally dub their unique style as technicolor pogo punk. The band started in 1997, but got their big break in 1998 at a concert in Tokyo. ... Nine Inch Nails (abbreviated as NIN) is an American industrial rock band, founded in 1988 by Trent Reznor in Cleveland, Ohio. ... God Lives Underwater is an industrial techno rock band from rural Perkiomenville, Pennsylvania (near Philadelphia) formed in 1993 by band members David Reilly and Jeff Turzo. ... Zoot Woman is a British pop band which plays electronic rock music. ... The Weathermen. ... Jean-Michel André Jarre (born August 24, 1948 in Lyon, France) is a French composer, performer and music producer. ... The VCS 3 (from Voltage Control for Studio with 3 components) is an oscillation effects musical analog synthesiser, initially made in 1969 by EMS. The VCS 3 was smaller and less cumbersome than the Moog Taurus and similar early synthesizers. ... Roxy Music are an English art rock group founded in the early 1970s by art school graduate Bryan Ferry (vocals and keyboards). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... The BBC Radiophonic Workshop, one of the sound effects units of the BBC, was created in 1958 to produce effects and new music for radio, and was closed in March 1998, although much of its traditional work had already been outsourced by 1995. ... Brian Eno (pronounced IPA: ) born on 15 May 1948 in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England) is an English electronic musician, music theorist and record producer. ... This article is about the musical group. ... After seeing a Fairlight CMI at a convention in 1979, E-mu founders Scott Wedge and Dave Rossum began working on designing a less expensive sampler. ... For other uses, see Resident. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music group formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ... This article is about the rock band. ... Genesis is an English rock band formed in 1967. ... The Fairlight CMI (Computer Musical Instrument) was the first digital sampling synthesizer. ... Thomas Dolby (born Thomas Morgan Robertson, on 14 October 1958) is an English musician, producer, and inventor. ... Jean-Michel André Jarre (born August 24, 1948 in Lyon, France) is a French composer, performer and music producer. ... Jan Hammer (IPA: ) (born 17 April 1948, in Prague, then Czechoslovakia, today part of the Czech Republic). ... Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Cobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940) is an Academy Award and multiple Grammy Award-winning jazz pianist and composer from Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Hancock is one of jazz musics most important and influential pianists and composers. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ... Pet Shop Boys are a Grammy Award nominated British synthpop/pop music/electronic music duo, consisting of Neil Tennant who provides main vocals, keyboards and very occasionally guitar, and Chris Lowe on keyboards and occasionally on vocals. ... Art of Noise Edited twelve inch single featured the iconic Art of Noise mask Art of Noise was an avant-garde synthpop group formed in 1983 by producer Trevor Horn, music journalist Paul Morley, and session musicians/studio hands Anne Dudley, J.J. Jeczalik, and Gary Langan. ... Kate Bush (born 30 July 1958) is an English singer, songwriter, musician and record producer. ... An electronic musical instrument designed and built by industry designer Axel Hartmann of the German company Hartmann Music in the years 2001-2005. ... Hans Florian Zimmer (born September 12, 1957) is an Academy Award, Grammy, and Golden Globe award-winning film score composer from Germany. ... Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Cobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ... Guns N Roses is an American hard rock band, formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985. ... David Sylvian (born David Alan Batt, 23 February 1958, in Beckenham, Kent, UK) is an English singer, musician and composer who first gained attention as the lead vocalist and main songwriter in the band Japan. ... The Korg DSS-1, released in 1986, is a hybrid of analog, digital, and sampling-based synthesis. ... Uriah Heep are an English rock band, formed in December 1969 when record producer Gerry Bron invited keyboardist Ken Hensley (previously a member of The Gods and Toe Fat) to join Spice, a band signed to his own Bronze Records label. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Josef Erich Zawinul (July 7, 1932 – September 11, 2007) was a jazz keyboardist and composer. ... The Korg KARMA music workstation was released in 2001 as a specialised member of the Korg Triton family. ... Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Cobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ... Jordan Rudess (born Jordan Rudes on November 4, 1956) is a progressive rock keyboardist best known as a member of the progressive metal band Dream Theater. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Korg M1 The Korg M1 was the worlds first widely-known music workstation and is the best-selling digital keyboard of all time, surpassing even the Yamaha DX7. ... Bradley Joseph (born in 1965) is an American composer, pianist, keyboardist, arranger, and recording artist, performing on the international stage for many years with artists such as Yanni and Grammy-winner Sheena Easton, as well as having vast experience with artists from RCA, Epic Records, Warner Bros. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... Pet Shop Boys are a Grammy Award nominated British synthpop/pop music/electronic music duo, consisting of Neil Tennant who provides main vocals, keyboards and very occasionally guitar, and Chris Lowe on keyboards and occasionally on vocals. ... This article is about the band. ... Korg Triton Classic Korg Triton is a music workstation synthesizer featuring digital sampling and sequencing created by Korg. ... Bradley Joseph (born in 1965) is an American composer, pianist, keyboardist, arranger, and recording artist, performing on the international stage for many years with artists such as Yanni and Grammy-winner Sheena Easton, as well as having vast experience with artists from RCA, Epic Records, Warner Bros. ... Derek Sherinian (born August 25, 1966 in Laguna Beach, California) is a ‎rock and fusion keyboardist based in Los Angeles, California. ... The Korg Wavestation was a vector synthesis synthesizer marketed in the early 1990s. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music group formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ... For the video game programmer Garry Newman, see Garrys Mod. ... Genesis is an English rock band formed in 1967. ... Jan Hammer (IPA: ) (born 17 April 1948, in Prague, then Czechoslovakia, today part of the Czech Republic). ... The Kurzweil 250 a. ... Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins on May 13, 1950, name later changed to Stevland Hardaway Morris),[1] is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and record producer. ... Paul Shaffer Paul Allen Wood Shaffer (born November 28, 1949 in Fort William (now Thunder Bay), Ontario, Canada) is a Canadian-American musician, actor, voice actor, author, comedian and composer currently seen as the bandleader on the Late Show with David Letterman. ... The Kurzweil K2000 represents nothing less than the Perfect Electronic Instrument. ... Jean-Michel André Jarre (born August 24, 1948 in Lyon, France) is a French composer, performer and music producer. ... Richard William Rick Wright (born July 28, 1943 in Hatch End, London) is a self-taught pianist and keyboardist best known for his long career with Pink Floyd. ... Duran Duran are an English pop group notable for a long series of popular singles and vivid music videos. ... The lyricon is an electronic wind instrument, the first to be constructed. ... Michael Brecker (March 29, 1949 – January 13th, 2007) was a popular US jazz saxophonist and composer. ... There are different people named Tom Scott: Tom Scott, Scottish poet. ... Chuck Greenberg (1950 - 1995) was an musical artist, composer and producer born in Chicago, Illinois, on March 25, 1950. ... Wayne Shorter (born August 25, 1933) is an American jazz composer and saxophonist. ... Moog modular synthesizer refers to any of a number of monophonic analog modular synthesizers designed by the late electronic instrument pioneer Dr. Robert Moog and manufactured by R.A Moog Co. ... Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos, November 14, 1939) is an American composer and electronic musician. ... Isao Tomita , born April 22, 1932), is a renowned Japanese electronic music composer. ... Tontos Expanding Head Band was an influential electronic music duo from the 1970s, despite releasing a relatively small number of albums. ... ELP can also stand for Extra Long Play, a format for the VCR tape. ... The first model of the Moog Taurus bass pedal synthesizer was created and manufactured by Moog Music from 1976 to 1981. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band comprising bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... Genesis is an English rock band formed in 1967. ... This article is about the rock band. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Minimoog is a monophonic analog synthesizer, invented by David van Koevering and Robert Moog. ... For the video game programmer Garry Newman, see Garrys Mod. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band comprising bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ELP can also stand for Extra Long Play, a format for the VCR tape. ... Stereolab are an English alternative music band formed in 1990 in London. ... Devo (pronounced DEE-vo or dee-VO, often spelled DEVO or DEV-O) is an American New Wave group formed in Akron, Ohio in 1972. ... George Duke (born 12 January 1946 in San Rafael, California) is a piano and synthesizer pioneer, making a name for himself with the album Jean-Luc Ponty Experience with the George Duke Trio. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sun Ra (Born Herman Poole Blount; legal name Le Sonyr Ra;[1] born May 22, 1914 in Birmingham, Alabama, died May 30, 1993 in Birmingham, Alabama) was an innovative jazz composer, bandleader, piano and synthesizer player, poet and philosopher known for his cosmic philosophy, musical compositions and performances. ... Synclavier I The Synclavier System was an early digital synthesizer and sampler, manufactured by New England Digital. ... Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958), commonly known as MJ as well as the King of Pop, is an American musician, entertainer, and pop icon whose successful career and controversial personal life have been a part of pop culture for the last three decades. ... Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins on May 13, 1950, name later changed to Stevland Hardaway Morris),[1] is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and record producer. ... Laurie Anderson (born Laura Phillips Anderson, on June 5, 1947, in Glen Ellyn, Illinois) is an American experimental performance artist and musician. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sean Callery is a Emmy winning film and television composer best known for writing the theme to the action/drama 24, a TV series for which he also composed 2 full soundtracks. ... The Oberheim OB-Xa was Oberheims overhaul of their first compact synthesizer, the OB-X. The OB-Xa was released in 1980, a year after the OB-X was released. ... For the video game programmer Garry Newman, see Garrys Mod. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band comprising bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... The Artist redirects here. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... Styx (pronounced sticks) is an American rock band that was popular in the 1970s and 1980s, with such hits as Come Sail Away, Babe, Lady, Suite Madame Blue, Mr. ... This article is about the band. ... This article is about the band Van Halen. ... Palm Products GmbH, commonly abbreviated to PPG, was a synthesizer manufacturing company. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band comprising bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music group formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ... For the video game programmer Garry Newman, see Garrys Mod. ... Nine Inch Nails (abbreviated as NIN) is an American industrial rock band, founded in 1988 by Trent Reznor in Cleveland, Ohio. ... The cover of The Fixs first single from 1981: Subsequently the band would change their name to The Fixx, after learning of another band with a prior claim on the name The Fix. ... Thomas Dolby (born Thomas Morgan Robertson, on 14 October 1958) is an English musician, producer, and inventor. ... Roland D50 is a polyphonic 61-key synthesizer by Roland. ... Jean-Michel André Jarre (born August 24, 1948 in Lyon, France) is a French composer, performer and music producer. ... For the letter Ñ pronounced Enye, see Ñ. Enya (born Eithne Patricia Ní Bhraonáin[4] on 17 May 1961, Gaoth Dobhair, County Donegal, Ireland), sometimes presented in the media as Enya Brennan, is an Irish singer and songwriter. ... This article is about the a musical group Erasure. ... For the video game programmer Garry Newman, see Garrys Mod. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bradley Joseph (born in 1965) is an American composer, pianist, keyboardist, arranger, and recording artist, performing on the international stage for many years with artists such as Yanni and Grammy-winner Sheena Easton, as well as having vast experience with artists from RCA, Epic Records, Warner Bros. ... Genesis is an English rock band formed in 1967. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music group formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ... MC Hammer (born Stanley Kirk Burrell on March 30, 1962) is an American MC who was popular during the late 1980s and early 1990s, known for his dramatic rise to and fall from fame and fortune, his trademark Hammer pants, and for leaving a lasting influence on hip hop culture... For the video game programmer Garry Newman, see Garrys Mod. ... William Orbit ( born on 15 December 1956 as William Mark Wainwright in Shoreditch, Hackney) is an English musician and record producer, perhaps best known to most for his work on Madonnas album Ray of Light, which received four Grammy Awards. ... The Roland JP-8000 is an analog modeling synthesizer released by the Roland Corporation in 1997. ... The Crystal Method is an American electronic music duo consisting of Ken Jordan and Scott Kirkland. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music group formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ... The Prodigy (or just Prodigy)[1] are an English band. ... The Roland Jupiter-4, released in 1978, was not only the first of Rolands legendary Jupiter series of synthesizers, but it was also Rolands first self-contained polyphonic synthesizer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Duran Duran are an English pop group notable for a long series of popular singles and vivid music videos. ... The Human League are an award winning, Grammy nominated British synthpop/New Wave band formed in 1977 who, after a key change in line up, achieved great popularity in the 1980s. ... Simple Minds is a rock band from Scotland, which had its greatest worldwide popularity from the mid-1980s to the early-1990s. ... The Jupiter-8, Rolands flagship analog synthesizer of the early 1980s is an eight-voice polyphonic synth and is considered one of the greatest synths of all time. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band comprising bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... Duran Duran are an English pop group notable for a long series of popular singles and vivid music videos. ... Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (often abbreviated to OMD) are a synth pop group whose founder members are originally from the Wirral Peninsula, UK. OMD record for Virgin Records (originally for Virgins DinDisc subsidiary). ... Huey Lewis & The News is a Grammy winning and Academy Award nominated US rock band based in San Francisco, California. ... The Roland TB-303 Bass Line is a synthesizer with built-in sequencer manufactured by the Roland corporation in 1982 that had a defining role in the development of contemporary electronic music. ... Techno is a form of electronic music that emerged in the mid-1980s and primarily refers to a particular style developed in and around Detroit and subsequently adopted by European producers. ... For the 1994 novel by Irvine Welsh, see The Acid House. ... The Prophet 5 was an analog synthesizer manufactured by Sequential Circuits in San Jose, California between 1978 and 1984. ... Not to be confused with the band Anberlin. ... For other uses, see Phil Collins (disambiguation). ... The Cars were an American rock band, fronted by Ric Ocasek, that emerged from the early punk scene in the late 1970s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Cobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ... Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins on May 13, 1950, name later changed to Stevland Hardaway Morris),[1] is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and record producer. ... The Yamaha DX7 was a synthesizer manufactured by the Yamaha Corporation from 1983 to 1986, based on FM synthesis developed by John Chowning. ... a-ha is a Grammy Award-nominated band from Norway. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band comprising bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music group formed in 1980, in Basildon, Essex, England. ... Zoot Woman is a British pop band which plays electronic rock music. ... This article is about the band. ... Brian Eno (pronounced IPA: ) born on 15 May 1948 in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England) is an English electronic musician, music theorist and record producer. ... Howard Jones (born John Howard Jones, 23 February 1955) is an English singer and songwriter who gained acclaim in the 1980s. ... Nitzer Ebb (pronounced night-zer or nit-zer—the band themselves pronounce it either way) is a music group formed in 1982 by Essex schoolfriends Douglas McCarthy (vocals, synthesizer), Vaughan (Bon) Harris on synthesizers and drums, and David Gooday. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Yamaha SHS-10 keytar The Yamaha SHS-10 is a keytar (i. ... Showbread is a Christian Post-hardcore/Alternative band from the Savannah, Georgia area. ... The Yamaha CS-80 was a polyphonic analog synthesizer released in 1977. ... Evangelos Odysseas Papathanassiou (Greek: Ευάγγελος Οδυσσέας Παπαθανασίου IPA: ) is a world-renowned Greek composer of electronic, new age and classical music and musical performer, under the artist name Vangelis Papathanassiou (Βαγγέλης Παπαθανασίου) or just Vangelis (a diminutive of Evangelos) [IPA: or ]. He is best known for his Academy Award winning score for the film Chariots...

See also

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Computer music is music generated with, or composed with the aid of, computers. ... The Continuum is a music performance controller developed by Lippold Haken and sold by Haken Audio, located in Champaign, Illinois. ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ... Free audio software is free software that can be used to listen to, modify, create and/or author audio signals and music. ... An electronic keyboard. ... A guitar/synthesizer (also guitar synthesizer, guitar/synth, or guitar synth) is any one of a number of systems originally conceived to allow a guitarist to play synthesizers. ... A Yamaha SHS-10 keytar Mute Math frontman Paul Meany playing his Korg RK-100 A keytar is a keyboard or synthesizer worn around the neck and shoulders, similar to a guitar. ... Sine, square, triangle, and sawtooth waveforms The modular synthesizer is a type of synthesizer consisting of separate modules which must be connected by wires (patch cords) to create a so-called patch. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Musician with a multimodal instrument based on electromyography, position sensing, and acoustically resonant bowls. ... An AKAI MPC2000 sampler Playing a Yamaha SU10 Sampler A sampler is an electronic music instrument closely related to a synthesizer. ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals, and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ... A software synthesizer, also known as a softsynth or virtual instrument is a computer program for digital audio generation. ... Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... A Sound module (sometimes referred to as tone generator) is an electronic musical instrument without a human-playable interface such as a keyboard, for example. ... Speech coding is the compression of speech (into a code) for transmission with speech codecs that use audio signal processing and speech processing techniques. ... A vocoder (name derived from voice encoder, formerly also called voder) is a speech analyzer and synthesizer. ... Léon Theremin playing an early theremin The theremin (originally pronounced but often anglicized as [1]), or thereminvox, is one of the earliest fully electronic musical instruments. ... The Dubreq Stylophone was a miniature electronic musical instrument invented in 1967 by Brian Jarvis. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ How to Install and Use the PC Speaker Driver with Windows [1]

References

  • Gorges, Peter (2005). Programming Synthesizers, ISBN 978-3-934903-48-7.
  • Schmitz, Reinhard (2005). Analog Synthesis, ISBN 978-3-934903-01-2.
  • Shapiro, Peter (2000). Modulations: A History of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words on Sound, ISBN 1-891024-06-X.

External links

  • Progsounds - Online Synthesizer Resource, forums, tutorials and free patches
  • Synth My Life.com - Synthesizers forum
  • 120 years of Electronic Music — Machines used from 1870-1990
  • Vintage Synth Explorer
  • "Principles of Sound Synthesis" from Salford University
  • Synthesizer Database — A synthesizer database
  • Synthesis Magazine — Synthesizers and Sound Design
  • Vintage Synthesizer and Electronic Keyboard Resource -- Famous players, suggested listening, guide to electronic music, and history

  Results from FactBites:
 
What is a Synthesizer? (976 words)
Programming these early synthesizers was a very complicated and tedious process and the synthesizers had no way of storing the patch settings.
The digital synthesizers have a completely different sound clarity, since their internal sounds are stored in memory as arrays of numbers.
The analog synthesizers were usually equipped with an array of good old-fashioned "buttons" and "sliders" on the front panel of the instrument.
Synthesizer (1323 words)
The synthesizer is a type of electronic musical instrument designed to produce artificially generated sound, using techniques such as additive, subtractive, FM and physical modelling synthesis to create sounds.
Most analog synthesizers produce their sound using subtractive synthesis, which means filters[?] and amplifiers[?] are used to manipulate a square or saw-tooth wave produced by an oscillator.
Synthesizers became more usable with the invention in 1983 of MIDI, a digital control interface, and later with the creation of all-digital synthesizers and samplers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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