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Encyclopedia > Synthesis

Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύνθεσις σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. Well known types of synthesis are photosynthesis and dehydration synthesis. Note: This article contains special characters. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Dehydration synthesis is a type of synthesis reaction in which two smaller molecules are joined together by a covalent bond and water is formed (released) in the reaction. ...

Contents

Information Theory

This is the fifth level in Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy and deals with the task of putting together parts to form a new whole. This might involve working with parts and putting them together in a creative new way, or using old ideas to come up with new ones."[1] Benjamin Bloom (21 February 1913 - September 13, 1999) was an American educational psychologist who made significant contributions to the classification of educational objectives and the theory of mastery learning. ...


"The translation of input requirements (including performance, function, and interface) into possible solutions (resources and techniques) satisfying those inputs. Defines a physical architecture of people, product and process solutions for logical groupings of requirements (performance, functions, and interface) and their designs for those solutions."[2]


Thesis+Antithesis=Synthesis


The implementation of dialectic reasoning in the research and development of a solution.


Philosophical synthesis

The term is broad in meaning and can apply to physical, ideological, and/or phenomenological entities. In dialectics, synthesis is the final result of attempts to reconcile the inherent contradiction between thesis and antithesis. Along with the similar concept of integration, synthesis is generally considered to be an important element of modern philosophy, particularly in the various emerging ideas often considered to be holistic (as opposed to reductionistic). The term physicalism was coined by Otto Neurath, in a series of early 20th century essays on the subject, in which he wrote According to physicalism, the language of physics is the universal language of science and, consequently, any knowledge can be brought back to the statements on the physical... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ... This article is about the thesis in academia. ... Look up Antithesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ...


Chemical synthesis

Main article: Chemical synthesis

In chemistry, chemical synthesis is the process of forming a particular molecule from chemical precursors. In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ...


In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories.


A chemical synthesis begins by selection of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants. Various reaction types can be applied to these to synthesize the product, or an intermediate product. The amount of product in a chemical synthesis is the reaction yield. Typically, chemical yields are expressed as a weight in grams or as a percentage of the total theoretical quantity of product that could be produced. A side reaction is an unwanted chemical reaction taking place that diminishes the yield of the desired product.


The word synthesis in the present day meaning was first used by the chemist Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe.


Strategies

Many strategies exist in chemical synthesis that go beyond converting reactant A to reaction product B. In cascade reactions multiple chemical transformations take place within a single reactant, in multi-component reactions up to 11 different reactants form a single reaction product and in a telescopic synthesis one reactant goes through multiple transformations without isolation of intermediates.hi


Organic synthesis

Main article: Organic synthesis Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ...


Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis dealing with the synthesis of organic compounds. In the total synthesis of a complex product it may take multiple steps to synthesize the product of interest, and inordinate amounts of time. Skill in organic synthesis is prized among chemists and the synthesis of exceptionally valuable or difficult compounds has won chemists such as Robert Burns Woodward the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. If a chemical synthesis starts from basic laboratory compounds and yields something new, it is a purely synthetic process. If it starts from a product isolated from plants or animals and then proceeds to a new compounds, the synthesis is described as a semisynthetic process.


Other meanings

The other meaning of chemical synthesis is narrow and restricted to a specific kind of chemical reaction, a direct combination reaction, in which two or more reactants combine to form a single product. The general form of a direct combination reaction is:

 A + B → AB 

where A and B are elements or compounds, and AB is a compound consisting of A and B. Examples of combination reactions include:

 2Na + Cl2 → 2 NaCl (formation of table salt) S + O2 → SO2 (formation of sulfur dioxide) 4 Fe + 3 O2 → 2 Fe2O3 (iron rusting) CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 (carbon dioxide dissolving and reacting with water to form carbonic acid) 

4 special synthesis rules:

 metal-oxide + H2O → metal(OH) non-metal-oxide + H2O → oxi-acid metal-chloride + O2 → metal-chlorate metal-oxide + CO2 → metal(CO3) 

See also

 * Chemical engineering * Template-directed synthesis * Organic synthesis * Total synthesis * Peptide synthesis * Methods in Organic Synthesis 

Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... A total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of complex organic molecules from simple, commercially available (petrochemical) precursors. ... In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the creation of peptides, which are organic compounds in which multiple amino acids bind via peptide bonds which are also known as amide bonds. ... Methods in Organic Synthesis (MOS) is a fully searchable online, text and graphical database that is updated weekly with the latest developments in organic synthesis. ...

Synthesis in electronics and acoustics

In electronic musical instruments, sound synthesis is the method of sound generation and is a piece of hardware or software may employ, e.g. the "Access Virus B" synthesizer mainly uses subtractive synthesis, but can use FM synthesis too. Modern electronic keyboard instruments are based around digital sound synthesizers that create audio waveforms that sound like they came from a violin or koto, without an actual violin or koto, because the sound is synthesized. The term synthesiser is also used to mean frequency synthesiser, an electronic system found in communications. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ... Subtractive synthesis is a method of sound synthesis characterised by the application of an audio filter to a source signal. ... Frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) is a form of audio synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform is changed by frequency modulating it with a modulating frequency that is also in the audio range, resulting in a more complex waveform and a different-sounding tone. ... Japanese 13-stringed koto The koto (箏 or 琴) is a traditional Japanese stringed musical instrument derived from Chinese zithers. ...


A video synthesizer electronically creates TV signals without necessarily requiring the use of a TV camera. Moving abstract patterns, text subtitles, colorized or processed camera images can all be in the output of a video synthesizer. Analog video synthesizers included the Sandin Image Processor, the Rutt-Etra, Steve Beck's "Beck Direct" Synthesizer, Bill Hearn's colorizer, and the seminal work of Nam Jun Paik. Early digital synthesizers included Stephen Beck's Video Weavings, the 2901 bit slice processor from Steina and Woody Vasulka with Schier and Dosch, Sandin's Digital Image Colorizer, Etra's "Kangaroo Giant Box" , and the Fluidigeo Synthesizer. Documentation on the history of video synthesizers can also be found at [3]. A Video Synthesizer is a device that electronically creates a video signal. ... The Sandin Image Processor is usually introduced as the video equivalent of a Moog audio synthesizer. ... Pre-Bell-Man, statue in front of the Museum für Kommunikation, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ...


In the world of electronic design automation, (logic) synthesis is the process of converting a digital design written in a hardware description language (HDL) into a low-level implementation consisting of primitive logic gates. Most large integrated circuits designed today are written in an HDL and "compiled" using a (logic) synthesis product. PCB Layout Program Electronic design automation (EDA) is the category of tools for designing and producing electronic systems ranging from printed circuit boards (PCBs) to integrated circuits. ... In electronics, a hardware description language or HDL is any language from a class of computer languages for formal description of electronic circuits. ...


References

  1. ^ Glossary for Reporting. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  2. ^ GLOSSARY OF TERMS. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  3. ^ Experimental Television Center: Video History Project. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also


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