FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
People who viewed "Syntactic" also viewed:


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Syntactic
Theoretical linguistics
Lexical semantics
Applied linguistics
Generative linguistics
Cognitive linguistics
Computational linguistics
Historical linguistics
List of linguists

In linguistics, syntax is the study of the rules, or "patterned relations", that govern the way the words in a sentence come together. Syntax originates from the Greek words συν (syn, meaning "together") and ταξις (taxis, meaning sequence/order). It concerns how different words (which, going back to Dionysios Thrax, are categorized as nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.) are combined into clauses, which, in turn, are combined into sentences.


In semiotics

In the earliest framework of semiotics (established by C.W. Morris in his 1938 book Foundations of the Theory of Signs) the syntax is defined within the study of signs as the first of its three subfields, syntax, the study of the interrelation of the signs; the second being semantics, the study of the relation between the signs and the objects to which they apply); and the third being pragmatics, the relationship between the sign system and the user).

In transformational-generative grammar

In the framework of transformational-generative grammar (of which Government and Binding Theory and Minimalism are recent developments), the structure of a sentence is represented by phrase structure trees, otherwise known as phrase markers or tree diagrams. Such trees provide information about the sentences they represent by showing how, starting from an initial category S (or, for ID/LP grammar, Z), the various syntactic categories (e.g. noun phrase, verb phrase, etc.) are formed.

There are various theories as to how best to make grammars such that by systematic application of the rules, one can arrive at every phrase marker in a language (and hence every sentence in the language). The most common are Phrase structure grammars and ID/LP grammars, the latter having a slight explanatory advantage over the former.

In other grammars

Dependency grammar is a class of syntactic theories separate from generative grammar in which structure is determined by the relation between a word (a head) and its dependents. One difference from phrase structure grammar is that dependency grammar does not have phrasal categories. Algebraic syntax is a type of dependency grammar.

Tree-adjoining grammar is a grammar formalism which has been used as the basis for a number of syntactic theories.

See also: Phrase, Phrase structure rules, x-bar syntax, Syntactic categories, Grammar, Algebraic syntax

In computer science

The usage of syntax in computer science has evolved from its related usage in linguistics, especially in the subfield of programming language design. The set of allowed reserved words and their parameters and the correct word order in the expression is called the syntax of the language. The ubiquitous syntax error generated by various programming language results when the computer cannot find a valid interpretation according to its preprogrammed rules of syntax for the code it has been requested to run, frequently due to a typo.

In computer languages, syntax can be extremely rigid, as in the case of most assembler languages, or less rigid, as in languages that make use of "keyword" parameters that can be stated in any order.

The analysis of programming language syntax usually entails the transformation of a linear sequence of tokens (a token is akin to an individual word or punctuation mark in a natural language) into a hierarchical syntax tree (abstract syntax trees are one convenient form of syntax tree).

This process, called parsing, is in some respects analogous to syntactic analysis in linguistics; certain concepts, such as the Chomsky hierarchy and context-free grammars, are common to the study of syntax in both linguistics and computer science.

  Results from FactBites:
Syntactic - accessible Web design Cardiff and South Wales (351 words)
Syntactic are designers and publishers of high quality Web sites.
We design sites for organisations in Cardiff and South Wales as an integral part of their overall communications strategy.
You can contact Syntactic by e-mail or you can call us on Cardiff (029) 2052 2616.
Proto-Indo-European Syntax: Chapter 1: The Syntactic Framework (8720 words)
The syntactic studies of the nineteenth century were carried out by scholars who had achieved virtually unsurpassable mastery of the important Indo-European (IE) dialects.
Moreover, this syntactic description is by no means complete, though the majority of the constructions are described, as may be determined from the adequacy of the syntax in analyzing and generating characteristic sentences as illustrated at the conclusion of Chapter 5.
Besides coordination and subordination or embedding, these are involved in the syntactic devices of substitution, the use of function words, and the patterns of congruence and government.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m