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Encyclopedia > Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures

Purpose

The table gives a rough picture of the relationships between the various principal cultures of Prehistory outside the Americas, Antarctica, Australia and Oceania. It also serves as an index of the broad features of that prehistory to be followed through links to articles. Drawing parallels between the sets of information here and in the Timeline of glaciation might also be informative in some cases. In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... The term prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is usually used to describe the period before written history became available. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For the fictional superstate in George Orwells novel, see Oceania (Nineteen Eighty-Four). ... There have been four major periods of glaciation in the Earths past. ...


Table

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The Principal prehistoric cultures of the Old World
Prehistoric Europe History of Africa and African archaeology Near Eastern archaeology History of Asia
Period & Climate Western Europe Central Europe
and Eastern Europe
North Africa,
West Africa and Sahara
Central Africa,
South and East Africa
Middle East South Asia, India and
Central Asia
Far East and South-East Asia
After the year 1000



Medieval Iron Age of the
Chad Basin
1000 CE



Opening of the Middle Ages

End of Antiquity
Iron Age


Iron Age in Niger Roman Empire
Iron Age in Kenya, Uganda
Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe



Roman Empire
1 BCE



Iron Age Iron Age Nigeria, Great Lakes First cultivators
of the equatorial forest
Empire of Alexander
Persian Empire
Phoenicians
Mauryan Empire (India)
Steppe Scythians
Indian Iron Age
Chinese Iron Age
Chinese
Zhou period
1000 BCE




Bronze Age

Bell beaker
Bronze Age
Myceneans
Copper Age in Niger


development of agriculture
in East Africa


Hittites
Assyrians
development of
pastoralism in India
Bactrian towns
Chinese Bronze Age
Chinese
Shang period
2000 BCE.





Chalcolithic
corded ceramic


domestication of the horse
Neolithic of Tichit

Tenerean

Akkad Empire
Sumerian Kingdom
Indus Valley civilisation

writing
Chinese Neolithic
of Longshan
3000 BCE





enclosed villages

first megaliths


Chalcolithic
of Central Europe
Beginning of the Hunter-gatherer art
of South Africa
Bronze Age
4000 BCE







Lower Neolithic

Danubian Neolithic

Mediterranean
and Egyptian
Neolithic

Chalcolithic
(copper metallurgy)


Neolithic
of Iran
Neolithic
of Yang-Shao
rice-growing (?)
5000 BCE




Cardial
(agriculture, stock-rearing, pottery)

Tardenoisian
cultures


agriculture, stock-rearing (pigs, bovine, Sheep)
Neolithic of the Sahara/Sahel

irrigated agriculture ceramic Cyprus


(and Caucasian)

irrigation
cultivation of millet
pig rearing
6000 BCE







Sauveterrian cultures
(gathering of Legumes)
in Greece
and the Eastern Mediterranean



ceramic
Neolithic with ceramic
raising
sheep & goats
end of pre-ceramic B aceramic Cyprus
pre-ceramic of Iran
Afghanistan and
Baluchistan
Neolithic of northern China

7000 BCE







Backed point
culture
Wiltonian Pre-ceramic B
(wheat, barley)
Neolithic
Pre-ceramic A
hunter gatherers
of Jomon (ancient Japan)
8000 BCE





Azilian

and Asiloid cultures
Capsian Hoabinhian of South-East Asia
9000 BCE







late Gravettian
late Gravettian plains
complex (Mezine
Kostienki)

Magosian


Natufian


Khandivili

10 000 BCE Holocene began
glacial ended (10,000BCE)

glacial at its coldest (18,000BCE)
Magdalenian
Solutrean
Epigravettian


Epigravettian

Ibero-maurusian

Sebilian
Lupembian



Kebarian
Athlitian

pre-Jomon ceramic(Japan)
20 000 BCE






Gravettian

Aurignacian (art)


Pavlovian

Aurignacian (art)


Aurignacian (art)
30 000 BCE






Chatelperronian


Szeletian



Aterian


Stillbayan
Emirian





Angara culture


Sen-Doki
40 000 BCE




Amoudian


50 000 BCE



Mousterians
(earliest graves)



Mousterian




Mousterian



Fauresmithian


Jabroudian

Mousterian




Soanian



Ngandong
culture
80 000 BCE



latest glacial began (95000BCE)



Micoquian



Micoquian
Mousteroid





Ordos
culture
100 000 BCE


glacial ended (135,000BCE)



Upper Acheulean




Upper Acheulean



Sangoen






Acheulean

Soanian


Fen Culture
200 000 BCE glacial began (195,000 BCE)

glacial ended (240,000BCE)
glacial began (285,000BCE)




Tayacian





Acheulean





Acheulean






Acheulean

300 000 BCE





middle Acheulean



Clactonian

middle Acheulean







Pre-Soanian
500 000 BCE




Lower Acheulean




worked pebbles
Lower Acheulean




worked pebbles




Lower Acheulean
Padjitanian




1 000 000




worked pebbles




worked pebbles






worked pebbles


lower Acheulian


Olduwan


worked pebbles


2 000 000



Period & Climate Western Europe Central Europe
and Eastern Europe
North Africa,
West Africa and Sahara
Central Africa,
South and East Africa
Middle East South Asia, India and
Central Asia
Far East and South-East Asia

 
 

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