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Encyclopedia > Synod

A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. An ecumenical council is so named because it is a synod of the whole church (or, more accurately, of what those who call it consider to be the whole church.) A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ... History Main article: History of Christianity See also: Timeline of Christianity The history of Christianity is difficult to extricate from that of the European West (and several other culture-regions) in general. ... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ...


The word comes from the Greek "synodos" meaning assembly, and it is synonymous with the Latin word "concilium" — council. Originally synods were meetings of bishops, and is still used in that sense in Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... The Catholic Church, known also as the Roman Catholic Church, is the Christian Church whose visible head is the Pope, currently Benedict XVI. It teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ, and that the sole Church of Christ which in the Creed... ...


Sometimes the phrase general synod or general council refers to an ecumenical council. The word synod also refers to the standing council of high-ranking bishops governing some of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The Vladimir Icon, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of Mary. ...

Contents


Uses in different Communions

Catholic and Orthodox usage

In the Catholic and Orthodox churches, synods are composed of bishops. Under the Catholic Church the synod was originally mandated by the second Vatican Council's decree on the Bishops' Pastoral Office in the Church (n.5) The Pope serves as its president, determines its agenda, and can grant it deliberative power, if he so chooses.


Anglican usage

In the Anglican Communion, General Synods are elected by clergy and laity. In most Anglican churches, there is a geographical hierarchy of synods, with "General Synod" at the top; bishops, clergy and laity meet as "houses" within the synod. The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... The General Synod is the governing body of the Church of England, a church within the Anglican Communion. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... The General Synod is the governing body of the Church of England, a church within the Anglican Communion. ...


Lutheran usage

In Lutheran traditions a synod can be either a local administrative region similar to a diocese, such as the Minneapolis Area Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, or denote an entire church body, such as the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. Sometimes the word is also used of the meeting of the priests of a diocese. In such case, the word carries no administrative meaning. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... The Minneapolis Area Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America is the largest synod, or diocese of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA). ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (LCMS) is the second-largest Lutheran body in the United States. ...


Presbyterian usage

In some Presbyterian polities of church, a synod is a level of administration between the general assembly and the local presbytery. This applies in the Presbyterian Church in Canada, Uniting Church in Australia, and the Presbyterian Church USA. All of these were influenced in their constitution by the Church of Scotland, which however dissolved its synods in the 1980s. See List of Church of Scotland synods and presbyteries. Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The term general assembly can refer to The largest unit of organisation in the polity of a (national) Presbyterian church, containing several synods or presbyteries. ... A presbytery can be the residence of one or more presbyters, priests, or religious elders; or an area of a church or cathedral reserved for priests; or the collective college of priests in a diocese, archdiocese, or prelature; or the local unit in the polity of a Presbyterian church, consisting... The Presbyterian Church in Canada is the Canadian Presbyterian church. ... Logo of the UCA The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was formed on June 22, 1977 when the Methodist Church of Australasia, Presbyterian Church of Australia and Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union document. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Church of Scotland (C of S, also known informally as The Kirk; until the 17th century officially the Kirk of Scotland) is the Christian national church of Scotland. ... The Church of Scotland has a Presbyterian structure, which means it is organised under a hierarchy of courts. ...


Reformed usage

In Swiss and Southern German Reformed churches where the Reformed churches are organized as regionally defined independent churches (e.g. Evangelical Reformed Church of Zurich, Reformed Church of Berne) the synod corresponds to the general assembly of Presbyterian churches. In Dutch Reformed churches (and their North American counterparts), the "synod" is a denominational meeting of representatives from each local classis. The term general assembly can refer to The largest unit of organisation in the polity of a (national) Presbyterian church, containing several synods or presbyteries. ...


Some notable synods

An important ecclesiastical synod was held at Ancyra, the seat of the Roman administration for the province of Galatia, in 314. ... Events August 30 - Council of Arles, which confirmed the pronouncement of Donatism as a schism, and passed other canons. ... Events November 7 - Athanasius is banished to Trier, on the charge that he prevented the corn fleet from sailing to Constantinople. ... The Synod of Whitby was an important synod which eventually led to the unification of the church in Britain. ... Events September, Synod of Whitby Births Deaths Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... Jean-Paul Laurens, Le Pape Formose et Etienne VII (Pope Formosus and Stephen VII), 1870. ... Events January - the Cadaver Synod July/August- Pope Stephen VII dies and is succeeded by Pope Romanus. ... For the video game developers, see 989 Studios. ... The Synod of Rathbreasail took place in AD1111. ... Events The Synod of Rathbreasail marked the transition of the Irish church from a monastic to a diocesan one Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Paschal II Baldwin VII becomes Count of Flanders Births Deaths March 3 - Bohemund I, prince of Antioch Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad... Events Abbeville receives its commercial charter. ... Events March 18 - Sixth Crusade of Emperor Frederick II ends in truce with Sultan al-Kamil and coronation of Frederick as King of Jerusalem. ... The Synod of Dort met in the city of Dordrecht in 1618-1619, as a national assembly of the Dutch Reformed Church, to which were invited representatives from the Reformed churches in eight foreign countries. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... The General Synod is the governing body of the Church of England, a church within the Anglican Communion. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. ...

See also

In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ...

External links

  • Pope Benedict holds first synod

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Synod (1058 words)
synod: "A lawful assembly convoked by the bishop, in which he gathers together the priests and clerics of his diocese and all others who are bound to attend it, for the purpose of doing and deliberating concerning what belongs to the pastoral care." The Council of Trent (Sess.
synod whether he be consecrated as yet or not.
Synodal judges are also to be chosen, though they are rarely now employed.
Synod - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (390 words)
A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine or administration.
In the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches, synods are composed of bishops.
In Lutheran traditions a synod can be either a local administrative region similar to a diocese, such as the Minneapolis Area Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, or denote an entire church body, such as the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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