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Encyclopedia > Synergetics

Inspired by the laser theory and founded by Hermann Haken, synergetics is an interdisciplinary science explaining the formation and self-organization of patterns and structures in open systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. A LASER (from the acronym of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is an optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. ... Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ... In thermodynamics, an open system is one whose border is permeable to both energy and mass. ...

Self-organization requires a 'macroscopic' system, consisting of many nonlinearly interacting subsystems. Depending on the external control parameters (environment, energy-fluxes) self-organization takes place. Essential in Synergetics is the order-parameter concept which was originally introduced in the Ginzburg-Landau theory in order to describe phase-transitions in thermodynamics. The order parameter concept is generalized by Haken to the "enslaving-principle" saying that the dynamics of fast-relaxing (stable) modes is completely determined by the 'slow' dynamics of as a rule only a few 'order-parameters' (unstable modes). The order parameters can be interpreted as the amplitudes of the unstable modes determining the macroscopic pattern. In physics, Ginzburg-Landau theory is a mathematical theory used to model superconductivity. ... In physics, a phase transition, (or phase change) is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase to another. ...

As a consequence, self-organization means an enormous reduction of degrees of freedom (entropy) of the system which macroscopically reveals an increase of 'order' (pattern-formation). This far-reaching macroscopic order is independent of the details of the microscopic interactions of the subsystems. This is why Synergetics explains the self-organization of patterns in so many different systems in physics, chemistry, biology and even social systems. The phrase degrees of freedom is used in three different branches of science: in physics and physical chemistry, in mechanical and aerospace engineering, and in statistics. ...

## Other Meanings GA_googleFillSlot("encyclopedia_square");

Synergetics can also refer to the following:

• Synergetics is a book by Buckminster Fuller, referring to the concept of either the output of a system not foreseen by the simple sum of the output of each system's part or simply, less used, another term for a negative entropy, or negentropy.
• Tensegrity, as an applied mechanical concept of synergetics.
• Synergetics is the name given to a system of self-discipline by Buckminster Fuller.[1].

Richard Buckminster (Bucky) Fuller (July 12[1], 1895 â€“ July 1, 1983) was an American visionary, designer, architect, poet, author, and inventor. ... // Information processing In information processing, output is the process of transmitting information by an object (verb usage). ... System (from the Latin (systÄ“ma), and this from the Greek (sustÄ“ma)) is an assemblage of entity/objects, real or abstract, comprising a whole with each and every component/element interacting or related to at least one other component/element. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In mechanics and biomechanics, tensegrity or tensional integrity is a property of objects with components that use tension and compression in a combination that yields strength and resilience beyond the sum of their components. ... Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral or mental development in a particular direction. ... Richard Buckminster (Bucky) Fuller (July 12[1], 1895 â€“ July 1, 1983) was an American visionary, designer, architect, poet, author, and inventor. ...

## Literature

• H. Haken: "Synergetics, an Introduction: Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions and Self-Organization in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology", 3rd rev. enl. ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983.
• H. Haken: Advanced Synergetics: Instability Hierarchies of Self-Organizing Systems and Devices. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993.
• H. Haken: Synergetik. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 1982, ISBN 3-540-11050
• R. Graham, A. Wunderlin (Hrsg.): Lasers and Synergetics. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 1987, ISBN 3-540-17940-2
• Korotayev A., Malkov A., Khaltourina D. Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Compact Macromodels of the World System Growth. Moscow: URSS, 2006. ISBN 5-484-00414-4 [2].

## See also

Results from FactBites:

 Synergetics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (486 words) Synergetics is a book by Buckminster Fuller, referring to the concept of either the output of a system not foreseen by the simple sum of the output of each system's part or simply, less used, another term for a negative entropy, or negentropy. Synergetics is the name given to a system of self-discipline by Buckminster Fuller. Synergetics is an industry thought leader in the area of technological innovation of competencies.
 Synergetics Collaborative (SNEC) (1063 words) The Synergetics Collaborative (SNEC) was founded in 2002 as an organization to bring together a diverse group of people with an interest in Buckminster Fuller's Synergetics in face-to-face workshops, symposia, seminars, pow-wows, and other meetings to educate and support research and understanding of the many facets of Synergetics, its methods and principles. Synergetics is multi-faceted: it involves geometric modeling, exploring inter-relationships in the facts of experience and the process of thinking. Synergetics, in the broadest terms, is the study of spatial complexity, and as such is an inherently comprehensive discipline.
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