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Encyclopedia > Synephrine
Synephrine
Synephrine

Synephrine is a dietary supplement aimed at encouraging fat loss. While its effectiveness is widely debated, it has gained significant popularity as an alternative to ephedra (the subject of much controversy in the US). Synephrine is derived from the fruit plant zhi shi, also known as green orange, sour orange, and bitter orange. Image File history File links Synephrine. ... Image File history File links Synephrine. ... A prescribed dietary supplement supplies nutrients (usually vitamins or minerals) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Species See text Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in the family Ephedraceae and order Ephedrales. ... ... Bitter Orange is a name used to refer to several citrus or citrus-like fruit trees. ...


Claims

  • Fat burner
  • Increases energy levels
  • Increases metabolism
  • Promotes weight loss

Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos), the Greek word for change, or overthrow (Etymonline)), is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms and cells. ...

Synephrine Is Not Neo-Synephrine

There has been some confusion surrounding synephrine and phenylephrine (a.k.a. neo-synephrine). While virtually identical in chemical makeup (C9H13NO2) the hydroxyl group in phenylephrine is located on the number three carbon of the benzene ring, whereas in synephrine the hydroxyl group is located on the number four carbon. This small difference manifests changes in the stereochemistry that may alter the biological activity of the two compounds. Therefore, they should not be seen as equivalents. Phenylephrine hydrochloride is an α-agonist used medically to increase blood pressure, as a decongestant, and also to dilate the pupil. ... Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Benzene, C6H6, PhH, or benzol is a colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell. ... Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance formed from two or more elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ...


Many diet products such as Stacker 2 contain synephrine along with caffeine. Some reports have indicated that such diet pills cause numerous harmful effects. The Mayo Clinic published a report that suggested that Stacker 2 pills caused ischemic stroke:


"In response to concerns regarding the safety of ephedra-containing dietary supplements, manufacturers have marketed “ephedrafree” products. Many of these contain synephrine, a sympathomimetic amine from the plant Citrus aurantium. Synephrine is structurally similar to ephedrine and has vasoconstrictor properties. We describe a 38-year-old patient with ischemic stroke associated with an ephedra-free dietary supplement containing synephrine and caffeine. The patient presented with memory loss and unsteady gait after taking 1 or 2 capsules per day of a dietary supplement (Stacker 2 Ephedra-Free) for 1 week. " [...] "In an otherwise healthy young man with no defined risk factors, an ischemic stroke was associated with recent use of Stacker 2 Ephedra Free, a supplement that contains the vasoactive sympathomimetic amine synephrine and caffeine. Two similar agents, ephedra (ephedrine) and phenylpropanolamine, have been banned by the FDA secondary to serious neurologic and cardiovascular adverse effects. The medical community needs to be aware of the potential risks of ephedra-free products, to continue to report adverse events to the FDA MedWatch program (1-800-FDA-1088 or online at www.fda.gov/medwatch), and to continue to advocate for better regulation of dietary supplements."


Ischemic Stroke Associated With Use of an Ephedra-Free Dietary Supplement Containing Synephrine (Mayo Clinic)


Resources / Links

  • Ischemic Stroke Associated With Use of an Ephedra-Free Dietary Supplement Containing Synephrine (Mayo Clinic)
  • Slim Pickings: Looking Beyond Ephedra (New York Times)
  • SYNEPHRINE: Is Chih-shih (Zhishi) Toxic?


Stimulants edit

Caffeine Nicotine Modafinil Adrafinil Armodafinil A stimulant is a drug that increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or the feeling of being more awake. ... Flash point N/A RTECS number EV6475000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Caffeine, or theine, is a xanthine alkaloid found in the leaves and beans of the coffee tree, in tea, yerba mate... Nicotine is an organic compound, an alkaloid found naturally in the nightshade family of plants, such as tobacco and tomatoes. ... Modafinil (Provigil®; Vigicer®; Alertec®) is a drug produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon. ... Adrafinil chemical structure Adrafinil is a mild central nervous system stimulant drug used to relieve excessive sleepiness and inattention in elderly patients. ... Armodafinil (Nuvigil®) is a drug produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon, currently in the process of receiving FDA approval. ...

Sympathomimetic amines edit

Benzylpiperazine Cathinone Chlorphentermine Cocaine Diethylpropion Ephedrine Fenfluramine Mazindol Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the hormone adrenaline. ... Benzylpiperazine (BZP) is a recreational drug with euphoric, stimulant effects. ... General Information Cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat). ... This article is about the drug Cocaine. ... Diethylpropion (Tenuate®) is a sympathomimetic stimulant drug marketed as an appetite suppressant. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Fenfluramine is a drug that was part of the Fen-Phen anti-obesity (the other drug being phentermine). ...


Methylone Methylphenidate Pemoline Phendimetrazine Phenmetrazine Phentermine Phenylephrine Propylhexedrine Pseudoephedrine Sibutramine Synephrine Methylone is a designer drug that is an analog of MDMA (Ecstasy). ... Methylphenidate (MPH) is an amphetamine-like prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. ... Pemoline is a medication for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... Phendimetrazine (Bontril®) is a weight loss medication. ... Phenmetrazine is an amphetamine-like drug. ... Phentermine is a phenethylamine primary used as an appetite suppressant. ... Phenylephrine hydrochloride is an α-agonist used medically to increase blood pressure, as a decongestant, and also to dilate the pupil. ... Basics: Propylhexedrine is an over-the-counter nasal decongestant found in Benzedrex nasal inhalers. ... Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Sibutramine (Meridia® in the USA, Reductil® in Europe), usually as sibutramide hydrochloride monohydrate, is an orally administered agent for the treatment of obesity. ...

Amphetamines edit

4-FMP Amphetamine Benzphetamine Dextroamphetamine dl-Amphetamine MDMA Methamphetamine Paramethoxyamphetamine Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... 4-FMP molecular structure 4-FMP, also known by its full chemical name 4-fluoroamphetamine, or 4-Fluoro-alpha-Methyl-Phenethylamine, is a central nervous system stimulant. ... Amphetamine, also known as speed, is a synthetic stimulant used to suppress the appetite, control weight, and treat disorders including narcolepsy and Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... USA by Pharmacia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Benzedrine is the trade name of the racemic variant of amphetamine (dl-amphetamine). ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... PMA (p-methoxyamphetamine) is a dangerous synthetic drug, psycho stimulant and hallucinogen. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Synephrine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (464 words)
Synephrine is a dietary supplement aimed at encouraging fat loss.
Synephrine is derived from the fruit plant zhi shi, also known as green orange, sour orange, and bitter orange.
Synephrine is structurally similar to ephedrine and has vasoconstrictor properties.
Synephrine - Supplements (819 words)
Synephrine is chemically very similar to the ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine found in many OTC cold/allergy medications and in a number of weight loss and energy supplements which contain Ma Huang.
Although synephrine and several other compounds found in zhi shi are structurally similar to ephedrine and are known to act as stimulants (via adrenergic activity), zhi shi does not appear to have the same negative central nervous effects of ma huang (ephedra).
The effects of synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients such as kola nut and guarana (both are caffeine sources) or with salicylates such as white willow (a natural form of aspirin) generally fall into the category of acting as a mild stimulant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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