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Encyclopedia > Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a condition commonly found in the hospital population, especially in patients being hospitalized for central nervous system (CNS) injury. As the name states, this is a syndrome characterized by excessive release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) from the posterior pituitary gland. The result is hyponatremia, and sometimes fluid overload. The vertebrate central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia exists when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ...

Contents

Pathophysiology

The normal function of ADH is to control the amount of water retained by the kidneys. ADH acts in the distal portion of the renal tubule and causes the retention of water, but not solute. Hence, ADH activity promotes the dilution of sodium in the blood. Furthermore, it activates the brain's thirst mechanism, causing the individual to drink. Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Series alkali metal Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 3, s Density, Hardness 968 kg/m3, 0. ...


Through an unknown mechanism, the plasma ADH level increases such that water is inappropriately retained by the kidneys. This retention leads to a dilutional hyponatremia and all the consequences associated with that condition: headache, nausea, vomiting, and confusion. Severe hyponatremia may cause convulsions or coma. The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia exists when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... A headache is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Nausea (Greek Ναυτεία) is the sensation of unease and discomfort in the stomach with an urge to vomit. ... Vomit being eaten by birds Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness, which may result from a variety of conditions including intoxication (drug, alcohol or toxins), metabolic abnormalities (hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, etc. ...


Causes

Some common causes of SIADH include:

When normal cells are damaged or old they undergo apoptosis; cancer cells, however, avoid apoptosis. ... Lung cancer is a malignant tumour of the lungs. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... An abscess is a collection of pus collected in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (e. ... Pneumonia (the ancient Greek word for lungs) is defined as an inflamation, usually caused by infection, involving the alveoli of the lungs. ... The heart with relation to the lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) This x-ray of the human chest shows the lungs as dark regions The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... Chlorpropamide is a sulphonylurea drug used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. ... Cyclophosphamide is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent, used to treat various types of cancer and some autoimmune disorders. ... Carbamazepine (Biston®; Calepsin®; Carbatrol®; Epitol®; Finlepsin®; Sirtal®; Stazepine®; Tegretol®; Telesmin®; Timonil®) is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder; but also used to treat schizophrenia and Trigeminal Neuralgia. ...

Treatment

Treatment of SIADH includes:

Care must be taken when correcting hyponatremia. A rapid rise in the sodium level may cause central pontine myelinolysis. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... An isotonic cellular environment occurs when an equal solute concentration exists inside and outside the cell. ... In medicine saline is a solution of sodium chloride in sterile water, usually for intravenous infusion. ... Demeclocycline (marketed as Declomycin®, Declostatin® and Ledermycin®) is a tetracycline antibiotic used in various types of bacterial infections. ... Conivaptan (YM 087) is a non-peptide inhibitor of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Central pontine myelinolysis is a neurologic disease caused by severe damage of the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the brainstem, more precisely in the area termed the pons. ...


Differential diagnosis

Cerebral salt wasting syndrome also presents with hyponatremia, but is treated differently. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a disease featuring hyponatremia (low blood sodium levels) and dehydration in response to disease processes in or surrounding the brain. ...


Reference

  • Ashrafian H, Davey P. A review of the causes of central pontine myelinosis: yet another apoptotic illness? Eur J Neurol 2001;8:103-9. PMID 11430268.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (253 words)
The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a condition commonly found in the hospital population, especially in patients being hospitalized for central nervous system (CNS) injury.
As the name states, this is a syndrome characterized by excessive release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) from the posterior pituitary gland or another source.
This retention leads to a dilutional hyponatremia and all the consequences associated with that condition: headache, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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