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Encyclopedia > Syndicated television

In the television industry (as in radio), syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast programs to multiple stations, without going through a broadcast network. (Much of this article will deal with U.S. television, since the U.S. has more consistently than most other countries featured large numbers of independently-owned stations which can, but don't need to, affiliate with one or more networks.) A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... A television station is a type of broadcast station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. ... A broadcast network is an organization, such as a corporation or other association, that provides live or recorded content, such as movies, newscasts, sports, and public affairs programs for broadcast over a television station. ... Wikiquote quotations related to: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government Official website of the United States government - Gateway to governmental sites White House - Official site of the US President Senate. ...

Contents

Types of syndication

First-run syndication refers to programming that is broadcast for the first time as a syndicated show, or at least first so offered in a given country (foreign programs, first presented on a network in their country of origin, have often been syndicated in the US and in some other countries). Off-network syndication involves the sale of a program that was originally run on network television: a rerun. Public-broadcasting syndication has arisen in the U.S. as a parallel service to stations in the PBS network and the handful of independent public stations. A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... Rerun van Pelt is the name of Linus and Lucys younger brother in the comic strip Peanuts. ... PBS re-directs here; for alternate uses see PBS (disambiguation) PBS logo The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ...


When syndicating a show, the production company, or a distribution company or "syndicator," usually attempts to sell the show to one station in each television "market", or area, in the country and around the world. If successful, this can be lucrative; but the syndicator may only be able to sell the show in a fraction of the markets.


Syndication differs from selling the show to a television network; once a network picks up a show, it is usually guaranteed to run on all the network's affiliates, on the same day of the week and at the same time (in a given timezone, in countries where this is a concern). Many production companies create their shows and sell them to networks at a loss, at least at first, hoping that the series will succeed and that eventual off-network syndication will turn a profit for the show. A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ...


While market penetration can varying widely and revenues can be unreliable, the producers often enjoy more content-freedom in the absence of network standards and practice officials; frequently, some innovative ideas are explored by first-run syndicated programming, which the networks are leery of giving airtime to; the early-1990s music program Sunday Night, later Night Music, for example, which offered intentionally-odd mixes of critically-favored musicians, such as (in one episode), Al Green, The Pixies, and the Sun Ra Arkestra. Meanwhile, top-rated syndicated shows usually have a market reach of 98%. Events and trends Technology The World Wide Web was born at CERN Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft... Al Green may refer to: Al Green (musician) Al Green (politician) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the band named Pixies. ... Cover of the album The Heliocentric Worlds of Sun Ra, Volume One Sun Ra (May 22, 1914–May 30, 1993) was an innovative and individual jazz composer, bandleader and piano and synthesizer player, who came to be known as much for preaching his bizarre cosmic philosophy as for his phenomenal...


Syndication can take the form of either weekly or daily syndication. The game shows, some "tabloid" and entertainment news shows, and stripped talk shows are broadcast daily or weekdaily, while most other first-run syndicated shows are broadcast weekly.


Strip/Daily Syndication

Off-network syndication can take several forms. The most common for is known as strip syndication or daily syndication, when episodes of a television series are shown daily five times a week. Typically, this means that enough episodes must exist to allow for continual strip syndication to take place over the course of several months, without episodes being shown again. If a small number of episodes exist, the entire run of the series can be shown in a manner of weeks. Stripping is an industry term used to refer to the practice of running a syndicated television series every day of the week. ...


For example, the NBC sitcom Jesse aired for only two seasons (1998-2000) and produced only 42 episodes. It was syndicated on the USA Network, with one episode airing daily, which saw the entire series broadcast in only 8 weeks (and two days) before having to start again. As mentioned above, Seinfeld had 180 episodes and thus could be syndicated for 36 weeks, if one episode was shown daily. Jesse was the name of a sitcom which ran on NBC from 1998 to 2000. ... The USA Network is a popular cable TV network based in the United States with about 87 million household subscribers as of 2003. ... Seinfeld is a television sitcom, considered to be one of the most popular and influential of the 1990s in the U.S., to the point where it is often cited as epitomizing the self-obsessed and ironic culture of the decade. ...


In some cases, more than one episode is shown daily. Half-hour sitcoms are sometimes syndicated in groups of two or four episodes, taking up one or two hours of broadcast time.


Weekly Syndication

If a series is not strip syndicated, it may be aired once a week, instead of five times a week. This allows shows with fewer episodes to last long in syndication, but it also may mean viewers will tire of waiting a week for the next episode of a show they have already seen and stop watching. More often, hourlong dramas in their first several runs in syndication are offered weekly; sitcoms are more likely to get stripped. In recent years there has been something of a trend toward showing two consecutive episodes of a program on Saturday and Sunday nights after prime time (generally following the local news). This pattern has been particulary prominent for shows which are still in production but have run long enough to have many episodes; both ER and The West Wing are currently being shown in this manner, as The X-Files was during and immediately after its network run. A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... Prime time is the block of programming on television during the middle of the evening. ... ER is a popular NBC serial drama primarily set in a teaching hospitals emergency room, the fictional County General Hospital (based loosely off Cook County General, a real hospital) on Division Street in Chicago, Illinois. ... The primary cast of The West Wing (from left to right): John Spencer, Dulé Hill, Allison Janney, Stockard Channing, Martin Sheen, Bradley Whitford, Janel Moloney, and Richard Schiff The West Wing is a popular and widely acclaimed American television serial drama created by Aaron Sorkin for NBC, airing since 1999. ... X-Files intro from first 8 seasons The X-Files was a popular 1990s American science fiction television series created by Chris Carter. ...


Barter vs. Cash

In syndication, the program is sold to stations for "cash" (rights are purchased by the stations to insert some or all of the ads at their level), given to stations for access to airtime (wherein the syndicators get the ad revenue), or the combination of both. The trade of program for airtime is called "barter."


First-run syndication

As with radio in the U.S., television networks in their early years particularly didn't offer full-days-worth of programming for their affiliates, even in the evening or "prime time" hours; and, from the beginning, there were some stations which were not affiliated with any network, and all sought to supplement their locally-produced programming and whatever network feeds there were with items which could be flexibly scheduled. The developement of videotape and, much later, enhanced satellite downlink access furthered these aims. Videotape is a means of recording television pictures and accompanying sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ...


The 1950s and 1960s

Ziv Television Programs, Inc., after establishing itself as a major radio syndicator, was the first major first-run television syndicator, creating several long-lived series in the 1950s and selling them directly to regional sponsors, who in turn sold the shows to local stations. Among the most famous and widely watched Ziv offerings were Sea Hunt and Highway Patrol. Some first-run syndicated series were picked up by networks in the 1950s and early '60s, notably Superman and Mr. Ed. The networks started syndicating their reruns in the late 1950s, and first-run syndication shrank sharply, for a decade (CBS's first syndication arm, Viacom, would eventually be split off from the company and eventually come back to purchase CBS, having already purchased Paramount Studios and its interests, and created UPN). Some stalwart series continued, notably Death Valley Days; other ambitious projects were also to flourish, however briefly, such as The Play of the Week (1959-1961), produced by David Susskind (of the syndicated talk show Open End and also producer of such network fare as NYPD). Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... Sea Hunt was an American television adventure series from pioneering syndicator Ziv TV that ran from 1957 to 1961 and was popular in repeats for decades afterward. ... The term highway patrol can refer either to a police agency created primarily for the purpose of overseeing traffic safety compliance on a politys roads and highways, such as the California Highway Patrol, or to a detail within an existing local or regional police that primarily concerns its activity... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... Superman, nicknamed The Man of Steel, is a fictional character and superhero who first appeared in Action Comics #1 in 1938 and eventually became the most popular comic book hero of all time. ... Mister Ed was a popular US television comedy show that aired on CBS from 1961-1966. ... CBSs first color logo, which debuted in the fall of 1965. ... Viacom (short for Video & Audio Communications) [pronunciation: pre-Redstone/pre-1987: vee-a-com; post-Redstone acquisition: vi-a-com] (NYSE: VIA), (NYSE: VIAB) is an international media conglomerate. ... The Paramount Pictures logo used from 1988 to 1989. ... The official logo for UPN. UPN is a television network in the United States, owned by Viacom Inc. ... Death Valley Days was a long-running American radio and television anthology about true stories of the old American West, particularly the Death Valley area. ...


However, FCC rulings in the late 1960s curtailed the US networks' ability to schedule programming in what has become known as the "early fringe," notably the 7-8pm (ET/PT) hour of "prime time," with the stated hope that this might encourage more local programming of social and cultural relevance to communities (off-network syndie repeats were also banned); some projects of this sort came to fruition, though usually relatively commercial and slick ones such as the Westinghouse Group's Evening Magazine/PM Magazine franchise, and such pre-existing national projects as the brief commercial-television run of William F. Buckley, Jr.'s interview/debate series Firing Line. The more obvious result was a rash of Canadian-produced syndicated dramatic series, such as the Gilligan's Island knock-off Dusty's Trail and the Colgate-sponsored Dr. Simon Locke; game shows, often evening editions of network afternoon series, flourished, and a few odd items such as Wild Kingdom, cancelled by NBC in 1971, had a continuing life as syndicated programming tailor-made for the early fringe. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent United States government agency, created, directed, and empowered by Congressional statute. ... Westinghouse could refer to: George Westinghouse Westinghouse Electric Corporation. ... William F. Buckley William Frank Buckley Jr. ... Firing Line was a syndicated television interview show hosted by conservative William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Mutual of Omahas Wild Kingdom, or simply Wild Kingdom was an American television show that featured wildlife and nature. ... The 1986 Peacock logo, designed by Chermayeff & Geismar. ...


The 1970s

Into the 1970s, first-run syndication continued to be an odd mix; cheaply-produced, but not always poor-quality, "filler" programming, such as the dance-music show Soul Train, several sports-history series and 20th Century Fox's That's Hollywood, a television variation on the popular MGM That's Entertainment! theatrically-released collections of film clips from their library; imports such as the impressive documentary series Wild, Wild World of Animals (repackaged by Time Life with narration by William Conrad) and Thames Television's sober and necessarily grim The World at War; and a few ambitious, if not necessarily well-executed, dramatic series, including the science fiction series The Starlost (1973; Canadian, though apparently corrupted from the vision and advice of US SF writers Harlan Ellison and Ben Bova) and Space: 1999 (1975), from the UK team, the Andersons, previously best-known for their "Marionation" (puppet/animation) series. Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of transition between the turbulent 1960s and the more conservative 1980s and 1990s, many of the trends that are associated widely with the Sixties, from the Sexual Revolution... Soul Train is a long-running American music-related syndicated television program. ... Fox Plaza, the company headquarters. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Thats Entertainment could refer to: Thats Entertainment!, a famous song from the musical film The Band Wagon. ... Conrad in Cannon William Conrad (September 27, 1920 – February 11, 1994), born William Cann, was an American actor and narrator in radio, film and television noted for his gifted use of a marvelous baritone voice, as well as for his sizable girth. ... The classic Thames Television logo (1969 - 1989), featuring a geographically incorrect montage of London landmarks. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Starlost was a science fiction television series (see television syndication) devised by famed writer Harlan Ellison and aired in 1973. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934, Cleveland, Ohio) is a prolific writer of short stories, novellas, essays and criticism. ... Ben Bova (born November 8, 1932) is an American science fiction author and editor. ... Left to right: Barbara Bain, Catherine Schell and Martin Landau from Space:1999s second season. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...


Wait Till Your Father Gets Home (1973) was a Hanna-Barbera cartoon series attempting to ape the All in the Family-style sitcoms; Skippy the Bush Kangaroo (1969) was an Australian children's series in the manner of Flipper or Gentle Ben (a decade later, the decidedly not-for-children Australian Prisoner: Cell Block H would have a brief US syndicated run); and a Canadian sketch-comedy series began appearing on US television stations in 1977--Second City Television would eventually find a home, for two seasons, on NBC, as SCTV Network 90 (and on cable station Showtime later). 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ... All in the Family is a poopular and acclaimed American situation comedy that was originally broadcast on the CBS television network from January 12, 1971 until April 8, 1979, when the final original episode aired. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Second City Television, or SCTV, was a Canadian television sketch comedy show offshoot from the Toronto troupe of The Second City. ... Showtime is a US cable TV network that primarily shows motion pictures as well as some original programming and occasional boxing matches. ...


The Universal Studios-produced package of original programming, Operation Prime Time, began appearing on ad hoc quasi-networks of (almost by necessity) non-network stations in the US in 1978, with a mini-series adaptation of John Jakes's The Bastard. The most successful of syndicated shows in the US in the 1970s was probably, as mentioned above, the UK-based The Muppet Show. Universal Studios logo Universal Studios is a famous Hollywood movie studio located at 100 Universal City Plaza Drive in Universal City, California, which is in the San Fernando Valley. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... John Jakes (born on March 31, 1932) is a writer of fiction. ... The Muppet Show is a television program featuring a cast of Muppets (diverse hand operated puppets, typically with huge eyes and large moving mouths) produced by Jim Henson and his team from 1976 to 1981. ...


From the latter '60s into the late '70s, Westinghouse also found considerable success with The Mike Douglas Show, a variety/talk show hosted by a singer with an easygoing interview style, which played in afternoons in most markets; similar programs soon followed featuring Merv Griffin, who had been the host of CBS's most sustained late-night answer to The Tonight Show previously, and another network veteran, Dinah Shore. Also notable was the growing success of audience-participation talk shows, particularly that of the innovator of the format, Phil Donahue. The Mike Douglas Show was an American daytime televsion program starring singer Mike Douglas. ... Merv Griffin (born 6 July 1925) is a United States talk show host, entertainer, and television personality. ... CBSs first color logo, which debuted in the fall of 1965. ... The Tonight Show is NBCs dramatically long-running late-night talk and variety show. ... Dinah Shore (born Frances Rose Shore, February 29, 1916 - February 24, 1994) was a United States singer, actress, and celebrity. ... Phillip John Donahue (born December 21, 1935 in Cleveland, Ohio) is the creator and star of The Phil Donahue Show (1969—1996), the first of the syndicated talk shows where the host walks through the audience to let audience members make comments and ask questions. ...


First-run syndication in the 1970s also made it possible for some shows no longer wanted by network television to remain on the air. In 1971, ABC cancelled The Lawrence Welk Show, which went on to produce new episodes in syndication for another 11 years. Also in 1971, CBS dropped Lassie and Hee Haw, the latter show's run ending as part of the network's cancellation of all of its rural-oriented shows. Lassie entered first-run syndication for two years, while Hee Haw continued to produce new episodes until 1992. 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... ABC (disambiguation) ... Lawrence Welk (March 11, 1903—May 17, 1992) was a musician, accordion player, band leader, and television impresario. ... CBSs first color logo, which debuted in the fall of 1965. ... Lassie, a Rough Collie, is the worlds most famous dog and a fictional character who has starred in many movies, TV shows, and books over the years. ... Hee Haw was a long-running television variety show hosted by Buck Owens and Roy Clark and featuring country music and humor with rural Kornfield Kounty as a backdrop. ... Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The 1980s and 1990s

During the latter 1980s and early 1990s and throughout the remainder of the decade there was a resurgence of dramatic first-run syndicated programs, many of them in the science fiction and fantasy fields, or adventure dramas with fantastic elements. Baywatch aired on NBC for one season and was cancelled, but became very popular in the U.S. with new episodes in syndication and extremely popular worldwide. Star Trek: The Next Generation debuted in 1987 and became one of the most-watched syndicated shows throughout its seven-year run. Star Trek: Deep Space Nine was also syndicated. Along with the latter-day Star Trek series, Hercules: The Legendary Journeys and its spin-off series Xena: Warrior Princess helped build the audiences for such shows; Babylon 5 and Forever Knight drew devoted "cult" audiences; Psi Factor and Poltergeist: The Series attempted to draw on the audience for the FOX series The X-Files (as did, even less probably, the shortlived spinoff Baywatch Nights). Among the slightly less fantasticated series were Relic Hunter and VIP, She Spies and Once a Thief. In 1997, Earth: Final Conflict, based on ideas from the late Gene Roddenberry, premiered in syndication. Three years later, a second Gene Roddenberry series, Andromeda also premiered in syndication. Baywatch was a popular American television show about lifeguards who patrol the crowded beaches of Los Angeles County. ... The 1986 Peacock logo, designed by Chermayeff & Geismar. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Space station Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (ST:DS9 or STDS9 or DS9 for short) is a science fiction television series produced by Paramount and set in the Star Trek universe. ... The Enterprise boldly going where no man had gone before. ... Hercules: The Legendary Journeys was a television series produced from 1995 to 1999, very loosely based on the tales of the classical culture hero Hercules. ... A spin-off in television is a new series which contains either characters or theme elements from an old series. ... Xena. ... The Babylon 5 Station Babylon 5 is an epic science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... Forever Knight was a Canadian-American television series about Nick Knight, an 800-year-old vampire working as a detective in modern day Toronto. ... Psi Factor: Chronicles of the Paranormal was a Canadian sci-fi/drama television series which aired from 1996 to 2000. ... A red fox The foxes comprise 23 species of omnivorous canids, found worldwide. ... X-Files intro from first 8 seasons The X-Files was a popular 1990s American science fiction television series created by Chris Carter. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Earth: Final Conflict is a science fiction television series posthumously created by Gene Roddenberry. ... Gene Roddenberry, the creator of Star Trek Eugene Wesley Roddenberry (August 19, 1921 – October 24, 1991) was born in El Paso, Texas, USA, and spent his boyhood in Los Angeles, California. ... In Greek mythology, Andromeda was the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia, king and queen of Ethiopia. ...


Also in the 1980s, news programming of various sorts began to be offered widely to stations. Independent Network News, which was produced at WPIX studios in New York City, was a half-hour weekdaily program that ran for several years on independent stations; CNN would offer a package of its Headline News to broadcast stations later. Entertainment Tonight began its long and continuing run as a "soft" news daily strip, with a number of imitations following; and "tabloid" television, in the wake of ABC's 20/20 and, more immediately, Fox's A Current Affair, would become a syndication staple with such series as Extra and Real TV. Another area where network dominance was challenged by syndicated programming in the 1980s was in late-night talk shows; The Arsenio Hall Show was the first and only very successful one, but Alan Thicke's earlier shortlived Thicke of the Night, Lauren Hutton's innovatively-shot Lauren Hutton and..., and Dennis Miller, Whoopi Goldberg, David Brenner and Keenan Ivory Wayans attempted similar programs; the only syndicated latenight contender to fail as infamously in ratings and critical reception as CBS's The Pat Sajak Show and Fox's The Chevy Chase Show was Magic Johnson's The Magic Hour. WPIX-TV WB11 in New York City is the flagship station of the Warner Brothers television network. ... City nickname: The Big Apple Location in the state of New York Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg Area  - Land  - Water 1,214. ... Bold textTHIS ARTICLE DOES NOT PRESENT A FAIR AND IMPARTIAL VIEW. IT PRESENTS A BIAS AND IS NOT IMPARTIAL OR NEUTRAL!!!!!!!!!!! CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in... CNN Headline News is a spin-off network from the original Cable News Network (CNN) television news network in the United States. ... Entertainment Tonight is a daily television entertainment news magazine that is syndicated by Paramount Domestic Television throughout the United States and Canada. ... The ABC Circle logo, designed by Paul Rand in 1962. ... 20/20 is an American television newsmagazine broadcast on ABC since June 6, 1978. ... A red fox The foxes comprise 23 species of omnivorous canids, found worldwide. ... A Current Affair is a Fox network television show that ran for 10 years from 1986 to 1996 and is reappearing in 2005. ... The term extra has many meanings: in drama, an extra is a character who has no role or purpose other than to appear in the background (for example, in an audience scene or a busy street scene). ... The Arsenio Hall Show was a talk show which aired on late night in syndication from 1989 to 1994. ... Alan Willis Jeffrey (March 1, 1947 in Kirkland Lake, Ontario, Canadian actor and songwriter. ... Lauren Hutton (born November 17, 1943) is an American actress and model. ... Dennis Miller on CNBC Dennis Miller (born November 3, 1953) is an American comedian and television personality. ... Sarafina movie poster featuring Whoopi Goldberg Caryn Elaine Johnson, better known by her stage name, Whoopi Goldberg (born November 13, 1955), is a well-known American movie actress, comedian, and singer. ... Keenen Ivory Wayans (born June 8, 1958 in New York City, New York, USA) is an American actor, comedian, director and writer. ... Pat Sajak appears on a 1980s episode of Wheel of Fortune rerunning on the Game Show Network Pat Sajak (born Patrick Sajdak, October 26, 1946 in Chicago, Illinois) is the current host of the Wheel of Fortune game show. ... Cornelius Crane Chase, better known as Chevy Chase (born October 8, 1943) is an American comedian, writer and television and film actor from Woodstock, New York. ... Magic Johnson Earvin Magic Johnson, Jr. ...


As UPN and the WB began offering their affiliates ever-more nights of primetime programming, less call has been felt for first-run drama, at least, in the US; much as with the closing of windows that provided opportunity for Ziv in the '50s and various producers in the early '70s. The more expensive dramatic projects are less attractive to syndicators (particularly when they might be sold, with somewhat less risk, to cable channels); "reality" series such as Cheaters and Maximum Exposure and several series about dating stunts began to be more common in the early 2000s; even among these, a few programs have gained some positive critical attention, notably Animal Rescue and Jack Hanna's Animal Adventures. The WB Television Network, casually referred to as The WB, is a television network in the United States, founded as a joint venture between the Warner Bros. ... Major controversy over U.S. presidential election, 2000 September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack on New Yorks World Trade Center and Virginias Pentagon killing over 3000 people. ...


Several game shows are currently syndicated, with and without network counterparts; the most popular are Wheel of Fortune and the latest incarnation of Jeopardy!, both of which are seen by millions of viewers on a daily basis, and have been for over two decades. The dominant form of first-run syndication in the US for the last three decades has been the "stripped" talk show, such as Donahue, Oprah Winfrey and The Jerry Springer Show. In many markets, a stripped show will be seen twice daily, usually with different episodes. Sometimes, station groups with more than one station in a market, or a "duopoly," will run one episode of a strip on one of their stations in the morning, and the other available episode on another of their stations that night. A game show is a radio or television program involving members of the public or celebrities, sometimes as part of a team, playing a game, perhaps involving answering quiz questions, for points or prizes. ... Wheel of Fortune Logo (1983-1989) Wheel of Fortune is a television game show originally devised by Merv Griffin which runs in local editions around the world. ... Jeopardy! logo (1994-1996) Jeopardy! is a popular international television game show, originally devised by Merv Griffin, who also created Wheel of Fortune. ... Oprah Winfrey, at the start of the 2004-2005 season. ... The Jerry Springer Show is a television talk show filmed in Chicago, Illinois that has aired during the morning hours of many syndicated TV stations since the late 1990s. ... A duopoly is a form of oligopoly where only two producers are present in a given market. ...


Meanwhile, the popularity of some of the audience-participation talk shows continues to encourage new participants, some of whom, such as Morton Downey, Jr. and Rosie O'Donnell, have brief periods of impressive ratings and influence; others, such as Oprah Winfrey and Maury Povich, have a sustained run. A notable scheduling decision was made by KRON-TV in San Francisco; a dispute with NBC led to their disaffiliation from the network, and since all the other larger networks were already represented in San Francisco, KRON decided to become the largest-market independent commercial station on the VHF band in the US, with the exception of Los Angeles's Disney-owned KCAL, and soon tried running Dr. Phil, a popular new stripped series hosted by Winfrey-associate Phil McGraw, in primetime, with impressive ratings results. Morton Downey, Jr. ... Rosie ODonnell (on right) and wife Kelli Carpenter speaking after their wedding on February 26, 2004 in San Francisco. ... KRON is an Independent television station on channel four in the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz (wavelength 10 m) to 300 MHz (wavelength 1 m). ... Disney empire The name Disney may also refer to several aspects of the entertainment empire of The Walt Disney Company: The Walt Disney Company Walt Disney Pictures, the companys flagship motion picture studio Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California The Disney Channel the companys theme parks and... Dr. Phil can refer to the person as well as the titular self-help television show. ...


While in earlier times, independent TV stations thrived on syndicated programming (including some venerable and quite profitable stations such as KMSP in the Minneapolis-St. Paul market), with the loosening of FCC regulations and the creation of new additional TV networks (Fox, The WB, UPN and PAX), most of these independents have become unprofitable and ceased operation, or more often joined one or another of these or smaller (religious or low-budget) networks. KMSP is a television station in the Minneapolis-St. ... The Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. ... The Fox Broadcasting Company, usually referred to as just Fox, is a television network in the United States. ... The WB Television Network is a television network in the United States, founded as a joint venture between the Warner Bros. ... The official logo for UPN. UPN is a television network in the United States, owned by Viacom Inc. ... The PAX Network, PAX TV, PaxNet, or simply PAX, is a broadcast and cable television network first broadcasted on August 31, 1998. ...


Off-network Syndication

It is commonly said in the US industry that "syndication is where the real money is" when producing a TV show. In other words, while the initial run of any particular television series may theoretically lose money for its producing studio, the ensuing syndication will generate enough profit to balance out any losses. Off-network syndication occurs when a network television show is syndicated in packages containing some or all episodes, and sold to as many television stations/markets as possible. Sitcoms (short for "situation comedies") often do better in syndication than some dramatic shows due to the fact that most sitcoms have few ongoing storylines; a viewer can tune into many half-hour sitcoms without worrying about having missed the last episode. With some dramatic series, missing an episode can throw off the viewer, even if the episode itself is a self-contained story. Syndicators and stations often will run episodes of some series out of order, for a variety of reasons; often this is easier with a sitcom than with a series with more pronounced serial elements. A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ...


As an example of off-network syndication, the comedy show "Seinfeld" ran on the NBC television network from 1989 to 1998. Sony/Columbia Pictures syndicated the show to local TV stations in 99% of the markets in the country in 1994, the year that the show entered the top 10 list of network shows, and it became the most successfully syndicated rerun ever. In 1998, TBS bought cable rights to all 180 episodes of the show for 4 years, paying somewhere between US$120 million and US$180 million. Seinfeld is a television sitcom, considered to be one of the most popular and influential of the 1990s in the U.S., to the point where it is often cited as epitomizing the self-obsessed and ironic culture of the decade. ... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... Sony Corporation (Japanese katakana: ソニー) (TYO: 6758), (NYSE: SNE) is a global consumer electronics corporation based in Tokyo, Japan. ... Columbia Pictures is a film production company, and part of Sony Pictures Entertainment. ... Turner Broadcasting System logo The Turner Broadcasting System (often abbreviated to Turner or TBS) is the company managing the collection of cable networks and properties started by Ted Turner in the mid-1970s. ...


Cable stations have been known to vie among themselves for off-net syndication; in 2005, episodes of the series Law and Order were appearing on two cable channels (USA and TNT), having previously been seen on a third (A&E); Roseanne likewise was visible on multiple cable channels. Other series seen on multiple cable channels simultaneously were often being shared by channels which had the same corporate owners. Law & Order is the longest-running primetime drama currently on American television (2004). ... TNT is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: Trinitrotoluene, a chemical explosive. ... The A&E Network is a cable and satellite television network based in New York, New York. ... Roseanne was an American sitcom which aired on ABC from 1988 to 1997, starring the stand-up comedian Roseanne Barr. ...


Public-broadcasting syndication

As with commercial stations, not all the air time nor all the perceived audience are met by the productions offered US public-broadcasting stations by PBS; additionally, there are some independent public stations in the US which take no programming from that (somewhat) decentralized network. As a result, there are several syndicators of programming for the non-profit stations, several of which are descendents of the regional station groups which combined some, not all, of their functions into the creation of PBS in 1969. American Public Television (APT) is the largest of these, nearly matched by NETA, the National Educational Telecommunications Association; similarly, the recently defunct Continental Program Marketing was another of the syndicator-descendents (of the Northeastern, Southeastern, and Rocky Mountain educational networks, respectively) of the pre-PBS era. Among the other notable organizations in the US are Westlink Satellite Operations (based at Alburquerque's KNME), BBC Worldwide Americas (which often works with other distributors and individual stations, since it has no satellite access of its own in the US), Deutsche Welle, Executive Program Services, the Program Resource Group and its member-station WLIW, Long Island, NY's PBS station, which is (with the arguable exception of KNME) the most prolific contributor of any individual station of syndicated programming, most obviously the BBC World News in the US. PBS re-directs here; for alternate uses see PBS (disambiguation) PBS logo The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... American Public Television (APT) is a distributor and source of programming for public television stations in the United States and networks worldwide. ... The new Deutsche Welle building in Bonn Deutsche Welle or DW is the international broadcaster of Germany, utilising shortwave and satellite for radio and television broadcasts. ... WLIW is a Long Island PBS affiliate that serves the New York City area. ... BBC World News ident, currently used after relaunch in December 2003. ...


International syndication

Syndication also applies to international markets. Programs from the United Kingdom, Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina are syndicated to local TV stations in the United States, and programs from the United States are syndicated elsewhere in the world.


One of the best-known internationally syndicated television series has been "The Muppet Show," which was produced in England and shown on their commercial network ITV, and appeared around the world, including the United States, where it aired in syndication. Brazilian, Venezuelan, and Mexican telenovelas are programmed throughout the Spanish-speaking world and even in less predictable contexts such as India and Russia. The Muppet Show is a television program featuring a cast of Muppets (diverse hand operated puppets, typically with huge eyes and large moving mouths) produced by Jim Henson and his team from 1976 to 1981. ... Independent Television (ITV) is the name given to the original network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up to provide competition to the BBC. The original ITV channel has now been rebranded as ITV1 by ITV plc (the operator of the Channel 3 franchises in England and Wales). ... For the band Telenovela, go to Telenovela(band) Telenovela is the Spanish and Portuguese word for prime time serial or soap opera. ...


See also

100 episodes is considered to be the magic number at which point many television series (which usually run 22-26 episodes per year) are viable for TV syndication, usually translating to the start of the fifth season. ...

Sources

  • The Museum of Broadcast Communications (http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/S/htmlS/syndication/syndication.htm)
  • TVObscurities.com - Syndicated Shows Of 1987 (http://www.tvobscurities.com/pages/syn87.php)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Television Syndication (944 words)
Television Programming and Video is sold with a commonsense approach.
This streaming channel is the solution to save you thousands in syndication front fees and your show could start earning you income now.
While serving the internet community with 24/7 shows on demand, this is a great vehicle to sell advertisement (we can help you get some National direct ads for insertion in your show) We will be inviting networks and stations to view the webcast to look for new programming.
Television syndication - Definition, explanation (2666 words)
First-run syndication refers to programming that is broadcast for the first time as a syndicated show, or at least first so offered in a given country (foreign programs, first presented on a network in their country of origin, have often been syndicated in the US and in some other countries).
Syndication differs from selling the show to a television network; once a network picks up a show, it is usually guaranteed to run on all the network's affiliates, on the same day of the week and at the same time (in a given timezone, in countries where this is a concern).
In syndication, the program is sold to stations for "cash" (rights are purchased by the stations to insert some or all of the ads at their level), given to stations for access to airtime (wherein the syndicators get the ad revenue), or the combination of both.
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