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Encyclopedia > Synchronization

Synchronization (or Sync) is a problem in timekeeping which requires the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. The familiar conductor of an orchestra serves to keep the orchestra in time. Systems operating with all their parts in synchrony are said to be synchronous or in sync. Some systems may be only approximately synchronized, or plesiochronous. For some applications relative offsets between events need to be determined, for others only the order of the event is important. For alternate uses of time, see Time (disambiguation) or see TIME (magazine). ... System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma) is a set of entities, real or abstract, comprising a whole where each component interacts with or is related to at least one other component and they all serve a common objective. ... A conductor conducting a band at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... The term plesiochronous is derived from the Greek plesio, meaning near, and chronos, time, and refers to the fact that plesiochronous systems run in a state where different parts of the system are almost, but not quite perfectly, synchronised. ...


Today, synchronization can occur on a global basis due to GPS-enabled timekeeping systems. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is currently the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ...

Contents

Transport

Apart from its use for navigation (see John Harrison), synchronization was not important in transportation until the nineteenth century, when the coming of the railways made travel fast enough for the differences in local time between adjacent towns to be noticeable (see [1]). John Harrison John Harrison (March 24, 1693–March 24, 1776) was an English clockmaker, who designed and built the worlds first successful chronometer (maritime clock), one whose accuracy was great enough to allow the determination of longitude over long distances. ...


In some territories, sharing of single railroad tracks was controlled by the timetable. Thus strict timekeeping was a safety requirement. To this day, railroads can communicate and signal along their tracks, independently of other systems for safety.


Communication

The lessons of timekeeping are part of engineering technology. In electrical engineering terms, for digital logic and data transfer, a synchronous object requires a clock signal. Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... In synchronous digital electronics, such as most computers, a clock signal is a signal used to coordinate the actions of two or more circuits. ...


Timekeeping technologies such as the GPS satellites and Network time protocol (NTP) provide real-time access to a close approximation to the UTC timescale, and are used for many terrestrial synchronization applications. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is currently the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ... The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks. ... ...


Synchronization is an important concept in the following fields:

Synchronization has several subtly distinct sub-concepts: In computer science, especially parallel computing, synchronization means the coordination of simultaneous threads or processes to complete a task in order to get correct runtime order and avoid unexpected race conditions. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Simultaneity is the property of two events happening at the same time in at least ONE Reference frame. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or sensor. ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... Rhythm (Greek = flow, or in Modern Greek, style) is the variation of the length and accentuation of a series of sounds or other events. ...

Phase synchronization is the process by which two or more cyclic signals tend to oscillate with a repeating sequence of relative phase angles. ...

Some uses of synchronization

Whilst well-designed time synchronization is an important tool for creating reliable systems, excessive use of synchronization where it is not necessary can make systems less fault-tolerant, and hence less reliable.

  • Film synchronization of image and sound in sound film.
  • Synchronization is important in fields such as digital telephony, video and digital audio where streams of sampled data are manipulated.
  • Arbiters are needed in digital electronic systems such as microprocessors to deal with asynchronous inputs. There are also electronic digital circuits called synchronizers that attempt to perform arbitration in one clock cycle. Synchronizers, unlike arbiters, are prone to failure. (See metastability in electronics).
  • Encryption systems usually require some synchronization mechanism to ensure that the receiving cipher is decoding the right bits at the right time.
  • Automotive transmissions contain synchronizers which allow the toothed rotating parts (gears and splined shaft) to be brought to the same rotational velocity before engaging the teeth.
  • Synchronization is also important in industrial automation applications.
  • Time codes are often used as a means of synchronization in film, video, and audio applications.
  • Flash photography, see Flash synchronization
  • File synchronization is used to maintain the same version of files on multiple computing devices. For example, an address book on a telephone might need to be synchronized with an address book on a computer.
  • Software applications must occasionally incorporate application-specific data synchronization in order to mirror changes over time among multiple data sources at a level more granular than File synchronization. An example use of this is the Data Synchronization specification of the Open Mobile Alliance, which continues the work previously done by the SyncML initiative. SyncML was initially proposed to synchronize changes in personal address book and calendar information from computers to mobile phones, but has subsequently been used in applications that synchronize other types of data changes among multiple sources, such as project status changes.
  • The term synchronization is also sometimes used for the transfer of content from a computer to an MP3 player connected to it.

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into image (disambiguation). ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... 1902 poster advertising Gaumonts sound films, depicting an optimistically vast auditorium A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. ... Digital telephony is a technology used in the provision of digital telephone services and systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Digital audio comprises audio signals stored in a digital format. ... Arbiters are used in asynchronous circuits to order computational activities for shared resources to preventing concurrent incorrect operations. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... Metastability in electronics is the ability of a non-equilibrium electronic state to persist for a long period of time (see asynchronous circuit). ... “Cipher” redirects here. ... Transmissions provide a speed-power conversion known as gear reduction (in speed) to a higher torque (rotational force) using gearsets. ... Synchromesh is the term used to describe a manual transmission in which gears are brought to the same speed during shifting by a synchronizer. ... Automation (ancient Greek: = self dictated) or Industrial Automation is the use of computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. ... Timecode is also the title of a 2000 film directed by Mike Figgis which was shot in one continuous take. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... A photographic flash is a device that produces a flash of light required for indoor or other low light conditions. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or sensor. ... In a camera, flash synchronization is required for the firing of a photographic flash to coincide with the shutter admitting light to the photographic film. ... File synchronization (or syncing) in computing is the process of making sure that two or more locations contain the same up-to-date files. ... Data synchronization is the process of establishing consistency among data on remote sources. ... File synchronization (or syncing) in computing is the process of making sure that two or more locations contain the same up-to-date files. ... The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is a standards body which develops open standards for the mobile industry. ... SyncML (Synchronization Markup Language) is the former name (currently referred to as: Open Mobile Alliance Data Synchronization and Device Management) for a platform-independent information synchronization standard. ... SyncML (Synchronization Markup Language) is the former name (currently referred to as: Open Mobile Alliance Data Synchronization and Device Management) for a platform-independent information synchronization standard. ... MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is an audio encoding format. ...

See also

In the field of video and audio engineering: Asynchrony is the state of not being synchronized. ... In neuroscience, the term polychronization describes the process of generating reproducible time-locked but not synchronous spiking patterns with millisecond precision. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Time transfer describes methods for transferring reference clock synchronization from one point to another, often over long distances. ... Timecode is also the title of a 2000 film directed by Mike Figgis which was shot in one continuous take. ... In electronics, a phase-locked loop (PLL) is a closed-loop feedback control system that generates and outputs a signal in relation to the frequency and phase of an input (reference) signal. ... Spoked flywheel Flywheel from stationary engine. ... Synchromesh is the term used to describe a manual transmission in which gears are brought to the same speed during shifting by a synchronizer. ... Mutual exclusion (often abbreviated to mutex) algorithms are used in concurrent programming to avoid the simultaneous use of un-shareable resources by pieces of computer code called critical sections. ... In telecommunication, the term homochronous describes the relationship between two signals such that their corresponding significant instants are displaced by a constant interval of time. ... Clock synchronization is a problem from computer science which deals with the idea that internal clocks of several computers may differ. ... Synchronization is an important concept in relation to alternating current. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Synchronous conferencing is the formal term used in science, in particular in computer-mediated communication, collaboration and learning, to describe text chat technologies. ... Synchronization of chaos is a phenomenon that may occur when two, or more, chaotic oscillators are coupled, or when a chaotic oscillator drives another chaotic oscillator. ...

Order synchronization and related topics: Genlock (for Generator Lock) is a common technique where the video output of one source, or a specific reference signal, is used to synchronize other television picture sources together. ... Jam sync refers to the practice of applying a phase hit to a system to bring it in synchronization with another. ... Word sync is a technique for synchronizing digital audio signals between high-end professional devices such as CD players, audio I/O cards etc. ...

Compare with: The rendezvous dilemma is related to the prisoners dilemma and can be formulated in this way: Two young people have a date in a park they have never been to before. ... Interlocking in railway terminology (US) is a term used to describe an at-grade crossing or other junction of two or more railroads, or any railroad switching complex in which the switches and the signals controlling train movement over those switches is interlocked so that it is impossible to give... A race condition or race hazard is a flaw in a system or process whereby the output of the process is unexpectedly and critically dependent on the sequence or timing of other events. ... In computer science -- more specifically, in the field of databases -- concurrency control is a method used to ensure that database transactions are executed in a safe manner (i. ... class of synchronization called room synchronizations and show how this class can be used to implement asynchronous parallel queues and stacks with constant time access (assuming a fetch-and-add operation). ... Synchronous and asynchronous transmission are two different methods of transmission synchronization. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
RSS Synchronization - RSS Learning Center (187 words)
Synchronization means never having to read the same feed twice!
One of the things that separates NewsGator apart from the competition is synchronization.
This feature makes sure your feeds follow you wherever you go, and makes sure you never have to read the same content twice whether you read that content online, on your mobile device or on a totally different platform.
Time Synchronization (458 words)
When synchronization on the many clocks that make up a corporate network begins to fail – even by milliseconds – an organization faces multiple risks.
Systems that rely on an external time source open the door to hackers, and administrators may have difficulty tracing security breaches if the time stamps on log files are inaccurate.
Because time is used as a basis for legal contracts, imperfect time synchronization can open the door to significant legal liability.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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