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Encyclopedia > Synapsid
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Synapsids
Fossil range: Late Carboniferous - Middle Cretaceous (non-mammalian)
Dimetrodon grandis skeleton at the National Museum of Natural History of U.S.A.
Dimetrodon grandis skeleton at the National Museum of Natural History of U.S.A.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
(unranked) Amniota
Class: Synapsida *
Osborn, 1903
Orders & Suborders

For complete phylogeny, see text. The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Fossil skeleton of Dimetrodon grandis, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC; digital photo by User:Postdlf, 2/20/05 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Digimon, the only known animals. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Classes and Clades See below Male and female Superb Fairy-wren Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata (within the phylum Chordata), specifically, those chordates with backbones or spinal columns. ... Groups See text. ... Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ... Henry Fairfield Osborn (August 8, 1857 — November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... The pelycosaurs were smallish to large (upto 3 meters or more) primitive Late Paleozoic synapsid reptiles. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Genera and Families Caseidae Eothyrididae Caseoides ?Phreatophasma The Caseasauria are one of the two main clades of early synapsids, the other being the Eupelycosauria. ... Families and Clades Varanopseidae Ophiacodontidae Edaphosauridae Sphenacodontia Sphenacodontidae Therapsida Mammalia The Eupelycosauria originally referred to a suborder of Pelycosaurs (Reisz 1987), but has been redefined (Laurin and Reisz 1997) to designate a monophyletic clade of synapsids that includes most pelycosaurs, as well as all therapsids and mammals. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Suborders Biarmosuchia Dinocephalia Eotheriodontia Anomodontia Gorgonopsia Therocephalia Cynodontia Therapsids, previously known as the mammal-like reptiles, are an order of synapsids. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Families Biarmosuchidae Phthinosuchidae Niaftasuchidae Eotitanosuchidae Hipposauridae Rubidginidae Ictidorhinidae Burnetiidae The Biarmosuchia, also known as the Eotitanosuchia and the Phthinosuchia are an assemblage of primitive Permian Therapsida that represent either a paraphyletic stem group or a very early off-shoot of the main Therapsid tree. ... Families   Estemmenosuchidae   Brithopodidae   Anteosauridae   Deuterosauridae   Styracocephalidae   Titanosuchidae   Tapinocephalidae Dinocephalia are a clade of large early therapsids that flourished during the Middle Permian, but became extinct leaving no descendants. ... Groups Anomocephalus Patranomodon Venyukoviidae Dromasauria Dicynodontia The Anomodontia are one of the three major groups of therapsids. ... Gorgonopsids as seen in Walking with Monsters Gorgonopsia (Gorgon face) is a suborder of synapsids. ... Families See Taxonomy The Therocephalians are a lineage of therapsids, and therefore sometimes described as mammal-like reptiles. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta is the suborder that contains the most mammal-like of the non-mammalian therapsids, which are sometimes termed mammal-like reptiles. The most derived cynodonts are found within Eucynodontia clade, which also contains the members of Mammalia. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Synapsids ('fused arch') also known as Theropsids ('beast face'), and traditionally described as 'mammal-like reptiles', are a group of amniotes (the other being the sauropsids) that developed one opening in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (mya) during the late Carboniferous Period. Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... Clades Subclass Anapsida Subclass Diapsida Infraclass Lepidosauromorpha Infraclass Archosauromorpha Sauropsids are a diverse group of mostly egg-laying vertebrate animals. ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... Large holes in the side of the skull. ... Mega-annum, usually abbreviated as Ma, is a unit of time equal to one million years. ... In astronomy, geology, and paleontology, mya is an acronym for million years ago and is used as a unit of time to denote length of time before the present. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... A geologic period is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an era into smaller timeframes. ...

Contents

Changing classifications

At the turn of the 20th century, the Synapsids were originally defined as one of the five main subclasses of reptiles, on the basis of their distinctive temporal openings. These openings in the cheek bones allowed attachment of larger jaw muscles, hence a more efficient bite. The synapsids represented the reptilian lineage that led to the mammals and gradually evolved increasingly mammalian features, hence the term 'mammal-like reptiles'. Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Synonyms Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


The traditional classification continued through to the late 1980s (see e.g. Carroll 1988). In the 1990s this approach was replaced by a cladistic one, according to which the only valid groups are those that include common ancestors and all their descendants. Because synapsids evolved into mammals, mammals are included under Clade Synapsida. The 1980s refers to the years of and between 1980 and 1989. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... Subclasses Allotheria* Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Prototheria Order Monotremata Theria Infraclass Marsupialia Infraclass Eutheria The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from mammary glands present on most species...


A recent, compromising position (see Benton 2004) has the class Synapsida as intentionally paraphyletic, constituting a grade of animals from the earliest split with sauropsids to the arbitrary division with its daughter class, Mammalia. Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Clades Subclass Anapsida Subclass Diapsida Infraclass Lepidosauromorpha Infraclass Archosauromorpha Sauropsids are a diverse group of mostly egg-laying vertebrate animals. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...


Evolutionary history

Archaeothyris, the oldest synapsid.
Archaeothyris, the oldest synapsid.

Archaeothyris and Clepsydrops were the earliest known synapsids.[1] They belonged to a group called pelycosaurs and they lived in the Pennsylvanian epoch of the Carboniferous Period. The pelycosaurs were the first successful group of amniotes, spreading and diversifying until they became the dominant large terrestrial animals, in the latest Carboniferous and Early Permian Periods. They are currently divided into two clades, the Caseasauria and the Eupelycosauria. They were sprawling, bulky, cold-blooded and had small brains. They were the largest land animals of their time, ranging up to 3 m (10 ft) in length. Many, like Dimetrodon, had large sails that may have helped raise their body temperature. A few relict groups lasted into the later Permian.[2] Image File history File links Archaeothyris_BW.jpg‎ Archaeothyris, pencil drawing Author:User:ArthurWeasley File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mammal Synapsid Archaeothyris Ophiacodontidae Wikipedia:WikiProject Dinosaurs/Image review/Archive December 2006 User:ArthurWeasley:Carboniferous ... Image File history File links Archaeothyris_BW.jpg‎ Archaeothyris, pencil drawing Author:User:ArthurWeasley File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mammal Synapsid Archaeothyris Ophiacodontidae Wikipedia:WikiProject Dinosaurs/Image review/Archive December 2006 User:ArthurWeasley:Carboniferous ... Binomial name Archaeothyris florensis Reisz, 1972 Archaeothyris was an amniote, it was lizard-like in appearance. ... Species Clepsydrops sp. ... The pelycosaurs were smallish to large (upto 3 meters or more) primitive Late Paleozoic synapsid reptiles. ... The Pennsylvanian is an epoch of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly 325 Ma to 299 Ma (million years ago). ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Genera and Families Caseidae Eothyrididae Caseoides ?Phreatophasma The Caseasauria are one of the two main clades of early synapsids, the other being the Eupelycosauria. ... Families and Clades Varanopseidae Ophiacodontidae Edaphosauridae Sphenacodontia Sphenacodontidae Therapsida Mammalia The Eupelycosauria originally referred to a suborder of Pelycosaurs (Reisz 1987), but has been redefined (Laurin and Reisz 1997) to designate a monophyletic clade of synapsids that includes most pelycosaurs, as well as all therapsids and mammals. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... The term relict is used to refer to surviving remnants of natural phenomena. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ...

Sphenacodon was a carnivorous pelycosaur that was closely related to Dimetrodon and the therapsids.
Sphenacodon was a carnivorous pelycosaur that was closely related to Dimetrodon and the therapsids.

The therapsids, a more advanced group of synapsids, appeared during the first half of the Permian and went on to become the dominant large terrestrial animals during the latter half. They have dominated the world twice: once in the Permian and once in the Cenozoic, the current era. They were by far the most diverse and abundant animals of the Middle and Late Permian and included herbivores and carnivores, ranging from small animals the size of a rat (e.g: Robertia), to large bulky herbivores a tonne or more in weight (e.g: Moschops). After flourishing for many millions of years, these successful animals were all but wiped out by the Permian-Triassic mass extinction about 250 Mya, the largest extinction in Earth's history, which may have been related to the Siberian Traps volcanic event. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Species Sphenacodon britannicus Sphenacodon ferox Sphenacodon ferocior Sphenacodon was a pelycosaur that was 10 feet in length. ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Groups Biarmosuchia Dinocephalia Anomodontia Theriodontia    Cynodontia       (...mammals) Therapsids, previously known as the mammal-like reptiles, are a group of synapsids. ... Groups Biarmosuchia Dinocephalia Anomodontia Theriodontia    Cynodontia       (...mammals) Therapsids, previously known as the mammal-like reptiles, are a group of synapsids. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Cenozoic Era (IPA pronunciation: ); sometimes Caenozoic Era in the United Kingdom) meaning new life (Greek kainos = new + zoe = life) is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. ... Binomial name Robertia broomiana Robertia broomiana was a small, primitive dicynodont; among the earlier members of the group. ... Moschops was a prehistoric mammal-like reptile (therapsid) which lived in the late Permian, some 250 million years ago. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... For the Big Finish Productions audio play, see The Extinction Event. ... The planet Earth, photographed in the year 1972. ... The Siberian Traps (Russian: ) form a large igneous province in Siberia. ...

Lystrosaurus was the most common synapsid shortly after the Permian-Triassic extinction.
Lystrosaurus was the most common synapsid shortly after the Permian-Triassic extinction.

Only a few therapsids and no pelycosaurs survived the Permian extinction and went on to be successful in the new early Triassic landscape; they include Lystrosaurus and Cynognathus, the latter of which appeared later in the early Triassic. Now, however, they were accompanied by the early archosaurs (formerly known as thecodonts; this term is not used in modern classifications). Some of these, like Euparkeria, were small and lightly built, while others, like Erythrosuchus, were as big as or bigger than the largest therapsids. Image File history File links Lystrosaurus. ... Image File history File links Lystrosaurus. ... Species Lystrosaurus curvatus Lystrosaurus declivus Lystrosaurus mccaigi Lystrosaurus murrayi Lystrosaurus oviceps Lystrosaurus platyceps Lystrosaurus (meaning shovel reptile, pronounced list-row-sore-uss) was a genus of Early Triassic Period therapsids, which lived approximately 250 million years ago in what is now Antarctica, India and South Africa. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 200 Ma (million years ago). ... Species Lystrosaurus curvatus Lystrosaurus declivus Lystrosaurus mccaigi Lystrosaurus murrayi Lystrosaurus oviceps Lystrosaurus platyceps Lystrosaurus (meaning shovel reptile, pronounced list-row-sore-uss) was a genus of Early Triassic Period therapsids, which lived approximately 250 million years ago in what is now Antarctica, India and South Africa. ... Species    Ref. ... -1... Thecodont (socket-toothed reptile), is a catch-all (paraphyletic) group, now considered an obsolete term, that was formerly used to describe a group of the earliest archosaurs that lived during the Permian and Triassic periods. ... Binomial name Euparkeria capensis Broom, 1913a Is considered to be one of the dinosaurs ancestors. ... Erythrosuchus is an extinct genus of archosaur reptile that was about 5 m (17 ft) long and 2,10 m (7 ft) tall. ...


Triassic therapsids included three groups. Specialised, beaked herbivores known as dicynodonts (such as Lystrosaurus and its descendants, the Kannemeyeriidae), contained some members which reached large size (up to a tonne or more). The increasingly mammal-like carnivorous, herbivorous, and insectivorous cynodonts included the eucynodonts from the Olenekian age, an early representative of which was Cynognathus. Finally, there were the therocephalians, which only lasted into the early part of the Triassic. Clades & Genera see Taxonomy The Dicynodontia are a taxon of Therapsids or mammal-like reptiles. ... Kannemeyeriidae: A family of large, stocky, beaked and sometimes tusked dicynodonts, they were the dominant large terrestrial herbivores through most of the Triassic period. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta, or dog teeth, were one of the most diverse groups of therapsids. ... Families   Tritylodontidae   Tritheledontidae   a number of other families Ref. ... The Olenekian (also known as the Yongningzhenian) is a stage of the Early Triassic epoch. ... Families See Taxonomy The Therocephalians are a lineage of therapsids, and therefore sometimes described as mammal-like reptiles. ...

Cynognathus was the largest, predatory cynodont of the Triassic.
Cynognathus was the largest, predatory cynodont of the Triassic.

Unlike the dicynodonts, which remained large, the cynodonts became progressively smaller and more mammal-like as the Triassic progressed. From the most advanced and tiny cynodonts, which were only the size of a shrew, came the first mammal precursors, during the Carnian age of the Late Triassic, about 220 Mya. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Species    Ref. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 200 Ma (million years ago). ... It has been suggested that Echolocating shrew be merged into this article or section. ... Subclasses Allotheria* Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Prototheria Order Monotremata Theria Infraclass Marsupialia Infraclass Eutheria The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from mammary glands present on most species... The Carnian is a stage on the geologic time scale occuring from 228 +/- 2 to 216. ...


During the evolutionary succession from early therapsid to cynodont to eucynodont to mammal, the main lower jaw bone, the dentary, replaced the adjacent bones. Thus, the lower jaw gradually became just one large bone, with several of the smaller jaw bones migrating into the inner ear and allowing sophisticated hearing. The dentary is the tooth bearing bone of the lower jaw. ... The inner ear comprises both: the organ of hearing (the cochlea) and the labyrinth or vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance located in the inner ear that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ...


Whether through climate change, vegetation change, ecological competition, or a combination of factors, most of the remaining large cynodonts (belonging to the Traversodontidae) and dicynodonts (of the family Kannemeyeriidae) had disappeared by the Norian age, even before the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event that killed off all of the large non-dinosaurian archosaurs. Their places were taken by the diapsid archosaurs known as dinosaurs, which dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for the rest of the Mesozoic Era. The remaining Mesozoic synapsids were small, ranging from the size of a shrew, to the badger-like Repenomamus. Genera Traversodon Boreogomphodon Luangwa Massetognathus Dadadon Gomphodontosuchus Scalenodontoides Exaeretodon Traversodontidae is an advanced, large, plant-eating group of cynodonts that is part of the lineage Cynognathia, a line that includes the famous, fierce predator Cynognathus. ... The Norian Stage was a portion of the Triassic geological period. ... Comparison of the intensity of the T-J extinction event, labeled here End Tr to other extinction events in the last 500 million years. ... Subtaxa Phytosauridae Prestosuchidae Ornithosuchidae Stagonolepididae Rauisuchidae Poposauridae Crocodylomorpha     Sphenosuchia     Crocodilia Crurotarsi (cross-ankles) is a node-based taxon created by Paul Sereno in 1991 to supplant the old term Pseudosuchia. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... It has been suggested that Echolocating shrew be merged into this article or section. ... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... Species Repenomamus robustus Li, Wang, Wang, Li, 2000 Repenomamus giganticus Hu, Meng, Wang, Li, 2005 Repenomamus is the largest mammal known from the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic, and the only one with evidence that it ate dinosaurs. ...


During the Jurassic and Cretaceous, the remaining non-mammalian cynodonts were small, such as Tritylodon. No cynodont grew larger than a cat. Most Jurassic and Cretaceous cynodonts were herbivorous, and some were carnivorous. The family Trithelodontidae first appeared near the end of the Triassic. They were carnivorous and persisted well into the Middle Jurassic. The other, Tritylodontidae, first appeared at the same time as the Trithelodonts, but they were herbivorous. This group became extinct at the end of the Early Cretaceous epoch. Dicynodonts are thought to have become extinct near the end of the Triassic period, but there is evidence that this group survived. New fossil finds have been found in the Cretaceous rocks of Gondwana. This is an example of Lazarus taxon. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Trinomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... Genera See below The Trithelodontidae, also known as Ictidosaurs, were small to medium-sized cynodonts. ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... The Middle Jurassic, called the Dogger in the European system of classification, is the second epoch of the Jurassic period. ... Genera See below The Tritylodontidae (three knob teeth, named after how their teeth were shaped) were small to medium-sized, highly specialized and extremely mammal-like cynodonts. ... The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Gondwanaland redirects here. ... The takahe is an example of a Lazarus taxon. ...


Today, there are 4,500 species of living synapsids, including both aquatic (whales) and flying (bats) species, and the largest animal ever known to have existed (the blue whale).[3] In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... A Fin Whale The term whale is ambiguous: it can refer to all cetaceans, to just the larger ones, or only to members of particular families within the order Cetacea. ... Suborders Megachiroptera Microchiroptera See text for families. ... Binomial name Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) Blue Whale range The Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the suborder of baleen whales. ...


Synapsids evolution into mammals is believed to be triggered by moving to a nocturnal niche, one of the few niches that the increasing dinosaurs didn't dominate. In order to survive at night, proto-mammals had to increase their metabolic rate to keep their body warm. This meant consuming food (generally thought to be insects) more rapidly. To facilitate rapid digestion, proto-mammals evolved mastication (chewing) and specialized teeth that aided chewing. Limbs also evolved to move under the body instead of to the side. This allowed the proto-mammals to be able to change direction quicker in order to catch small prey at a faster rate. Rather than out-running predators, instead proto-mammals adapted the strategy of outmaneuvering predators using this same ability, it is believed.[4] A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ... Two lichenes species on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... Orders Saurischia    Sauropodomorpha    Theropoda Ornithischia Dinosaurs are giant reptiles that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for most of their 165-million year existence. ... Clades Allotheria Adelobasileus Sinoconodon Morganucodonta Megazostrodontidae Docodonta Hadrocodium Kuehneotheriidae Symmetrodonta Mammalia Mammaliaformes is a clade that contains the mammals and their closest extinct relatives. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mastication or chewing is the process by which food is mashed and crushed by teeth. ... Prey can refer to: Look up Prey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A prey animal eaten by a predator in an act called predation. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Taxonomy

During their evolution, the synapsids developed one hole behind each eye.
During their evolution, the synapsids developed one hole behind each eye.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Temporal fenestræ refer to cranial holes. ...

Classification

Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The pelycosaurs were smallish to large (upto 3 meters or more) primitive Late Paleozoic synapsid reptiles. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Genera and Families Caseidae Eothyrididae Caseoides ?Phreatophasma The Caseasauria are one of the two main clades of early synapsids, the other being the Eupelycosauria. ... Families and Clades Varanopseidae Ophiacodontidae Edaphosauridae Sphenacodontia Sphenacodontidae Therapsida Mammalia The Eupelycosauria originally referred to a suborder of Pelycosaurs (Reisz 1987), but has been redefined (Laurin and Reisz 1997) to designate a monophyletic clade of synapsids that includes most pelycosaurs, as well as all therapsids and mammals. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Groups See taxonomy Varanopseidae were synapsid pelycosaurs that resemble monitor lizards and may have had the same lifestyle. ... Genera Archaeothyris ?Protoclepsydrops Ophiacodon Stereophallodon Stereorhachis Ophiacodonts were pelycosaur synapsids. ... Genera Edaphosaurus Ianthasaurus The Edaphosauridae are a family of mostly large (up to 3 meters or more) advanced, Late Pennsylvanian to early Permian pelycosaurs. ... Genera Haptodus Secodontosaurus Sphenacodon Ctenospondylus Dimetrodon The Sphenacodontidae are a family of small to large, advanced, carnivorous, Late Pennsylvanian to middle Permian pelycosaurs. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Suborders Biarmosuchia Dinocephalia Eotheriodontia Anomodontia Gorgonopsia Therocephalia Cynodontia Therapsids, previously known as the mammal-like reptiles, are an order of synapsids. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Families Biarmosuchidae Phthinosuchidae Niaftasuchidae Eotitanosuchidae Hipposauridae Rubidginidae Ictidorhinidae Burnetiidae The Biarmosuchia, also known as the Eotitanosuchia and the Phthinosuchia are an assemblage of primitive Permian Therapsida that represent either a paraphyletic stem group or a very early off-shoot of the main Therapsid tree. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Families   Estemmenosuchidae   Brithopodidae   Anteosauridae   Deuterosauridae   Styracocephalidae   Titanosuchidae   Tapinocephalidae Dinocephalia are a clade of large early therapsids that flourished during the Middle Permian, but became extinct leaving no descendants. ... Groups Anomocephalus Patranomodon Venyukoviidae Dromasauria Dicynodontia The Anomodontia are one of the three major groups of therapsids. ... Gorgonopsids as seen in Walking with Monsters Gorgonopsia (Gorgon face) is a suborder of synapsids. ... Families See Taxonomy The Therocephalians are a lineage of therapsids, and therefore sometimes described as mammal-like reptiles. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta is the suborder that contains the most mammal-like of the non-mammalian therapsids, which are sometimes termed mammal-like reptiles. The most derived cynodonts are found within Eucynodontia clade, which also contains the members of Mammalia. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Genera   Probainognathus   (?) Lepagia Ref. ... Groups Chiniquodontidae Mammaliaformes Therioherpetidae Tritheledontidae Chiniquodontoidea is a monophyletic clade of cynodonts that is defined as including all probainognathians closer to mammals than to Probainognathus which is the more primitive form in Probainognathia. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Subclasses Allotheria* Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Prototheria Order Monotremata Theria Infraclass Marsupialia Infraclass Eutheria The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from mammary glands present on most species...

Phylogeny

 Synapsida |-Caseasauria `-Eupelycosauria |-Varanopseidae `-+-Ophiacodontidae `-+-Edaphosauridae `-Sphenacodontia |-Sphenacodontidae `-Therapsida |-Biarmosuchia | `-Eotitanosuchus `-Eutherapsida |-Dinocephalia `-Neotherapsida |-Anomodontia `-Theriodontia |-Gorgonopsia `-Eutheriodontia |-Therocephalia `-Cynodontia |- + -Dvinia | `--Procynosuchus `- Epicynodontia |-Thrinaxodon `-Eucynodontia |- + -Cynognathus | `- + -Tritylodontidae | `- Traversodontidae `-Probainognathia |- + - Trithelodontidae | `--Chiniquodontidae `- + - Prozostrodon `- Mammaliaformes `-Mammalia 

Genera and Families Caseidae Eothyrididae Caseoides ?Phreatophasma The Caseasauria are one of the two main clades of early synapsids, the other being the Eupelycosauria. ... Families and Clades Varanopseidae Ophiacodontidae Edaphosauridae Sphenacodontia Sphenacodontidae Therapsida Mammalia The Eupelycosauria originally referred to a suborder of Pelycosaurs (Reisz 1987), but has been redefined (Laurin and Reisz 1997) to designate a monophyletic clade of synapsids that includes most pelycosaurs, as well as all therapsids and mammals. ... Groups See taxonomy Varanopseidae were synapsid pelycosaurs that resemble monitor lizards and may have had the same lifestyle. ... Genera Archaeothyris ?Protoclepsydrops Ophiacodon Stereophallodon Stereorhachis Ophiacodonts were pelycosaur synapsids. ... Genera Edaphosaurus Ianthasaurus The Edaphosauridae are a family of mostly large (up to 3 meters or more) advanced, Late Pennsylvanian to early Permian pelycosaurs. ... Genera and Clades See Taxonomy Sphenacodontia is the name given to the monophyletic clade that includes the Sphenacodontidae and all their descendents (including mammals). ... Genera Haptodus Secodontosaurus Sphenacodon Ctenospondylus Dimetrodon The Sphenacodontidae are a family of small to large, advanced, carnivorous, Late Pennsylvanian to middle Permian pelycosaurs. ... Suborders Biarmosuchia Dinocephalia Eotheriodontia Anomodontia Gorgonopsia Therocephalia Cynodontia Therapsids, previously known as the mammal-like reptiles, are an order of synapsids. ... Families Biarmosuchidae Phthinosuchidae Niaftasuchidae Eotitanosuchidae Hipposauridae Rubidginidae Ictidorhinidae Burnetiidae The Biarmosuchia, also known as the Eotitanosuchia and the Phthinosuchia are an assemblage of primitive Permian Therapsida that represent either a paraphyletic stem group or a very early off-shoot of the main Therapsid tree. ... Binomial name Eotitanosuchus olsoni Tchudinov, 1960 Eotitanosuchus olsoni (Olsons dawn giant crocodile) was a mammal-like reptile occurring in Ocher, in the Perm region of Russia, in channel flood deposits allong with Biarmosuchus tener, Estemmenosuchus uralensis and Estemmenosuchus mirabilis. ... Families   Estemmenosuchidae   Brithopodidae   Anteosauridae   Deuterosauridae   Styracocephalidae   Titanosuchidae   Tapinocephalidae Dinocephalia are a clade of large early therapsids that flourished during the Middle Permian, but became extinct leaving no descendants. ... Groups Anomocephalus Patranomodon Venyukoviidae Dromasauria Dicynodontia The Anomodontia are one of the three major groups of therapsids. ... Groups Gorgonopsia Eutheriodontia Therocephalia Cynodontia Mammaliformes Allotheria Mammalia Theriodontia (Beast Tooth, referring to more mammal-like teeth), are the third main group of therapsids. ... Gorgonopsids as seen in Walking with Monsters Gorgonopsia (Gorgon face) is a suborder of synapsids. ... Families See Taxonomy The Therocephalians are a lineage of therapsids, and therefore sometimes described as mammal-like reptiles. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta is the suborder that contains the most mammal-like of the non-mammalian therapsids, which are sometimes termed mammal-like reptiles. The most derived cynodonts are found within Eucynodontia clade, which also contains the members of Mammalia. ... Binomial name Dvinia prima Amalitskii, 1922 Dvinia was a therapsid mammal-like reptile of the family Dviniidae found in Sokoli on the Dvina river near Archangelsk in Russia. ... Species Procynosuchus was a cynodont, a group that was ancestral to mammals. ... Families See text Cynodonta, or dog teeth, are a taxon of Therapsids, traditionally called mammal-like reptiles. ... Species Thrinaxodon was a cynodont, a mammal-like reptile. Many scientists suggest that the pits on the skull indicate that Thrinaxodon had whiskers and, therefore, probably had a covering of fur. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Species    Ref. ... Genera See below The Tritylodontidae (three knob teeth, named after how their teeth were shaped) were small to medium-sized, highly specialized and extremely mammal-like cynodonts. ... Genera Traversodon Boreogomphodon Luangwa Massetognathus Dadadon Gomphodontosuchus Scalenodontoides Exaeretodon Traversodontidae is an advanced, large, plant-eating group of cynodonts that is part of the lineage Cynognathia, a line that includes the famous, fierce predator Cynognathus. ... Families and Clades See taxonomy Probainognathia are mammal-like cynodonts, and are one of the two main branches of the Eucynodontia infraorder, with the other being the Cynognathia - a group that includes Cynognathus and the Tritylodonts. ... Genera See below The Trithelodontidae, also known as Ictidosaurs, were small to medium-sized cynodonts. ... Genera   Chiniquodon   Aleodon   Belesodon   Gaumia   Probelesodon Ref. ... Clades Allotheria Adelobasileus Sinoconodon Morganucodonta Megazostrodontidae Docodonta Hadrocodium Kuehneotheriidae Symmetrodonta Mammalia Mammaliaformes is a clade that contains the mammals and their closest extinct relatives. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...

References

  1. ^ Lambert, David (2001). Dinosaur Encyclopedia, 68-69. ISBN 0-7894-7935-4.
  2. ^ The last of the pelycosaurs became extinct by the end of Permian
  3. ^ Mammals are the direct descendants of synapsids.
  4. ^ Synapsid Reptiles. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.

Michael Benton is a professor of vertebrate palaeontology in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol. ... Vertebrate Paleontology is an basic textbook on vertebrate paleontology by Michael Benton, published by the Blackwells. ... Front of the original Blackwells bookshop Blackwells is a national chain of publishers and bookshops in the United Kingdom. ... Robert L. Carroll (b. ... Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution is an advanced textbook on vertebrate paleontology by Robert L. Carroll, published by WH Freeman. ... Edwin H. Colbert (1905 – 2001) was a distinguished vertebrate paleontologist and prolific researcher and author. ... Evolution of the Vertebrates, subtitled A History of the Backboned Animals Through Time is a basic paleontology textbook by Edwin H. Colbert, published by John Wiley & Sons. ... The Wiley Building in Hoboken, New Jersey, located on the waterfront between River Street and Frank Sinatra Drive. ... The Tree of Life Web Project is an ongoing Internet project and providing information about the diversity and phylogeny of life on Earth. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... Subclasses Allotheria* Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Prototheria Order Monotremata Theria Infraclass Marsupialia Infraclass Eutheria The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from mammary glands present on most species... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ...

See also

Vertebrate paleontology seeks to discover the behavior, reproduction and appearance of extinct spined animals, through the study of their fossilized remains. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Synapsid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1036 words)
Synapsids ('fused arch') also known as Theropsids ('beast arch'), traditionally described as 'mammal-like reptiles', are a group of amniotes (the other being the sauropsids) that developed one opening in their skull (temporal fenestra) behind each eye, about 320 million years ago (Mya) during the late Carboniferous Period.
The Synapsids were originally defined, at the turn of the 20th Century, as one of the five main subclasses of reptiles, on the basis of their distinctive temporal openings.
Synapsids evolution into mammals is believed to be triggered by moving to a nocturnal (night) niche, one of the few niches that the increasing dinosaurs didn't dominate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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