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Encyclopedia > Synagogue
The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy.
The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy.

  Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism Trani is a seaport of Apulia, southern Italy, on the Adriatic Sea, in the province of Bari, and 40 km by railway west northwest of that town. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question that addresses the question of Jewish identity. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim) · Mitzvot (613) · Talmud · Halakha · Holidays · Prayer · Tzedakah · Ethics · Kabbalah · Customs · Midrash This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Main article: Mitzvah The Torah or Five Books of Moses contains principles of biblical law, i. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic diversity
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · USA · Russia/USSR · Iraq · Spain · Portugal · Poland · Germany · Bosnia · Latin America · France · England · Canada · Australia · Hungary · India · Turkey · Africa · Iran · China
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... The Jewish community of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich and varied history, surviving World War II, Communism and the Yugoslav Wars, after having been been born as a result of the Spanish Inquisition, and having been almost destroyed by the Holocaust. ... For a list of individuals of Jewish origin by country in Latin America, see List of Latin American Jews. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... African Jew has a variety of meanings: Scattered African groups who have not historically been part of the international Jewish community, but who claim ancestry to ancient Israel or other connections to Judaism and who practice Jewish rituals or those bearing resemblance to Judaism. ... List of Jewish historians List of Jewish scientists and philosophers List of Jewish nobility List of Jewish inventors List of Jewish jurists List of Jews in literature and journalism List of Jews in the performing arts List of Jewish actors and actresses List of Jewish musicians List of Jews in... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform · Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite · Humanistic · Renewal  · Alternative Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Humanistic Judaism is a movement within Judaism that emphasizes Jewish culture and history - rather than belief in God - as the sources of Jewish identity. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian · Ladino · Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile · Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline) · Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms · Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars · Relationship with Christianity; with Islam · Diaspora · Middle Ages · Sabbateans · Hasidism · Haskalah · Emancipation · Holocaust · Aliyah · Israel (History) · Arab conflict · Land of Israel · Baal teshuva Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Baal teshuva movement (return [to Judaism] movement) refers to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
History of antisemitism · New antisemitism This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism · Religious Zionism · General Zionism · The Bund · World Agudath Israel · Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

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A synagogue (from Greek: συναγωγή, transliterated synagogē, "assembly"; בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of assembly"; שול or בית תפילה beit tefila, "house of prayer", shul; אסנוגה, esnoga) is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues usually have a large hall for prayer (the main sanctuary), smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices. Some have a separate room for Torah study, called the Beit midrashבית מדרש ("House of Study"). Many Orthodox and Conservative Jews in English-speaking countries use the Yiddish term "shul" in everyday speech. The use of "synagogue" is reserved for formal occasions.[citation needed] Spanish and Portuguese Jews call the synagogue an esnoga. Persian Jews and Karaite Jews use the term Kenesa, which is derived from Aramaic. Reform and some Conservative congregations in the United States sometimes use the word "temple." Before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, communal prayers centered around the korbanot ("sacrificial offerings") brought by the kohanim ("Jewish priests") in the Holy Temple. The all-day Yom Kippur service, in fact, was an event in which the congregation both observed the movements of the kohen gadol ("Jewish high priest") as he offered the day's sacrifices and prayed for his success. The destruction of Solomon's Temple, and later the Second Temple, and the dispersion of the Jews into the Jewish diaspora, threatened the nation's focus and unity. At the time of the Babylonian captivity the Men of the Great Assembly began the process of formalizing and standardizing Jewish services and prayers that would not depend on the functioning of the Temple in Jerusalem. Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai, one of the leaders at the end of the Second Temple era, promulgated the idea of creating individual houses of worship in whatever locale Jews found themselves. This contributed to the concept of "portable Judaism," which was part of what contributed to the saving of the Jewish people by maintaining a unique identity and way of worship, according to many historians. Thus, even now, whenever any group of ten men comes together, they form a minyan, and are eligible to conduct public prayer services, usually in a synagogue. Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Torah study is the study by Jews of the Torah, Tanakh, Talmud, responsa, rabbinic literature and similar works, all of which are Judaisms religious texts, for the purpose of the mitzvah (commandment) of Torah study itself, meaning study for religious (as opposed to academic) purposes. ... Beth midrash (or Beit Midrash or Bais Medrash or Bais Medrish, Hebrew בית מדרש) (plural battei midrash) literally means a House [of] Interpretation or House [of] Lecturing or House [of] Learning in Hebrew. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Painting of the Amsterdam Esnoga — considered the mother synagogue by the Portuguese and Spanish Jews — by Emanuel de Witte (ab. ... A modern-day synagogue in Iran. ... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Kenesa in Trakai Kenesa is a Karaim synagogue. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... A stone (2. ... Korban (Hebrew: sacrifice קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) refers to any one of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that were offered in a variety of settings by the ancient Israelites, and then by the Kohanim (the Jewish priests only) in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר ) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Yohanan ben Zakkai was a Jewish sage of the first century of the common era, and a primary contributor to the core text of rabbinic Judaism, the Mishnah. ... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ...

Built around 1270, the Old New Synagogue in Prague is the world's oldest active synagogue.
Built around 1270, the Old New Synagogue in Prague is the world's oldest active synagogue.

In Eastern Europe, synagogues were established by like-minded groups of people. Such a synagogue was known as a kloiz, and was often delineated by the professions of its worshippers: e.g. "the tailor's kloiz," the "water-carrier's kloiz," etc. One kloiz which still bears that name today is the Breslov kloiz built by Nathan of Breslov in the city of Uman, Ukraine in 1834. Today, this kloiz accommodates worshippers in the annual Breslover Rosh Hashana kibbutz (prayer gathering). Image File history File links Praha_Staronova_Synagoga. ... Image File history File links Praha_Staronova_Synagoga. ... The Alt-neu Shul, east facade. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Breslov is a branch of Hasidic Judaism founded by Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (1772-1810) a great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism. ... Nathan of Breslov (1780-1844) was a rabbi and the chief disciple of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, the founder of the Breslov branch of Hasidic Judaism. ... Uman (Ukrainian: , Uman’), is a town in central Ukraine, Cherkasy Oblast (province). ... The Rosh Hashana kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or ingathering) is a large prayer assemblage of Breslover Hasidim held on the Jewish New Year. ...

Contents

Design

The architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. Other local religious buildings and national culture usually influence synagogue architecture.


Traditional and Orthodox synagogues

It is a myth that synagogues are based on the destroyed Holy Temple in Jerusalem[citation needed]. There is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. In fact the influence of other local religious buildings can often be seen. (The myth may have arisen because synagogues have been referred to in the Rabbinical Literature as Small Temples and indeed their popularity commenced with the destruction of the original Holy Temple ie as alternatives to the central worship in Jerusalem.) The Orthodox synagogue usually contains the following features:

Sardis Synagogue Manisa Turkey, The synagogue was a section of a large bath-gymnasium complex, that was in use for about 450 –500 years
Sardis Synagogue Manisa Turkey, The synagogue was a section of a large bath-gymnasium complex, that was in use for about 450 –500 years
Aron Ha-kodesh with dark blue, embroidered parokhet covering
Aron Ha-kodesh with dark blue, embroidered parokhet covering
  • An ark – called the Aron Ha-Kodesh – ארון קודש, the Holy Ark by Ashkenazim and heikhal – היכל [temple] by Sephardim – where the Torah scrolls are kept. The Ark in a synagogue is positioned in such a way that those who face it, face towards Jerusalem. Thus, sanctuary seating plans in the Western world generally face east, while those east of Israel face west. Sanctuaries in Israel face towards Jerusalem. Occasionally synagogues face other directions for structural reasons; in such cases, some individuals might turn to face Jerusalem when standing for prayers, but the congregation as a whole does not. The ark is reminiscent of the Ark of the Covenant which contained the tablets with Ten Commandments. This is the holiest spot in a synagogue, equivalent to the Holy of Holies. The ark is often closed with an ornate curtain, the parokhet - פרוכת, outside or inside the Ark doors.
  • A large, raised, reader's platform called the bimah - בימה - by Ashkenazim and tebah by Sephardim, where the Torah scroll is read and from where the services are conducted in Sephardi synagogues.
  • A continually-lit lamp or lantern, usually electric, called the ner tamid (נר תמיד), the "Eternal Lamp," used as a reminder of the western lamp of the menorah of the Temple in Jerusalem, which remained miraculously lit always.
  • A candelabrum specifically lit during services commemorating the full Menorah.
  • A pulpit facing the congregation for the use of the rabbi, and a pulpit or amud - עמוד (Hebrew for "post" or "column") facing the Ark where the Hazzan stands while leading the prayer service.
  • A mechitzah dividing the men's and women's seating areas. In places where there is not enough room to seat both sexes on one floor, the women's section is located on a balcony.

A synagogue may be decorated with artwork, but in the Rabbinic and Orthodox tradition, three-dimensional sculptures and depictions of the human body are not allowed, as these are considered akin to idolatry. Image File history File linksMetadata SardisSynagogue1February2003. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SardisSynagogue1February2003. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1772x1132, 538 KB) Summary Photo of aron kodesh covered by parokhet in a Jerusalem neighborhood synagogue. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1772x1132, 538 KB) Summary Photo of aron kodesh covered by parokhet in a Jerusalem neighborhood synagogue. ... The Ark in a synagogue (Jewish house of worship) is known as the Aron Kodesh amongst Ashkenazim and as Hekhál amongst most Sefardim. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Mizrah paper-cut. ... The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. ... For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ... A Holy of Holies is the most sacred place within a sacred building. ... Parochet (also paroches, parokhet) is the curtain on the front of the Aron Kodesh in a synagogue that cover the Sifrei Torah (Torah scrolls). ... Interior of the Amsterdam Esnoga: We see the tebáh (reader’s platform) in the foreground, and the Hekhál (Ark) in the background. ... A bimah (among Ashkenazim) or tebah (among Sephardim) is the elevated area or platform in a Jewish synagogue which is intended to serve as the place on which the person reading aloud from the Torah stands during a service. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance Ambo (band). ... A mechitza (מחיצה, Hebrew: partition or division, plural mechitzot) is a partition that is a valid divider under Jewish law. ...


Synagogue windows are sometimes curved at the top and squared at the bottom, recalling the popular depiction of the shape of the Lukhot (Tablets of the Law) which Moses received from God at Mount Sinai. There is also a tradition to install twelve windows around the main sanctuary to recall the Twelve Tribes of Israel, underscoring the importance of unity and brotherhood as a result of the communal prayers. Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ... This is a list of the Tribes of Israel. ...

Orthodox synagogue in Košice, Slovakia
Orthodox synagogue in Košice, Slovakia

Until the 19th century, the synagogue interior was laid out with both a spiritual and a communal focus. In an Ashkenazi synagogue, all seats faced the aron kodesh (Ark) in which the Torah scrolls were housed. In a Sephardi synagogue, seats were arranged around the perimeter of the sanctuary, but when the worshippers stood up to pray, everyone faced the Ark. The Torah was read on a reader's table located in the exact center of each sanctuary, echoing the manner in which the Children of Israel stood around Mount Sinai when they received the Torah. The leader of the prayer service, the Hazzan, stood at his own lectern or table, facing the Ark. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 360 KB) Summary Author: Marian Gladis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 360 KB) Summary Author: Marian Gladis Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Orthodox synagogue in KoÅ¡ice Orthodox synagogue in KoÅ¡ice (detail) Bronze memorial plate Orthodox synagogue in KoÅ¡ice (detail) The Orthodox synagogue in KoÅ¡ice (Slovak: Ortodoxná synagóga v KoÅ¡iciach) was built in the years 1926-1927 at Pushkin Street in the historic centre of KoÅ¡ice... Location of KoÅ¡ice in Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region KoÅ¡ice Region Districts KoÅ¡ice I-IV City parts First mentioned 1230 Government  - Type City Council  - Mayor FrantiÅ¡ek Knapík Area  - City 243. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ...


Another related place of worship which is often a small synagogue is the shtiebel (שטיבל, pl. shtiebelekh or shtiebels, Yiddish for "little house") that is frequently used by and preferred by Hasidic and Haredi Jews. A shtiebel may sometimes be a room in the private home of a Hasidic Rebbe, or a place of business which is set aside for the express purpose of prayer. It may or may not offer the communal services of a synagogue. A shtiebel (Yiddish: שטייבל, pl. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... For the tanna, see Judah HaNasi. ...


In the US, there are well over 1200 Orthodox congregations, including over 1000 of which are affiliated with the Orthodox Union (OU), and 150 with the National Council of Young Israel, as well as a great number associated with Agudath Yisrael, a widespread movement often identified with "black-hatter" Orthodox, especially Chassidim. OU logo. ... Young Israel is a branch of Modern Orthodox Judaism. ... Categories: Organization stubs | Israel-related stubs | Israeli political parties | Orthodox Judaism ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ...


At least one Orthodox group uses some consistency in synagogue design, although not complete consistency. Chabad Lubavitch has based some of its Chabad Houses and centers on the architecture of 770 Eastern Parkway. [1] It has been suggested that Hasidic philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... A Chabad House is a centre for disseminating Orthodox Judaism by the Chabad movement. ... Lubavitch world headquarters, 770 Eastern Parkway 770 Eastern Parkway, commonly abbreviated to 770 or Seven-seventy is the street address of the central headquarters of the Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic movement, located in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn, New York in the United States of America. ...


Reform synagogues and temples

The Gerard Doustraat Synagogue in Amsterdam, Netherlands
The Gerard Doustraat Synagogue in Amsterdam, Netherlands

The German Reform movement which arose in the early 1800s made many changes to the traditional look of the synagogue, keeping with its desire to simultaneously stay Jewish yet be accepted by the host culture. The first Reform synagogue, which opened in Hamburg in 1811, featured changes that made the synagogue look more like a church. These included: the installation of an organ to accompany the prayers (even on Shabbat—when musical instruments are proscribed by Orthodox halakha[citation needed]), a choir to accompany the Hazzan, and vestments for the synagogue rabbi to wear [2]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 1034 KB) Summary De Synagoge in de Gerard Doustraat, Amsterdam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 1034 KB) Summary De Synagoge in de Gerard Doustraat, Amsterdam. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ...

The Berlin New Synagogue
The Berlin New Synagogue

In following decades, the central reader's table, the bimah, was moved to the front of the Reform sanctuary—previously unheard-of in Orthodox synagogues. The rabbi now delivered his sermon from the front, much as the Christian priests delivered their sermons in a church. Bar mitzvah ceremonies, held at age 13, were followed up with "confirmation" ceremonies at age 16/17. Following the teaching of Rabbi Mordechai Kaplan, Bat Mitzvah ceremonies were introduced for girls. The synagogue was renamed a "temple," to emphasize that the movement no longer looked forward to the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 410 KB) Berlin, Germany: Neue Synagoge Photographed by Andreas Praefcke, April 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Berlin ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 410 KB) Berlin, Germany: Neue Synagoge Photographed by Andreas Praefcke, April 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Berlin ... The Neue Synagoge (German: New Synagogue) is a large synagogue in Berlin. ... Interior of the Amsterdam Esnoga: We see the tebáh (reader’s platform) in the foreground, and the Hekhál (Ark) in the background. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about religious workers. ... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצווה, son of the commandment... Rabbi Mordechai Menahem Kaplan (June 11, 1881- November 8, 1983) founded Reconstructionist Judaism. ... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצווה, son of the commandment...


With the emigration of German Reform Jews to America in the mid-nineteenth century, the synagogue exterior also changed. The wealthy German Jewish immigrants built grandiose temples modeled after churches. Temple Emanu-El, the oldest Reform congregation (founded in New York City in 1845), constructed an imposing Moorish-style building, with towering limestone walls, on Fifth Avenue in 1929. The architecture rivaled the design of the great cathedrals of Europe. Inside, arched walls and Tiffany and stained-glass windows accentuated the 2,500-seat main sanctuary and a smaller. Reform temples built in other American cities displayed Romanesque, Byzantine, and other grand, church-like designs. As of 2005, the Reform movement in the US encompassed approximately 900 congregations. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... Street sign at Fifth Avenue and East 57th street Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in New York City. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... A large Perpendicular style Gothic window of eight lights in Canterbury Cathedral, c. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ...


Conservative synagogues

The Conservative movement, which also developed in Europe and America in the 1800s, rejected Reform as being too liberal and Orthodoxy as being too outdated. However, like many other varieties of Judaism, its synagogue design is not consistent. Sometimes, Conservative synagogues resemble Reform temples—complete with organ. Other times they more closely resemble Orthodox synagogues, but usually without a mechitza, the dividing barrier between men and women. There are approximately 750 Conservative synagogues in the US today. A mechitza (מחיצה--means partition, from the Hebrew word divide) is a physical divider placed between the mens and womens sections in Orthodox synagogues and at celebrations. ...

Great Synagogue of Santiago, Chile.
Great Synagogue of Santiago, Chile.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 514 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Author: Ignacio Falcon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 514 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Author: Ignacio Falcon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ...

Reconstructionist synagogues

The Reconstructionist movement, which arose in America in the latter half of the 20th century, counts less than 100 synagogues worldwide. In keeping with a Reconstructionist Jewish spirit of liberalism, Reconstructionist synagogues are not as traditionalist as Conservative Judaism in the design of the synagogue and do not use the mechitza. The congregation decides communally how much traditional Judaic imagery and symbols are appropriate. Reconstructionist Jews generally do not call their houses of worship "temples", as Reform Jews often do. Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... A mechitza (מחיצה--means partition, from the Hebrew word divide) is a physical divider placed between the mens and womens sections in Orthodox synagogues and at celebrations. ...


Famous synagogues

  • The largest synagogue in the world is the New Beit Midrash of Ger in Jerusalem, Israel.[citation needed] The main Sanctuary seats over 8,500. The second largest synagogue in the world is the Belz World Center, also in Jerusalem, Israel, whose main Sanctuary seats 6,000. Construction took 16 years. The largest synagogue outside of Israel is Congregation Emanu-El of the City of New York, a Reform house of worship located on Fifth Avenue, New York City, with an area of 3,523 m², seating 2,500.
  • In Israel and regions of the Jewish diaspora archaeologists have uncovered many ruins of synagogues from thousands of years ago. The small ruined synagogue at Masada is one of the most well-documented; it dates from the time of the Second Temple. Synagogues have also been discovered in Egypt and on the island of Delos which predate the synagogue at Masada.
  • The Dura-Europos synagogue (in today's Syria) is considered the world's oldest preserved Jewish synagogue.
  • The oldest active synagogue in Europe is the Alteneushul (Old-New Synagogue) in Prague, Czech Republic, which dates from the 13th century. The Altneushul was the pulpit of the great Rabbi Yehuda Loew, the Maharal, and his creation, the golem of Prague, is rumored to be hidden within the synagogue. During Kristallnacht on November 9-10, 1938, the Nazis in Germany and Austria destroyed or significantly damaged 1,574 synagogues, which included many of the greatest synagogues of Europe. Many were also destroyed or fell into disrepair during the Nazis' conquest of Europe, during which many Jewish communities were wiped out.
A Synagogue in Paris, France
  • The synagogue of Santa María la Blanca of Toledo in Spain, was built in 1180 by Islamic constructors, for Jewish use and owers, in mudejar style. It became a church in the 15th century, but no major reforms were done for the change.
  • The Hurba Synagogue, located in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, was Jerusalem's main synagogue from the 16th century until 1948, when it was destroyed by the Arab Legion. After the Six-Day War, an arch was built to mark the spot where the synagogue stood. Reconstruction is now under way, in keeping with plans drawn up by architect Nahum Meltzer. The Ramban Synagogue, founded by Nahmanides in 1267, is the oldest active synagogue in the Old City. See also Synagogues in Jerusalem.
  • The Synagogue of El Transito of Toledo, Spain, was built in 1356 by Samuel ha-Leví, the treasurer of king Pedro I of Castile. It's one of the most splendid examples of mudejar architecture in Spain. The design of the synagogue recalls the Nasrid style of architecture that was employed during the same period in the decorations of the Alhambra palace in Granada as well as the Mosque of Cordoba. Today is the Sephardi Museum since 1964.
  • The Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue, in Recife, Brazil, was the first Jewish temple erected in the Americas, in 1636. Its foundations have been recently discovered, and the temple was entirely recovered. The synagogue appeared during the government of Dutch John Maurice of Nassau in Northeastern Brazil and it was built by Portuguese Jews that came from Europe with him. They used to live in Holland since they were ordered to leave the kingdoms of Portugal and Spain by the end of the 15th century. A few decades after their arrival in Recife, Portuguese Inquisition started a new era of persecutions against Jews, who had to leave again. Those people were among the ones who founded the city of New Amsterdam, in North America, later called New York.
  • The Barbados Nidhe Israel Synagogue ("Bridgetown Synagogue") located in the capital city Bridgetown. First built 1654. Destroyed in the hurricane of 1831, reconstructed in 1833.[3]
  • The Amsterdam Esnoga is a Sephardic synagogue The Netherlands. It was founded by ex-Maranos (Portuguese Crypto-Jews) in 1675.
  • The Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island modeled after the Esnoga in Amsterdam, is the oldest Jewish house of worship in North America. It was built in 1759 for the Jeshuat Israel congregation, which was established in 1658. In 1787 this sanctuary was the location where the British commanders surrendered at the end on the revolutionary war to General George Washington.
  • The Bialystoker Synagogue on New York's Lower East Side, is located in a landmark building dating from 1826 that was originally a Methodist Episcopal Church. The building is made of quarry stone mined locally on Pitt Street, Manhattan. It is an example of Federalist architecture. The ceilings and walls are hand painted with zodiac frescos, and the sanctuary is illuminated by 40-foot (12 m) stained glass windows. The Bima and floor-to-ceiling Ark are handcarved.
  • The Snoga Synagogue in Willemstad, Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles was built by Sephardic Portuguese Jews from Amsterdam and Recife, Brazil. It is modeled after the Esnoga in Amsterdam. Congregation Mikvé Israel built its synagogue in 1692, and it was reconstructed in 1732.
  • The Dohány Street Synagogue or Great Synagogue in Budapest, Hungary is the largest synagogue in Europe and the fourth largest in the world, after the Beit Midrash of Ger in Jerusalem, the Belz World Center and the Congregation Emanu-El in New York City. It seats 3,000 people and is a centre of Neolog Judaism and hosts the Jewish Museum of Budapest. The building was built in 1854-1859 according to the plans of architect Ludwig Förster.

Ger can have the following meanings: Ger is the Yiddish form for the name of the Polish town of Góra Kalwaria. ... The third Belzer Rebbe, Yissachar Dov Rokeach Belz (חסידות בעלז) is a Hasidic dynasty named after the town of Belz, a small town originally located in eastern Poland, presently in Ukraine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Street sign at Fifth Avenue and East 57th street Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of... A stone (2. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... The Synagogue in Dura Europos This Synagogue was discovered in 1932 at Dura-Europos, now in modern Syria. ... The Alt-neu Schul The Old New Synagogue in Josefov, Prague, (the Alt-neu Schul) is Europes oldest active synagogue. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Judah Low ben Bezalel (1525 — 1609) was a Jewish scholar and rabbi, most of his life in Prague. ... For other uses, see Golem (disambiguation). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Download high resolution version (1400x2100, 1542 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1400x2100, 1542 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Interior of santa María la Blanca The synagogue of Santa María la Blanca is a religious building erected in the city of Toledo, Spain in 1180 a. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Mudejar Medieval Spanish corruption of the Arabic word Mudajjan مدجن, meaning domesticated. The term means those who accepted submission to non Muslim authorities in lands taken over by Christians in the Mediterranean. ... The dome of the Hurba dominated the Old City skyline. ... A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. ... ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Arab Legion (al-Jaysh al-ArabÄ«) was Transjordans and later also Jordans regular army. ... The Ramban Synagogue (Hebrew: ‎) is the oldest active synagogue in the Old City of Jerusalem. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... El Transito The Synagogue of El Transito is the oldest synagogue in Toledo, Spain, founded by Samuel Halevi. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... A former kingdom in modern-day Spain, Castile (Spanish: Castilla; usually pronounced Cast-EEL in English) now compromises the regions of Old Castile in the north-west, and New Castile in the center of the country. ... Mudejar Medieval Spanish corruption of the Arabic word Mudajjan مدجن, meaning domesticated. The term means those who accepted submission to non Muslim authorities in lands taken over by Christians in the Mediterranean. ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red fortress) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the southeastern border of the city of Granada. ... The Paradesi Synagogue is the oldest synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations, located in Kochi, Kerala, in South India. ... Cochin redirects here. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Kahal Zur Israel is the name of a synagogue in Recife (a state in Pernambuco, Brazil) which is the oldest in the Americas, dating back to the 17th Century. ... Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Country Region State Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km² (84. ... John Maurice of Nassau (Dutch: Johan Maurits van Nassau, 1604-1679) was a count of Nassau-Siegen. ... Bridgetown Synagogue is currently the only synagogue situated in Bridgetown, Barbados. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Niteowlneils 10:02, 10 September 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Exterior of the Touro Synagogue The Touro Synagogue is a synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island that is the oldest Jewish synagogue still in use in North America and the only surviving synagogue in the U.S. dating to the colonial era. ... Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ... Exterior, Bialystoker // The Bialystoker Synagogue was first organized in 1865 on Manhattans Lower East Side as the Chevra Anshi Chesed of Bialystok, founded by a group of Jews who came from town of Bialystok in Poland. ... Categories: Manhattan neighborhoods | Stub ... Central Pavilion, Tontine Crescent, Boston, 1793-1794, by Charles Bulfinch Federal-style architecture occurred in the United States between 1780 and 1830, particularly from 1785 to 1815. ... Willemstad Harbor. ... Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Country Region State Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km² (84. ... ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Ger can have the following meanings: Ger is the Yiddish form for the name of the Polish town of Góra Kalwaria. ... The third Belzer Rebbe, Yissachar Dov Rokeach Belz (חסידות בעלז) is a Hasidic dynasty named after the town of Belz, a small town originally located in eastern Poland, presently in Ukraine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Leopoldstädter Tempel Ludwig Christian Friedrich (von) Förster (October 8, 1797, Ansbach - June 16, 1863, Bad Gleichenberg, Steiermark) was a German-born architect. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Great Synagogue of Plzen Great Synagogue - an overall view Great Synagogue - another photo The Great Synagogue (known as Velká Synagoga in Czech) in Plzen is the worlds third largest synagogue. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Orthodox synagogue in KoÅ¡ice Orthodox synagogue in KoÅ¡ice (detail) Bronze memorial plate Orthodox synagogue in KoÅ¡ice (detail) The Orthodox synagogue in KoÅ¡ice (Slovak: Ortodoxná synagóga v KoÅ¡iciach) was built in the years 1926-1927 at Pushkin Street in the historic centre of KoÅ¡ice... For other uses, see Novi Sad (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... The Sofia Synagogue The Sofia Synagogue (Bulgarian: Софийска синагога, Sofiyska synagoga) is the largest synagogue in the Balkans, one of two functioning in Bulgaria and one of the largest in Europe. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Congregation Beth Israel is a Jewish synagogue located in West Hartford, Connecticut. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ...

Selected images of synagogues

Synagogue offshoots

Another type of communal prayer group, favored by some non-Orthodox Jews, is the chavura (חבורה, pl. chavurot, חבורות), or prayer fellowship. These groups meet at a regular place and time, usually in a private home.


See also

Bobowa Synagogue, Poland.
Bobowa Synagogue, Poland.

Download high resolution version (700x644, 130 KB)The former synagogue (17th century) in Lesko, Poland. ... Download high resolution version (700x644, 130 KB)The former synagogue (17th century) in Lesko, Poland. ... Lesko Synagogue Lesko Synagogue is a synagogue in Lesko, Poland. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Beth midrash (or Beit Midrash or Bais Medrash or Bais Medrish) (plural battei midrash) literally means a House of Interpretation or Lecturing or Learning in Hebrew. ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... Jewish music, the music of Jews, is quite diverse and dates back thousands of years. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... A list of particularly notable synagogues around the world. ... A shtiebel (Yiddish: שטייבל, pl. ... A siddur (Hebrew: סידור; plural siddurim) is a Jewish prayer book over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... SYNAGOGUE ARCHITECTURE Kafr Birim Synagogue We have brought this web page to you because synagogues are fun! I have been to an array of synagogues, and I find them to be the most exhilaratingly boring places. ... Talmud Torah is the Public free school for poor and orphaned boys, who are there given an elementary education in Hebrew, the Scriptures (especially the Pentateuch), and the Talmud (Halakah), and are thus prepared for the Yeshibah. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ...

References

  • Levine, Lee [February 9 2000] (October 24 2005). The Ancient Synagogue - The First Thousand Years, 2nd. ed., New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10628-9. 

is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Rabbinic Judaism (or in Hebrew Yahadut Rabanit - יהדות רבנית) is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the written Torah as well as the Oral Law (the Mishnah, Talmuds and subsequent rabbinic decisions) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... Humanistic Judaism is a movement within Judaism that emphasizes Jewish culture and history - rather than belief in God - as the sources of Jewish identity. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... In Judaism, chosenness is the belief that the Jews are a chosen people: chosen to be in a covenant with God. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Holocaust theology refers to a body of theological and philosophical debate, soul-searching, and analysis, with the subsequent related literature, that attempts to come to grips with various conflicting views about the role of God in this human world and the dark events of the European Holocaust that occurred during... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... In Jewish messianism and eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... A minyan (Hebrew: plural minyanim) is traditionally a quorum of ten or more adult (over the age of Bar Mitzvah) male Jews for the purpose of communal prayer; a minyan is often held within a synagogue, but may be (and often is) held elsewhere. ... Mussar movement refers to an Jewish ethics educational and cultural movement (a Jewish Moralist Movement) that developed in 19th century Orthodox Eastern Europe, particularly among the Lithuanian Jews. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... The Rainbow is the modern symbol of the Noahide Movement reminiscing the rainbow that appeared after the Great Flood of the Bible. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... Tzniut or Tznius (also Tzeniut) (Hebrew: צניעות modesty) is a term used within Judaism and has its greatest influence as a notion within Orthodox Judaism. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Arbaah Turim (ארבעה טורים), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code, composed by Yaakov ben Asher (Spain, 1270 -c. ... The Chumash Chumash (IPA: ) (Hebrew: חומש; sometimes written Humash) is one name given to the Pentateuch in Judaism. ... The Kuzari is the most famous work by the medieval Spanish Jewish writer Yehuda Halevi. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Mishnah Berurah (Hebrew: Clarified Teaching) is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, better known as The Chofetz Chaim (Poland, 1838 - 1933). ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA [pijút] and [pijutím]) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... A siddur (Hebrew: סידור; plural siddurim) is a Jewish prayer book over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... The Zohar (Hebrew: זהר Splendor, radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Rebecca by Johannes Takanen, 1877. ... This article is about the Biblical character. ... Look up Leah, לֵאָה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For information on the name Deborah, see Debbie For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Bee) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Hillel (הלל) (born Babylon 1st Century BCE - died ?Jerusalem, 1st Century CE) was a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. ... Shammai (50 BCE–30 CE) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaisms core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah. ... Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... A 16th-century depiction of Rashi Note: For the astrological concept, see Rashi - the signs. ... Rabbi Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi (1013 - 1103) - also Isaac Hakohen, Alfasi or the Rif (ריף) - was a Talmudist and posek (decisor in matters of halakha - Jewish law). ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... Tosafists were medieval rabbis who created critical and explanatory glosses on the Talmud. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Joseph Albo was a Spanish rabbi, and theologian of the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of the work on the Jewish principles of faith, Ikkarim. ... Yosef Caro (sometimes Joseph Caro) (1488 - March 24, 1575) was one of the most significant leaders in Rabbinic Judaism and the author of the Shulchan Arukh, an authoritative work on Halakhah (Jewish law). ... Asher ben Jehiel (or Rabeinu Osher ben Yechiel) (1250? 1259?-1328), an eminent rabbi and Talmudist often known by his Hebrew acronym the ROSH (literally Head), was born in western Germany and died in Toledo, Spain. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as the Baal Shem Tov, or... Shneur Zalman of Liadi (‎) (September 4, 1745 – December 15, 1812 O.S.), was an Orthodox Rabbi, and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi, Imperial Russia. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... Leopold Zunz (1794-1886), Jewish scholar, was born at Detmold in 1794, and died in Berlin in 1886. ... Israel Jacobson (October 17, 1768, Halberstadt - September 14, 1828, Berlin) was a German philanthropist and reformer. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Rabbi Ovadia Yosef (Hebrew: עובדיה יוסף) (b. ... Rabbi Moshe Feinstein (1895-1986) Moshe Feinstein (1895 - 1986) was a Lithuanian Orthodox rabbi and scholar, who was world renowned for his expertise in halakha and was the de facto supreme rabbinic authority for Orthodox Jewry of North America. ... Elazar Menachem Man Shach (אלעזר מנחם מן שך) (or Rav Leizer Shach, at times his name is written as Eliezer Schach in English publications) (January 22, 1898 - November 2, 2001), was a leading Eastern European-born and educated Haredi rabbi who settled and lived in modern Israel. ... Rabbi M.M. Schneerson The third Rebbe of the Chabad Lubavitch dynasty was also named Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (with a h) Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902-June 12, 1994), referred to by Lubavitchers as The Rebbe, was a prominent Orthodox Jewish rabbi who was the seventh and last Rebbe... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question that addresses the question of Jewish identity. ... In Judaism, Bar Mitzvah (Hebrew: בר מצוה, one (m. ... Bereavement in Judaism (אבלות aveilut; mourning) is a combination of minhag (traditional custom) and mitzvot (commandments) derived from Judaisms classical Torah and rabbinic texts. ... Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism to welcome infant Jewish... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Niddah (or nidah, nidda, nida; Hebrew:נִדָּה) is a Hebrew term which literally means separation, generally considered to refer to separation from ritual impurity[1]; Ibn Ezra argues that it is related to the term menaddekem, meaning cast you out[2]. The term niddah appears in the biblical description of the... Pidyon HaBen (Hebrew: פדיון הבן) is the redemption of the first-born, a ritual in Judaism. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... The Shidduch (Hebrew: שידוך, pl. ... Zeved habat (also written Zebed habat) (Hebrew זֶבֶד הַבָּת) is the mainly Sephardic naming ceremony for girls, corresponding in part to the non-circumcision part of the Brit milah ceremony for boys. ... Nineteenth century plaque, with Jerusalem occupying the upper right quadrant, Hebron beneath it, the Jordan River running top to bottom, Safed in the top left quadrant, and Tiberias beneath it. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... A beth din (בית דין, Hebrew: house of judgment, plural battei din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism. ... A Gabbai (Hebrew: גבאי) is a person who assists in the running of a synagogue and ensures that the needs are met, for example the Jewish prayer services run smoothly, or an assistant to a rabbi (particularly the secretary or personal assistant to a Hassidic Rebbe). ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... Dovber of Mezeritch (died 1772) was the primary disciple of Israel ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidic Judaism (now a form of Orthodox Judaism. ... A Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (plural in Hebrew: Roshei yeshiva, but also referred to in the English form as Rosh yeshivas) is a rabbi who is the academic head, or rosh (ראש), of a yeshiva (ישיבה), a college of higher Talmudic study. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... A mohel (מוהל also moel) is a Jewish ritual circumciser who performs a brit milah ritual circumcision on the penis of a male who is to enter the Jewish covenant. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... For the tanna, see Judah HaNasi. ... Rosh yeshiva (Hebrew: ראש ישיבה) (pl. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... The Western Wall by night. ... Aleinu (Hebrew: ‎, our duty) is a Jewish prayer found in the siddur, the classical Jewish prayerbook. ... For other uses, see Amidah (disambiguation). ... The Four Species (note: in a kosher lulav, the aravah is placed on the left, the lulav in the center, and the hadassim on the right) The Four Species (Hebrew: ארבעה מינים) are three types of plants and one type of fruit which are held together and waved in a special ceremony... The Hasidic Gartel The Gartel is a belt used by Hasidic Jews during prayer. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Havdalah (הבדלה) is a Jewish religious ceremony that marks the symbolic end of Shabbat and holidays, and ushers in beginning of the new week. ... This article is about the Jewish prayer. ... A kittel (Yiddish: קיתל, robe) is a white robe worn on special occasions by religious Jews. ... () Kol Nidre (ashk. ... Ma Tovu (Hebrew for O How Good or How Goodly) is a prayer in Judaism, expressing reverence and awe for synagogues and other places of worship. ... A nine branched Chanukkiyah lit during Hanukkah The Chanukkiyah or Hanukiah, (Hebrew: ) is a nine branched candelabrum lit during the eight-day holiday of hanukkah. ... Mezuzah (IPA: ) (Heb. ... Listed below are some Hebrew prayers and blessings that are part of Judaism that are recited by many Jews. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Shema Yisrael (or Shma Yisroel or just Shema) (Hebrew: שמע ישראל; Hear, [O] Israel) are the first two words of a section of the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that is used as a centerpiece of all morning and evening Jewish prayer services and closely echoes the monotheistic message of Judaism. ... A shofar made from the horn of a kudu, in the Yemenite Jewish style. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Tefillin (Hebrew: תפלין), also called phylacteries, are two boxes containing Biblical verses and the leather straps attached to them which are used in traditional Jewish prayer. ... Tzitzit or tzitzis (Ashkenazi) (Hebrew: Biblical ×¦×™×¦×ª Modern ×¦×™×¦×™×ª) are fringes or tassels worn by observant Jews on the corners of four-cornered garments, including the tallit (prayer shawl). ... The word yad may also refer to the Yad ha-Chazaka, another name for Maimonides Mishneh Torah. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... This article deals with Jewish views of religious pluralism. ... map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... This article on relations between Catholicism and Judaism deals with the current relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Judaism, focusing on changes over the last fifty years, and especially during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. // The Second Vatican Council Throughout history accusations of anti-Semitism have resounded... In recent years there has been much to note in the way of reconciliation between some Christian groups and the Jewish people. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... A Jewish Buddhist is a person with a Jewish ethnic and/or religious background who practices forms of Buddhist meditation and spirituality. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Latter-day Saints believe themselves to be either direct descendants of the House of Israel, or adopted into it. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Baal teshuva movement (return [to Judaism] movement) refers to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. ... Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ... Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... Secondary antisemitism is a distinct kind of antisemitism which is said to have appeared after the end of World War II. It is often explained as being caused by —as opposed to despite of— Auschwitz, pars pro toto for the Holocaust. ...

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Synagogue - LoveToKnow 1911 (1145 words)
SYNAGOGUE (avvayo yi 7), literally "assemblage," is the term employed to denote either a congregation of Jews, i.e.
Further the term is often used to denote the system of Judaism, as when the "Synagogue" is contrasted to the "Church." The germ of the synagogue, that is, of religious assemblages dissociated from the ancient ritual of the altar, may be found in the circle of the prophets and their disciples (see especially Isa.
The ancient synagogue of Alexandria (destroyed by Trajan) was a basilica.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Synagogue (2195 words)
synagogue came to mean not only the meeting but the meeting-house, the teaching thereof and, in the broadest sense, the body politic of the Jews.
synagogue of Tiberias (Vita, 54), and of the
synagogue be in the highest place of the city and face to the east.
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