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Encyclopedia > Symphony No. 9 (Mahler)

The Symphony No. 9 in D major by the composer Gustav Mahler was written in 1909 and 1910, and was the last symphony that he completed. The infidelity of his wife Alma had recently been revealed to him and this personal crisis led to what some consider to be the most intense of all Mahler's symphonies. Also see: D minor, or D-flat major. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

It should also be noted that Mahler was at this time a champion of the emerging avant-garde movement, most notably Arnold Schoenberg, and that this placed him in a difficult situation as the standard-bearer of the past whilst being acutely aware of the future of music (and in particular, tonality) opening up before him. The first movement of the Ninth in particular depicts this struggle between tonal stability / instability. Schoenberg redirects here. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ...

It is scored for an orchestra made up of four flutes, piccolo, three oboes, cor anglais, an E flat clarinet, three B flat clarinets, a bass clarinet, four bassoons, a contrabassoon, four French horns, three trumpets, three trombones, a tuba, timpani, glockenspiel, cymbals, bass drum, side drum, triangle, tambourine, three bells, two harps and strings (violins divided into two groups, violas, cellos and double basses). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The piccolo is a small flute. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... This is a contrabassoon. ... The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the French horn, trombone, baritone, euphonium, and tuba. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The tuba is the largest and lowest pitched of brass instruments. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbalum instrument. ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings. ... An old-fashioned triangle, with wand (beater) Angelika Kauffmann: LAllegra, 1779 The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. ... The tambourine, also known as the Marine, is a musical instrument of the percussion family consisting of a a wooden or plastic frame with pairs of small metal jingles. ... Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are musical instruments in the percussion family. ... The harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... The violoncello, almost always abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as the ch in cheese), is a bowed stringed instrument, the lowest-sounding member of the violin family. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...

A typical performance takes about 80-85 minutes.



The piece is in four movements:

  1. Andante comodo (D major)
  2. Im Tempo eines gemächlichen Ländlers. Etwas täppisch und sehr derb (C major)
  3. Rondo-Burleske: Allegro assai. Sehr trotzig (A minor)
  4. Adagio. Sehr langsam und zurückhaltend (D flat major)

Although the symphony has the traditional number of movements (four) it is unusual in that the first and last are slow rather than fast. As is often the case in Mahler, one of the middle movements is a ländler. This article is about tempo in music. ... In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ... In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ... In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ... The ländler is a folk dance in 3/4 time which was popular in Austria, south Germany and German Switzerland at the end of the 18th century. ...

The first movement, whilst embracing a loose sonata form, consists of an extended conflict between the elements of life and death, here corresponding to major / minor, thus providing a continuation of the tonal juxtaposition displayed in earlier works (notably the 6th and 7th symphonies). The work opens with a hesitant, syncopated motif, a depiction perhaps of an irregular heartbeat, which is to return at the height of the movement's development as a sudden intrusion of "death in the midst of life", announced by trombones and marked within the score "with the greatest force".

The second movement is a dance, a ländler, but it has been distorted to the point that it no longer resembles a dance. It is reminiscent of the second movement of Mahler's Fourth Symphony in the distortion of a traditional dance into a dance of death. For example, Mahler alters traditional chord sequences into near-unrecognizable variations. The Symphony No. ...

The third movement, in the form of a Rondo, displays the final maturation of Mahler's contrapuntal skills. It opens with a dissonant theme in the trumpet which is treated in the form of a cyclical fugue. The addition of Burlesque (a parody with imitations) to the title of the movement refers to the mixture of dissonance with Baroque counterpoint. The autobiographical score is marked "to my brothers in Apollo" and the movement is no doubt intended as a sarcastic and withering response to the critics of his music at the time. a rondo is played between episode which are played by non solo people Rondo, and its French equivalent rondeau, is a word that has been used in music in a number of ways, most often in reference to a musical form, but also in reference to a character-type that... In music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and rhythm, and interdependent in harmony. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the French horn, trombone, baritone, euphonium, and tuba. ... Photograph of Sally Rand, 1934. ... In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750 (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ...

The final movement, marked "very slowly and held back" (zurückhaltend, literally meaning reservedly) opens for strings only. Commentators [1] have noted the similarity of the opening theme in particular to the hymn Abide With Me. Moreover, the introduction to this Adagio also similarly quotes the opening motiff of Beethoven's "Les Adieux" (meaning farewell) piano sonata number 26 (opus 81a) which coincidentally marked a turning point in Mahler's early musical career as he performed Les Adieux during his graduation recital in college. After several impassioned climaxes the increasingly fragmented final movement ends quietly, albeit affirmatively. On the closing pages, Mahler quotes in the first violin from his own Kindertotenlieder: The day is fine on yonder heights; in other words the ultimate destination, beyond life. A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... Abide With Me is a well-known Christian hymn composed by Henry Francis Lyte in 1847. ... Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the Death of Children) is a song cycle for voice and orchestra by Gustav Mahler. ...

Because Mahler died not long after its completion (he did not live to witness its premiere) this ending is sometimes interpreted as being a self-conscious farewell to the world. However, as Mahler was already working on his Symphony No. 10 before his ninth was completed this is perhaps unlikely. Although he never completed the tenth, Mahler scribbled a farewell to Music and his wife Almschi in its manuscript. The Symphony No. ... Alma Mahler Alma Maria Mahler-Werfel (née Schindler) (August 31, 1879 – December 11, 1964) was noted in her native Vienna for her beauty and intelligence. ...


The work was premiered on June 26, 1912 at the Vienna Festival by the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Bruno Walter. It was first published in the same year by Universal Edition. Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... A conductor conducting a band at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... Bruno Walter (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Universal Edition (UE) are a classical music publishing firm. ...

Trivia and Quotes about the Symphony

  • The effects of the Cold War arms race on culture in general, and the enjoyment of Mahler's Ninth Symphony in particular, prompted the essayist Lewis Thomas to write the title essay in his Late Night Thoughts on Listening to Mahler's Ninth Symphony.
  • It expresses an extraordinary love of the earth, for Nature — Alban Berg[2]
  • It is music coming from another world, it is coming from eternity. — Herbert von Karajan[3]
  • It is terrifying, and paralyzing, as the strands of sound disintegrate ... in ceasing, we lose it all. But in letting go, we have gained everything. — Leonard Bernstein[4]
  • I believe it to be not only his last but also his greatest achievement. — Otto Klemperer

For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Lewis Thomas (November 25, 1913 - December 3, 1993) was a physician, poet, etymologist, essayist, administrator, educator, policy advisor, and researcher. ... Portrait of Alban Berg by Arnold Schoenberg, c. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Otto Klemperer (May 14, 1885 – July 6, 1973) was a German-born conductor and composer. ...

References and External links

  1. ^ Mitchell, Donald (2002) The Mahler Companion OUP
  2. ^ Quoted in the liner notes to Mahler: Symphony No. 9, Berliner Philharmoniker/Herbert von Karajan
  3. ^ Quoted in Herbert von Karajan: A life in music by Richard Osborne
  4. ^ The Unanswered Question by Leonard Bernstein
  • Extensive history and analysis by renowned Mahler scholar Henry Louis de La Grange
  • Kunst der Fuge: The Mahler's 9th Symphony (MIDI files)

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Symphony No. 9 (Mahler) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (600 words)
The Symphony No. 9 by the composer Gustav Mahler was written in 1909 and 1910, and was the last symphony that he completed.
As is often the case in Mahler, one of the middle movements is a ländler.
It is reminiscent of the second movement of Mahler's Fourth Symphony in the distortion of a traditional dance into a dance of death.
Symphony No. 8 (Mahler) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1041 words)
The Symphony No. 8 in E-flat major by Gustav Mahler, known as the Symphony of a Thousand, was mostly written in 1906, with its vast orchestration and final touches completed in 1907.
The music is continuous but can be regarded as consisting of three sections corresponding to the last three movements of the classical symphony: first, a slow adagio section lasting for fifteen minutes with almost no singing; then a scherzo-like section; and finally a quick and lively finale.
This symphony marks the return to the usage of voices since the fourth symphony, the usage of a chorus since the third symphony, and a chorus with male voices since the second symphony.
  More results at FactBites »



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