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Encyclopedia > Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven)
Ludwig van Beethoven was almost completely deaf when he composed his ninth symphony.
Ludwig van Beethoven was almost completely deaf when he composed his ninth symphony.

The Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral" is the last complete symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven. Completed in 1824, the choral Ninth Symphony is one of the best known works of the Western repertoire, considered both an icon and a forefather of Romantic music, and one of Beethoven's greatest masterpieces. To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... Download high resolution version (662x826, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (662x826, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning work, is usually used in the sense of a work of art. In this sense the plural of opus, opera, is used to refer to the genre of music drama. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ...


Symphony No. 9 incorporates part of An die Freude ("Ode to Joy"), an ode by Friedrich Schiller, with text sung by soloists and a chorus in the last movement. It is the first example of a major composer using the human voice on the same level with instruments in a symphony, creating a work of a grand scope that set the tone for the Romantic symphonic form. To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement... For other uses, see Ode (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... In music, a solo is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer (solo is an Italian word literally meaning alone). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 plays a prominent cultural role in the world today. In particular, the music from the fourth movement (Ode to Joy) was rearranged by Herbert von Karajan into what is now known as the official anthem of the European Union. Further testament to its prominence is that an original manuscript of this work sold in 2003 for $3.3 million USD at Sotheby's, London. The head of Sotheby's manuscripts department, Dr. Stephen Roe stated, "it is one of the highest achievements of man, ranking alongside Shakespeare's Hamlet and King Lear." Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian orchestra and opera conductor, one of the most renowned 20th century conductors. ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... Sothebys (NYSE: BID) is the worlds second oldest international auction house in continuous operation. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is a play by William Shakespeare, considered one of his greatest tragedies, based on the legend of King Lear of Britain. ...

Contents

History

Composition of the symphony

The Philharmonic Society of London (later the Royal Philharmonic Society) originally commissioned the symphony in 1817. Beethoven started work on his last symphony in 1818 and finished it early in 1824. This was roughly twelve years after his eighth symphony. However, he was interested in the Ode to Joy from a much earlier time, having set it to music as early as 1793; that setting is lost. The Royal Philharmonic Society is a British music society, formed in 1813. ...


The theme for the scherzo can be traced back to a fugue written in 1815. The introduction for the vocal part of the symphony caused many difficulties for Beethoven. It was the first time he—or anyone—had used a vocal component in a symphony. Beethoven's friend, Anton Schindler, later said: "When he started working on the fourth movement the struggle began as never before. The aim was to find an appropriate way of introducing Schiller's ode. One day he [Beethoven] entered the room and shouted 'I got it, I just got it!' Then he showed me a sketchbook with the words 'let us sing the ode of the immortal Schiller'". However, that introduction did not make it into the work, and Beethoven spent a great deal of time rewriting the part until it had reached the form recognizable today. Anton Schindler-alternate name of Anton Felix Schindler. ...


Premiere

Beethoven was eager to have his work played in Berlin as soon as possible after finishing it. He was thinking that musical taste in Vienna was dominated by Italian composers such as Rossini. When his friends and financiers heard this, they urged him to premiere the symphony in Vienna. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868)[1] was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


The Ninth Symphony was premiered on May 7, 1824 in the Kärntnertortheater in Vienna, along with the overture Die Weihe des Hauses and the first three parts of the Missa Solemnis. This was the composer's first on-stage appearance in twelve years; the hall was packed. The soprano and alto parts were interpreted by two famous young singers: Henriette Sontag and Caroline Unger. is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Ludwig van Beethovens Missa Solemnis in D Major, Op. ... Henriette Sontag (1806-1854) was a German singer, born at Coblenz Sontag made her début at an age of 15. ... Caroline Unger (October 28, 1803-March 23, 1877) was an Austrian contralto. ...


Although the performance was officially directed by Michael Umlauf, the theatre's Kapellmeister, Beethoven shared the stage with him. However, two years earlier, Umlauf had watched as the composer's attempt to conduct a dress rehearsal of his opera Fidelio ended in disaster. So this time, he instructed the singers and musicians to ignore the totally deaf Beethoven. At the beginning of every part, Beethoven, who sat by the stage, gave the tempos. He was turning the pages of his score and was beating time for an orchestra he could not hear. A Kapellmeister is nowadays the director or conductor of an orchestra or choir. ... Fidelio (Op. ... For other uses, see Tempo (disambiguation). ... Sheet music is written representation of music. ... For other uses, see Orchestra (disambiguation). ...


There are a number of anecdotes about the premiere of the Ninth. Based on the testimony of the participants, there are suggestions that it was under-rehearsed (there were only two full rehearsals) and rather scrappy in execution. On the other hand, the premiere was a big success. In any case, Beethoven was not to blame, as violist Josef Bohm recalled, "Beethoven directed the piece himself; that is, he stood before the lectern and gesticulated furiously. At times he raised, at other times he shrunk to the ground, he moved as if he wanted to play all the instruments himself and sing for the whole chorus. All the musicians minded his rhythm alone while playing".


When the audience applauded - testimonies differ over whether at the end of the scherzo or the whole symphony - Beethoven was several measures off and still conducting. Because of that, the contralto Caroline Unger walked over and turned Beethoven around to accept the audience's cheers and applause. According to one witness, "the public received the musical hero with the utmost respect and sympathy, listened to his wonderful, gigantic creations with the most absorbed attention and broke out in jubilant applause, often during sections, and repeatedly at the end of them." The whole audience acclaimed him through standing ovations five times; there were handkerchiefs in the air, hats, raised hands, so that Beethoven, who could not hear the applause, could at least see the ovation gestures. The theatre house had never seen such enthusiasm in applause. A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... In music, an alto is a singer with a vocal range somewhere between a tenor and a soprano. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


At that time, it was customary that the Imperial couple be greeted with three ovations when they entered the hall. The fact that five ovations were received by a private person who was not even employed by the state, and moreover, was a musician (a class of people who had been perceived as lackeys at court), was in itself considered almost indecent. Police agents present at the concert had to break off this spontaneous explosion of ovations. Beethoven left the concert deeply moved.


The repeat performance on May 23 in the great hall of the Fort was, however, poorly attended. is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Editions

The Breitkopf & Härtel edition dating from 1864 has been used widely by orchestras.[1] In 1997 Bärenreiter published an edition by Jonathan Del Mar[2]. According to Del Mar, this edition corrects nearly 3000 mistakes in the Breitkopf edition, some of which were remarkable.[3] Professor David Levy, however, criticized this edition in Beethoven Forum, saying that it could create "quite possibly false" traditions.[4] Breitkopf also published a new edition by Peter Hauschild in 2005.[5] Breitkopf & Härtel is the worlds oldest music publishing house. ... Jonathan Del Mar (born 1951) is a musicologist and conductor. ... David Benjamin Levy is a musicologist. ...


While many of the modifications in the newer editions make minor alterations to dynamics and articulation, both editions make a major change to the orchestral lead-in to the final statement of the choral theme in the fourth movement (IV: m525-m542). The newer versions alter the articulation of the horn calls, creating syncopation that no longer relates to the previous motive. The new Breitkopf & Härtel and Bärenreiter make this alteration differently, but the result is a reading that is strikingly different than what was commonly accepted based on the 1864 Breitkopf edition. While both Breitkopf & Härtel and Bärenreiter consider their editions the most accurate versions available--labeling them Urtext editions--their conclusions are not universally accepted. In his monograph "Beethoven--the ninth symphony", Professor David Levy describes the rationale for these changes and the danger of calling the editions Urtext. Breitkopf & Härtel is the worlds oldest music publishing house. ... Breitkopf & Härtel is the worlds oldest music publishing house. ... David Benjamin Levy is a musicologist. ...


Instrumentation

A page from Beethoven's manuscript
A page from Beethoven's manuscript

The symphony is scored for piccolo (fourth movement only), 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in A, B flat and C, 2 bassoons, contrabassoon (fourth movement only), 2 horns (1 and 2) in D and B flat, 2 horns (3 and 4) in B flat (bass), B flat and E flat, 2 trumpets in D and B flat, 3 trombones (alto, tenor, and bass, second and fourth movements only), timpani, triangle (fourth movement only), cymbals (fourth movement only), bass drum (fourth movement only), and strings. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... The contrabassoon, also contrafagotto or double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon sounding an octave lower. ... French horn redirects here. ... French horn redirects here. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... An old-fashioned triangle, with wand (beater) Angelika Kauffmann: LAllegra, 1779 The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Cymbals (band). ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ...


The vocal parts consist of soprano solo, alto solo, tenor solo, baritone solo, and choir in four parts (soprano, alto, tenor [divided briefly into Tenor I and Tenor II] and bass). This article is about the voice-type. ... This article is about the voice-type. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Note: These are by far the largest forces needed for any Beethoven symphony; at the premiere, Beethoven augmented them further by assigning two players to each wind part.


Form

The symphony is in four movements, marked as follows:

  1. Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso
  2. Scherzo: Molto vivace - Presto
  3. Adagio molto e cantabile - Andante Moderato - Tempo I - Andante Moderato - Adagio - Lo Stesso Tempo
  4. Recitative: (Presto – Allegro ma non troppo – Vivace – Adagio cantabile – Allegro assai – Presto: O Freunde) – Allegro assai: Freude, schöner Götterfunken – Alla marcia – Allegro assai vivace: Froh, wie seine Sonnen – Andante maestoso: Seid umschlungen, Millionen! – Adagio ma non troppo, ma divoto: Ihr, stürzt nieder – Allegro energico, sempre ben marcato: (Freude, schöner GötterfunkenSeid umschlungen, Millionen!) – Allegro ma non tanto: Freude, Tochter aus Elysium! – Prestissimo: Seid umschlungen, Millionen!

Beethoven changes the usual pattern of Classical symphonies in placing the scherzo movement before the slow movement (in symphonies, slow movements are usually placed before scherzos). This was the first time that he did this in a symphony, although he had done so in some previous works (including the quartets Op. 18 nos. 4 and 5, the "Archduke" piano trio Op. 97, the "Hammerklavier" piano sonata Op. 106). Haydn, too, had used this arrangement in a number of works. Maestoso (Mie-eh-stoe-zoe) is Italian for majestic. ... Vivace is Italian for lively. Vivace is used as an Italian musical term indicating a movement that is in a lively mood (and so usually in a fast tempo). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Musical terminology. ... Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas (and occasionally in operettas and even musicals), is melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ... Marcato in the context of bowed string instruments is an arco technique for playing such a stringed instrument, such as violin, viola, cello, and the double bass, also called contrabass, bass viol, or upright bass. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... The Juilliard String Quartet performing in 1963. ... A piano trio is a group of piano and two other instruments, almost always a violin and a cello, or a piece of music written for such a group. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ...


First movement

 First movement

First movement. Full orchestra version. Image File history File links Symphonie_no_9_en_re_mineur,_op. ...

Problems listening to the file? See media help.

The first movement is in sonata form, and the mood is often stormy. The opening theme is played pianissimo over string tremolandos. This first subject later returns fortissimo at the outset of the recapitulation section, in D major, rather than the opening's D minor. The coda employs the chromatic fourth interval. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Recapitulation is the term used by Irenaeus to describe the manner in which God interacts with the world towards the final goal in space and time of mans salvation and redemption. ... A chromatic fourth is a melody or melodic fragment spanning a perfect fourth with all or almost all chromatic intervals filled in. ...


This is the first appearance of a quartet of horns in a Beethoven symphony. French horn redirects here. ...


Second movement

 Second movement

Second movement. Full orchestra version. Image File history File links Symphonie_no_9_en_re_mineur,_op. ...

Problems listening to the file? See media help.

The second movement, a scherzo, is also in D minor, with the opening theme bearing a passing resemblance to the opening theme of the first movement, a pattern also found in the Hammerklavier piano sonata, written a few years earlier. It uses propulsive rhythms and a timpani solo. At times during the piece Beethoven directs that the beat should be one downbeat every three bars, perhaps because of the very fast pace of the majority of the movement which is written in triple time, with the direction ritmo di tre battute ("rhythm of three bars"), and one beat every four bars with the direction ritmo di quattro battute ("rhythm of four bars"). A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ...


The contrasting trio section is in D major and in duple (cut) time. The trio is the first time the trombones play in the work. The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ...


Third movement

The lyrical slow movement, in B flat major, is in a loose variation form, with each pair of variations progressively elaborating the rhythm and melody. The first variation, like the theme, is in 4/4 time, the second in 12/8. The variations are separated by passages in 3/4, the first in D major, the second in G major. The final variation is twice interrupted by episodes in which loud fanfares for the full orchestra are answered by double-stopped octaves played by the first violins alone. A virtuosic horn solo is assigned to the fourth player. Trombones are tacet for the movement. For the ballet Theme and Variations, see Theme and Variations (ballet). ... French horn redirects here. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... Tacet is Italian for silent. It is an Italian musical term to indicate that an instrument does not play for a long period of time, typically an entire movement. ...


Fourth movement

 4th movement
Full fourth movement, orchestra and solists
Ode to Joy
Electric keyboard version.

The famous choral finale is Beethoven's musical representation of Universal Brotherhood and has been characterized by Charles Rosen as a symphony within a symphony. It contains four movements played without interruption.[6] This "inner symphony" follows the same overall pattern as the Ninth Symphony as a whole. The scheme is as follows: Image File history File links Symphonie_no_9_en_re_mineur,_op. ... Ode to Joy. ... A finale is a closing part, act or movement of a dramatic or musical composition, or more generally any event or procedure with a dramatically concluding effect. ... Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ...

  • First "movement": theme and variations with slow introduction. Main theme which first appears in the cellos and basses is later "recapitulated" with voices.
  • Second "movement": 6/8 scherzo in military style (begins at "Alla marcia," words "Froh, wie seine Sonnen fliegen"), in the "Turkish style." Concludes with 6/8 variation of the main theme with chorus.
  • Third "movement": slow meditation with a new theme on the text "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!" (begins at "Andante maestoso")
  • Fourth "movement": fugato finale on the themes of the first and third "movements" (begins at "Allegro energico")

The movement has a thematic unity, in which every part may be shown to be based on either the main theme, the "Seid umschlungen" theme, or some combination of the two. History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Pop - Religious - Rock Music awards Kral - MÜ-YAP - MGD Charts Powerturk 40 - Kral 20 Annual festivals Istanbul International Music Festival - Istanbul International Jazz Festival - Ankara IMF - Izmir European Jazz Festival Media Bant magazine - Mix! - Adante - BlueJean... This article is about tempo in music. ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ... In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ...


The first "movement within a movement" itself is organized into sections:

  • An introduction, which starts with a stormy Presto passage. It then briefly quotes all three of the previous movements in order, each dismissed by the cellos and basses which then play in an instrumental foreshadowing of the vocal recitative. At the introduction of the main theme, the cellos and basses take it up and play it through.
  • The main theme forms the basis of a series of variations for orchestra alone.
  • The introduction is then repeated from the Presto passage, this time with the bass soloist singing the recitatives previously suggested by cellos and basses.
  • The main theme again undergoes variations, this time for vocal soloists and chorus.

In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ... Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas (and occasionally in operettas and even musicals), is melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ... For the ballet Theme and Variations, see Theme and Variations (ballet). ...

Text of fourth movement

Words written by Beethoven (not Schiller) are shown in italics. To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement...

German original
O Freunde, nicht diese Töne!
Sondern laßt uns angenehmere
anstimmen und freudenvollere.
Freude! Freude!
Freude, schöner Götterfunken
Tochter aus Elysium,
Wir betreten feuertrunken,
Himmlische, dein Heiligthum!
Deine Zauber binden wieder
Was die Mode streng getheilt;
Alle Menschen werden Brüder,
Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.
Wem der große Wurf gelungen,
Eines Freundes Freund zu sein;
Wer ein holdes Weib errungen,
Mische seinen Jubel ein!
Ja, wer auch nur eine Seele
Sein nennt auf dem Erdenrund!
Und wer's nie gekonnt, der stehle
Weinend sich aus diesem Bund!
Freude trinken alle Wesen
An den Brüsten der Natur;
Alle Guten, alle Bösen
Folgen ihrer Rosenspur.
Küße gab sie uns und Reben,
Einen Freund, geprüft im Tod;
Wollust ward dem Wurm gegeben,
Und der Cherub steht vor Gott.
Froh, wie seine Sonnen fliegen
Durch des Himmels prächt'gen Plan,
Laufet, Brüder, eure Bahn,
Freudig, wie ein Held zum Siegen.
Seid umschlungen, Millionen!
Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!
Brüder, über'm Sternenzelt
Muß ein lieber Vater wohnen.
Ihr stürzt nieder, Millionen?
Ahnest du den Schöpfer, Welt?
Such' ihn über'm Sternenzelt!
Über Sternen muß er wohnen.
Finale repeats the words:
Seid umschlungen, Millionen!
Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!
Brüder, über'm Sternenzelt
Muß ein lieber Vater wohnen.
Seid umschlungen,
Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!
Freude, schöner Götterfunken
Tochter aus Elysium,
Freude, schöner Götterfunken
English translation[citation needed]
Oh friends, not these tones!
Rather let us sing more
pleasant and more joyful ones.
Joy! Joy!
Joy, beautiful spark of gods,
Daughter of Elysium!
We enter, drunk with fire ,
Heavenly one, your shrine.
Your magics again bind
What custom has strictly parted.
All people become brothers,
where your gentle wing alights.
Whoever succeeds in the great attempt
To be a friend of a friend,
Whoever has won a lovely woman,
Let him add his jubilation!
Yes, whoever calls even one soul
His own on the earth's globe!
And who never has, let him steal,
Weeping, away from this group.
All creatures drink joy
At the breasts of nature;
All the good, all the evil
Follow her roses' trail.
Kisses gave she us, and wine,
A friend, proven unto death;
Pleasure was to the worm granted,
And the cherub stands before God.
Glad, as his suns fly
Through the Heavens' glorious plan,
Run, brothers, your race,
Joyful, as a hero to victory.
Be embraced, you millions!
This kiss for the whole world!
Brothers, beyond the star-canopy
Must a loving Father dwell.
Do you bow down, you millions?
Do you sense the Creator, world?
Seek Him beyond the star-canopy!
Beyond the stars must He dwell.
Finale repeats the words:
Be embraced, you millions!
This kiss for the whole world!
Brothers, beyond the star-canopy
Must a loving Father dwell.
Be embraced,
This kiss for the whole world!
Joy, beautiful spark of the gods,
Daughter of Elysium,
Joy, beautiful spark of the gods

-1...

Influence of the Symphony

The Ninth Symphony struck the changing and newly Romantic world of Western music with force. Partially due to the scope, ambition, and import of this work, Beethoven is considered the forefather of Romantic music. His Symphony No. 9 was to prove extremely influential on the Western tradition, not just in specific compositional form (and length), but in much more general ways, for its forging of new ground beyond the Classical symphonic mould of purely "absolute music". It is an early icon and declaration of the Romantic idealistic tradition of Bildung. Absolute Music (sometimes abstract music) is a cool and very hip term used to describe music that is not explicitly about anything, non-representational or non-objective. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Many later composers of the Romantic period and beyond were influenced specifically by Beethoven's final symphony:


An important theme in the finale of Johannes Brahms' Symphony No. 1 in C minor is related to the "Ode to Joy" theme from the last movement of Beethoven's Ninth symphony. When this was pointed out to Brahms, he is reputed to have retorted "Any ass can see that!", which suggests the imitation was intentional. Brahms's first symphony was sometimes jokingly referred to as "Beethoven's Tenth".[7] Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... The in C minor, Op. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ...


Anton Bruckner used the chromatic fourth in his third symphony in much the same way that Beethoven used it in the first movement's coda. Bruckner redirects here. ... In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ...


In the opening notes of the third movement of his Symphony No. 9 (The "New World"), Antonín Dvořák pays homage to the scherzo of this symphony with his falling fourths and timpani strokes.[8] New World Symphony redirects here; for the Miami-based orchestra, see New World Symphony Orchestra. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( , (often pronounced in English as ) ; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ...


Beethoven's Ninth Symphony may also have influenced the development of the compact disc. Philips, the company that had started the work on the new audio format, originally planned for a CD to have a diameter of 11.5 cm, while Sony planned a 10 cm diameter needed for one hour of music. However, according to a Philips website, Norio Ohga insisted in 1979 that the CD be able to contain a complete performance of the Ninth Symphony: CD redirects here. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Norio Ohga (大賀典雄, ÅŒga Norio, otherwise spelt Norio Oga, born January 29, 1930) is a Japanese electronics businessman who originally trained as an opera singer. ...

The longest known performance lasted 74 minutes. This was a mono recording made during the Bayreuther Festspiele in 1951 and conducted by Wilhelm Furtwängler. This therefore became the playing time of a CD. A diameter of 12 centimeters was required for this playing time.[9]

However, Kees Immink, Philips' chief engineer, who developed the CD, denies this, claiming that the increase was motivated by technical considerations, and that even after the increase in size, the Furtwängler recording was not able to fit onto the earliest CDs.[10] Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ... Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... Kornelis (Kees) Antonie Schouhamer Immink is a Dutch scientist, inventor, and entepreneur. ...

The Curse of the Ninth

Using modern numbering, several composers beside Beethoven have completed no more than nine symphonies. This has led certain subsequent composers, particularly Gustav Mahler, to be superstitious about composing their own ninth or tenth symphonies, or to try to avoid writing them at all. This phenomenon has become known as the Curse of the Ninth. Mahler redirects here. ... The curse of the ninth is the superstition that any composer of symphonies, from Beethoven onwards, will die soon after writing his or her own Ninth Symphony. ...


Performance challenges

Duration

Lasting more than an hour, the Ninth was an exceptionally long symphony for its time. Like much of Beethoven's later music, his Ninth Symphony is demanding for all the performers, including the choir and soloists.


Metronome markings

As with all of his symphonies, Beethoven has provided his own metronome markings for the Ninth Symphony, and as with all of his metronome markings, there is controversy among conductors regarding the degree to which they should be followed. Historically, conductors have tended to take a slower tempo than Beethoven marked for the slow movement, and a faster tempo for the military march section of the finale. Conductors in the historically informed performance movement, notably Roger Norrington, have used Beethoven's suggested tempos, to mixed reviews. A mechanical wind-up metronome in motion A digital metronome set to pulse at four beats per measure at a tempo of 130 BPM A metronome is any device that produces a regulated audible and/or visual pulse, usually used to establish a steady beat, or tempo, measured in beats... A mechanical wind-up metronome in motion A digital metronome set to pulse at four beats per measure at a tempo of 130 BPM A metronome is any device that produces a regulated audible and/or visual pulse, usually used to establish a steady beat, or tempo, measured in beats... Sir Roger Arthur Carver Norrington (born March 16, 1934) is a British conductor best known for performances of Baroque, Classical and Romantic music using period instruments and period style. ...


Ritard/a tempo at the end of the first movement

Many conductors move the "a tempo" in m.511 of the first movement to measure m.513 to coincide with the "Funeral March".


Re-orchestrations and alterations

A number of conductors have made alterations in the instrumentation of the symphony.


Mahler's "Retouching"

Gustav Mahler revised the orchestration of the Ninth to make it sound like what he believed Beethoven would have wanted if given a modern orchestra. For example, since the modern orchestra has larger string sections than in Beethoven's time, Mahler doubled various wind and brass parts to preserve the balance between strings on the one hand and winds and brass on the other. Mahler redirects here. ...


Horn and trumpet alterations

Beethoven's writing for horns and trumpets throughout the symphony (mostly the 2nd horn and 2nd trumpet) is often altered by performers to avoid large leaps (those of a 12th or more).


Flute and first violin alterations

In the first movement, at times the first violins and flute have ascending 7th leaps within mostly descending melodic phrases. Many conductors alter the register of these passages to create a single descending scale (examples: m143 in the flute, m501 in the first violins).


2nd bassoon doubling basses in the finale

Beethoven's indication that the 2nd bassoon should double the basses in measures 115-164 of the finale was not included in the Breitkopf parts, though it was included in the score.


Ninth symphony since the 19th century

The European Anthem commemorative coin
The European Anthem commemorative coin
  • The Ode to Joy was selected as main motif for the Autrian The European Anthem commemorative coin minted in May 11, 2005. The reverse shows the old Theater am Kärntnertor. It was in this theatre that the "Ode to Joy" was first publicly performed. A portrait of Beethoven, together with the opening notes of the previously mentioned symphony, is also included in the coin.
  • The Ode to Joy was adopted as Europe's anthem by the Council of Europe in 1972, with an official arrangement for orchestra written by Herbert von Karajan.[11] In 1985, the European Union chose Beethoven's music as the EU anthem [1], without German lyrics, because of the many different languages used within the European Union.
  • In 1989, the ninth symphony was performed in Berlin to celebrate the dismantling of the Berlin Wall, conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Performed as an "Ode to Freedom", every occurrence of the word "joy" in Schiller's poem was changed to "freedom".
  • The symphony seems to have taken particularly deep root in Japan, where it is widely performed during December as part of the annual celebration of the new year.[12]
  • Wendy Carlos recorded an electronic version in 1971 for the film A Clockwork Orange; in that film, both the second and fourth movements of the 9th are heard. The film's main character, Alex DeLarge, is a big fan of Beethoven, and often listens to the symphony.
  • Ode to Joy also turns up at several points during the second Beatles film Help[2].
  • A Song Of Joy (Himno A La Alegria), a pop adaptation of the last movement of the 9th Symphony recorded in Spanish, Italian and English by Spanish-born singer Miguel Rios was released in 1970, selling three million copies worldwide and reaching #14 on the Billboard Top 100. [3]
  • In 1988, the movie Die Hard made prominent use of the famous Ode to Joy melody.[4]
  • The Ode to Joy was heavily used in Episode 24 of the popular Japanese Anime, Neon Genesis Evangelion (TV series)
  • At the last night of The Proms in September 2001, just days after the 9/11 attacks, the ninth symphony was part of a hastily revised programme, to replace the traditional light-hearted programme of the second half. It was performed by the BBC Symphony Orchestra and conducted by Leonard Slatkin.
  • The six-note introduction to the second movement had been featured on NBC News programs as early as the Huntley-Brinkley Report of the 1950s. The Huntley-Brinkley Report also featured a longer section of the movement during the end credits. It still survives on NBC's cable network, MSNBC, most prominently, in remixed form, on Countdown with Keith Olbermann.
  • The six-note introduction to the second movement had been also featured on a Milwaukee, Wisconsin Radio station (96.5 KLH) to the opening of the news.
  • FM stations which broadcast classical music do not play the 9th as frequently as the other Beethoven symphonies. For example, KVOD, the PBS FM station from Denver broadcast the 9th only 3 times in 2006, whereas the other 8 symphonies had the following number of broadcasts in 2006: 1(29), 2(29), 3(21), 4(23), 5(30), 6(30), 7(28) and 8(31). [5]
  • The opening also appears in the film "Equilibrium". This film is set in a world where all art and emotion has been destroyed by society. The rebellious government agent/hero, who enforces these laws, soon stumbles upon a vinyl recording of the Ninth and bursts into tears after listening it having never heard music before.
  • The hymn, "Joyful, Joyful We Adore Thee", with words written in 1907 by Henry Van Dyke, is sung to the "Ode to Joy" tune and is included in many hymnals.

is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kärntnertortheater: lithograph, ca. ... A number of symbols of Europe have emerged throughout history, but the largest contribution came when the Council of Europe (COE) developed a series of symbols for the continent of Europe. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian orchestra and opera conductor, one of the most renowned 20th century conductors. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were held in 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, although the equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. ... The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, were celebrated in 1960 in Rome, Italy. ... The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, were held in 1964 in Tokyo, Japan. ... The Unified Team (EUN) was allowed by the IOC to use the Olympic Emblem in place of a national flag. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1992 in Albertville, France. ... Albertville is a town and commune in southeast France, in the Savoie département, in the French Alps. ... The 92 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were held in 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos, November 14, 1939) is an American composer and electronic musician. ... This article is about the film. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Miguel Ríos ((Chauchina, Granada, Spain June 7 de 1944) is a Spanish singer, composer, actor and one of the pioneers of Rock & Roll in Spain. ... It has been suggested that Billboard be merged into this article or section. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Rise O Voices of Rhodesia was adopted as the national anthem of Rhodesia in 1974, following its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from Britain in 1965. ... This article is about the 1988 action film. ... Original run October 4, 1995 – March 27, 1996 Episodes 26 Manga Author Yoshiyuki Sadamoto Publisher Kadokawa Shoten Serialized in Shōnen Ace Original run February 1995 – present Volumes 11 Movies Evangelion: Death and Rebirth (1997) The End of Evangelion (1997) Revival of Evangelion (1998) Rebuild of Evangelion (2007–2008) Neon... A Promenade concert in the Royal Albert Hall, 2004. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The BBC Symphony Orchestra is the principal orchestra of the British Broadcasting Corporation and one of the leading orchestras in Britain. ... Leonard Slatkin (born September 1, 1944) is an American conductor. ... This article is about the television network. ... Opening to the June 6, 1968 edition of The Huntley-Brinkley Report, the evening following the death of U.S. Senator and Democratic Presidential contender Robert F. Kennedy. ... This article is about the television network. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... Countdown with Keith Olbermann is an hour-long weeknight news program [2] on MSNBC which airs live at 8pm Eastern Time and reruns at 10pm and 2am on weekdays. ... Henry van Dyke Henry van Dyke (1852 – 1933) was an American author, educator, and clergyman. ...

Notable recordings

Felix Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg (June 2, 1863 – May 7, 1942) was a conductor, composer and pianist. ... The Vienna Philharmonic (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) is an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... The Berliner Philharmoniker (Berlin Philharmonic), is one of the worlds leading orchestras. ... Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... The Berliner Philharmoniker (Berlin Philharmonic), is one of the worlds leading orchestras. ... Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ... Toscanini conducting. ... Robert Shaw (April 30, 1916 – January 25, 1999) was an American conductor most famous for his work with his namesake Chorale, with the Cleveland Orchestra and Chorus, and the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chorus. ... Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... The Philharmonia is an orchestra based in London. ... For other uses, see Lucerne (disambiguation). ... Otto Klemperer (May 14, 1885 – July 6, 1973) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... The Philharmonia is an orchestra based in London. ... Ferenc Fricsay (1914 - 20 February 1963) was a Hungarian conductor. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian orchestra and opera conductor, one of the most renowned 20th century conductors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Cleveland Orchestra is one of the major symphony orchestras in the United States. ... Eugene Ormandy (November 18, 1899, Budapest, Hungary – March 12, 1985, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was an eminent American orchestral conductor. ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... The Mormon Tabernacle Choir is a large choir sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the Mormons). ... Rafael Jeroným Kubelík (Býchory, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary, today Czech Republic, June 29, 1914 – August 11, 1996 in Kastanienbaum, Canton of Lucerne, Switzerland) was a Czech conductor and composer. ... The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in Munich was founded in 1949 by Eugen Jochum, he was also principal conductor until 1960. ... Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical record label. ... Karl Böhm (August 28, 1894 – August 14, 1981) was a prominent Austrian conductor. ... The Vienna Philharmonic (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) is an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941)[1] better known as Plácido Domingo, is a world-renowned operatic tenor. ... Robert Shaw (April 30, 1916 – January 25, 1999) was an American conductor most famous for his work with his namesake Chorale, with the Cleveland Orchestra and Chorus, and the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chorus. ... The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra (ASO) is an American orchestra based in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Günter Wand (born January 7, 1912 in Elberfeld, Germany; died February 14, 2002 in Ulmiz near Bern, Switzerland) was a German orchestra conductor He was also a composer. ... The North German Radio Symphony Orchestra (NDR Symphony Orchestra, German Sinfonieorchester des Norddeutschen Rundfunks) is the most prestigious orchestra in the city of Hamburg and one of the most acclaimed orchestras in Germany. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical record label. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in Munich was founded in 1949 by Eugen Jochum, he was also principal conductor until 1960. ... The Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra (Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin) is an orchestra in Berlin, Germany. ... The Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden (Engl: Saxon State Orchestra Dresden) is an orchestra based in Dresden, Germany. ... View of the Mariinsky Theatre in the 1890ies The Mariinsky Theatre, known as the Kirov Opera and Ballet Theatre in 1934-92, is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in St Petersburg. ... The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ... The Orchestre de Paris is a French orchestra created in 1967, based in Paris, whose current Music Director is Christoph Eschenbach. ... June Anderson (born December 30, 1952) is an American coloratura soprano. ... Sarah Walker CBE is an English mezzo-soprano. ... Sir Roger Arthur Carver Norrington (born March 16, 1934) is a British conductor best known for performances of Baroque, Classical and Romantic music using period instruments and period style. ... Sir Charles Mackerras Sir Alan Charles Maclaurin Mackerras, AC, CH, CBE, (born November 17, 1925) is an Australian conductor. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ... The Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the UKs longest established orchestras, and is based in Liverpool. ... Bryn Terfel The Welsh baritone Bryn Terfel, CBE (born November 9, 1965) is one of the best-known contemporary opera and concert singers. ... Della Jones, was born on the 13th April 1946 in Tonna, near Neath. ... Jonathan Del Mar (born 1951) is a musicologist and conductor. ... Hyperion Records is an independent British classical record label, named after Hyperion, one of the Titans of Greek mythology. ... There is no one Edinburgh Festival but those using the term are usually referring to the collection of various festivals in August and early September of each year in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Philharmonia is an orchestra based in London. ... Benjamin Zander (born March 9, 1939, Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire, England) is an English-American conductor. ... Sir John Eliot Gardiner at Rehearsal Sir John Eliot Gardiner CBE (born April 20, 1943, Fontmell Magna, Dorset, England) is an English conductor. ... Period instruments, or playing on period instruments refers to performance of classical music on the original instruments of Renaissance, Baroque or Classicism, or using the historical replicas of the original instruments preserved in the museums. ... The Monteverdi Choir was founded in 1964 by Sir John Eliot Gardiner for a performance of the Monteverdi Vespers (1610) in Kings College Chapel, Cambridge. ... The Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, founded in 1990 by John Eliot Gardiner, performs Classical and Romantic music, using the principles and original instruments of historically informed performance. ... Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical record label. ... Anne Sofie von Otter (born 9 May 1955) is an opera singer and concert recitalist. ... Anthony Rolfe Johnson (born November 5, 1940) is an English tenor singer. ... David Zinman (born New York, 10 July 1936) is an American conductor. ... Tonhalle Orchester Zurich (Tonhalle-Orchester Zürich or Tonhalle Orchestra Zurich, as it is widely known in English and on its many recordings), is named after one of the major concert halls of the world, the Zurich Tonhalle. ... Jonathan Del Mar (born 1951) is a musicologist and conductor. ... Born: May 2, 1947 - Ghent, Belgium Philippe Herreweghe studied piano with Marvel Gazelle at the Ghent Conservatory. ... Period instruments, or playing on period instruments refers to performance of classical music on the original instruments of Renaissance, Baroque or Classicism, or using the historical replicas of the original instruments preserved in the museums. ... Harmonia Mundi (France) is an independent music record label founded in 1958 by Bernard Coutaz in Arles (south of France). ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... Westminster Choir College is a residential college of music located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. ... Riccardo Muti (born July 28, 1941, in Naples) is an Italian conductor best known for being the Music Director of Milans La Scala opera house, a position he held from 1986 to 2005, and of The Philadelphia Orchestra from 1980 to 1992. ... Cheryl Studer, (born October 24, 1955) American soprano, was born in Midland, Michigan. ... There have been several people named James Morris: James Morris, (1893-01-02–1980-07-20) Justice of the Supreme Court of North Dakota (1935–1964), a trial judge for the IG Farben Trial. ... Simon Rattle recording Porgy and Bess with the London Symphony Orchestra at Abbey Road in 1988 Sir Simon Denis Rattle, CBE (born January 19, 1955) is an English conductor. ... ... The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... The Minnesota Orchestra is an American orchestra that was founded in 1903 by Emil Oberhoffer as the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra. ...

References

  1. ^ Del Mar, Jonathan (July-December 1999). Jonathan Del Mar, New Urtext Edition: Beethoven Symphonies 1-9. British Academy Review. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  2. ^ Ludwig van Beethoven The Nine Symphonies The New Bärenreiter Urtext Edition. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  3. ^ Zander, Benjamin. Beethoven 9 The fundamental reappraisal of a classic. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  4. ^ Concerning the Review of the Urtext Edition of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  5. ^ Beethoven The Nine Symphonies.
  6. ^ Rosen, Charles. "The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven". page 440. New York: Norton, 1997.
  7. ^ Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op. 68. The Kennedy Center, 2006
  8. ^ Steinberg, Michael. "The Symphony: a listeners guide". page 153. Oxford University Press, 1995.
  9. ^ Optical Recording: Beethoven's Ninth Symphony of greater importance than technology, Philips
  10. ^ Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (2007). "Shannon, Beethoven, and the Compact Disc" (html). IEEE Information Theory Newsletter: 42–46. 
  11. ^ The European Anthem. Europa.
  12. ^ Lockwood, Lewis. "Beethoven: The Music and the Life". page 412. New York: Norton, 2003.
  13. ^ Naxos (2006). Ode To Freedom - Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 (NTSC). Naxos.com Classical Music Catalogue. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. This is the publisher's catalogue entry for a DVD of Bernstein's Christmas 1989 "Ode to Freedom" concert.

Jonathan Del Mar (born 1951) is a musicologist and conductor. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Benjamin Zander (born March 9, 1939, Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire, England) is an English-American conductor. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

Scholarly

  • Richard Taruskin, "Resisting the Ninth", in his Text and Act: Essays on Music and Performance (Oxford University Press, 1995).
  • David Benjamin Levy, "Beethoven: the Ninth Symphony," revised edition (Yale University Press, 2003).
  • Esteban Buch, Beethoven's Ninth: A Political History Translated by Richard Miller, ISBN 0-226-07824-8 (University Of Chicago Press) [6]

Richard Taruskin is an American musicologist and music historian specializing in theory of performance, Russian music, fifteenth-century music, twentieth-century music, nationalism, theory of modernism, and analysis. ... David Benjamin Levy is a musicologist. ...

Literary

Clockwork Orange redirects here. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Audio

The logo of Vancouver Symphony Orchestra. ... Mario Bernardi (left), and Bramwell Tovey (right) in 2005 Bramwell Tovey (born 11 July 1953) is an English-born conductor and composer. ...

Scores, Manuscripts & Text

The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ...

Other Material

  • EU official page about the anthem
  • Analysis of the Beethoven Symphony No. 9 on the All About Ludwig van Beethoven Page
  • A guided tour of Beethoven's 9th Symphony by Rob Kapilow on WNYC's Soundcheck
  • Program note from the Kennedy Center with more information about the symphony's finale as it might have been, and is
  • Analysis for students (with timings) of the final movement, at Washington State University
  • Hinton, Stephen (Summer 1998). "Not "Which" Tones? The Crux of Beethoven's Ninth". 19th-Century Music Vol. 22 (No. 1): pp. 61–77. doi:10.1525/ncm.1998.22.1.02a00040. 

 
 

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