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Encyclopedia > Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven)
The coversheet to Beethoven's 5th Symphony. The dedication to Prince Lobkowitz and Count Rasumovsky is visible.

Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 was written in 1804–08. This symphony is one of the most popular and well-known compositions in all of European classical music, and one of the most often-played symphonies.[1] It comprises four movements: an opening sonata allegro, an andante, and a fast scherzo which leads attacca to the finale. First performed in Vienna's Theater an der Wien in 1808, the work achieved its prodigious reputation soon afterwards. E.T.A. Hoffmann described the symphony as "one of the most important works of the time". Image File history File links Beethovens_5th_coversheet. ... Portrait of Andreas Razumovsky Count, later Prince Andrey Kyrillovich Razumovsky, or: Rasumovsky (November 2, 1752 – September 23, 1836) was a Russian diplomat who spent many years of his life in Vienna. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning work, is usually used in the sense of a work of art. In this sense the plural of opus, opera, is used to refer to the genre of music drama. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Musical composition is: a piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance or recorded track). ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... In music, a movement is a large division of a larger composition or musical form. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about tempo in music. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... The Theater an der Wien is a historic theatre in Vienna. ... ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ...


It begins by stating a distinctive four-note "short-short-short-long" motif twice: (listen ) In music, a motif is a perceivable or salient reoccurring fragment or succession of notes that may used to construct the entirety or parts of complete melodies, themes. ... Image File history File links Beet5mov1bars1to5. ...

The symphony, and the four-note opening motif in particular, are well known worldwide, with the motif appearing frequently in popular culture, from disco to rock and roll, to appearances in film and television. Image File history File links Beethoven_symphony_5_opening. ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... This article is about the music genre. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ...

Contents

History

Composition

Beethoven in 1804, the year he began work on the Fifth Symphony. Detail of a portrait by W.J. Mähler
Beethoven in 1804, the year he began work on the Fifth Symphony. Detail of a portrait by W.J. Mähler

The Fifth Symphony is notable for the amount of time it spent in gestation. The first sketches date from 1804, following the completion of the Third Symphony.[2]. However, Beethoven repeatedly interrupted his work on the Fifth to prepare other compositions, including the first version of Fidelio, the Appassionata piano sonata, the three Razumovsky string quartets, the Violin Concerto, the Fourth Piano Concerto, and the Fourth Symphony. The final preparation of the Fifth Symphony, which took place in 1807-1808, was carried out in parallel with the Sixth Symphony, which premiered at the same concert. Image File history File links Beethoven_3. ... Image File history File links Beethoven_3. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Eroica Symphony Title Page The Symphony No. ... Fidelio (Op. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... The three Rasumovsky (or: Razumovsky) String Quartets, Opus 59, are the quartets Ludwig van Beethoven wrote in 1805-1806, as a result of a commission by prince Andreas Razumovsky: String Quartet No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D major was written in 1806. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Concerto No. ... The Symphony No. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ...


Beethoven was in his mid-thirties during this time; his personal life was troubled by increasing deafness.[3] In the world at large, the period was marked by the Napoleonic Wars, political turmoil in Austria, and the occupation of Vienna by Napoleon's troops in 1805. A hearing impairment or hearing loss is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... “Wien” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Premiere

The Fifth Symphony was premiered on December 22, 1808 at a mammoth concert at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna consisting entirely of Beethoven premieres, and directed by Beethoven himself.[4] The performance took more than four hours. The two symphonies appeared on the program named in the reverse of the order by which we know them today: the Fifth was numbered No. 6, and the Sixth appeared as No. 5.[5] The program was as follows: December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Theater an der Wien is a historic theatre in Vienna. ...

Beethoven dedicated the symphony to two of his patrons, Prince Franz Joseph von Lobkowitz and Count Rasumovsky. The dedication appeared in the first printed edition of April 1809. Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethoven wrote his Mass in C major (or Mass in C) to a commission from Nikolaus Esterházy in 1807. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Concerto No. ... The Fantasy in C minor for Piano, Chorus, and Orchestra, op. ... Portrait of Andreas Razumovsky Count, later Prince Andrey Kyrillovich Razumovsky, or: Rasumovsky (November 2, 1752 – September 23, 1836) was a Russian diplomat who spent many years of his life in Vienna. ...


Reception and influence

There was little critical response to the premiere performance, which took place under adverse conditions. The orchestra did not play well—with only one rehearsal before the concert—and at one point, following a mistake by one of the performers in the Choral Fantasy, Beethoven had to stop the music and start again.[6] The auditorium was extremely cold and the audience was exhausted by the length of the program. However, a year and a half later, another performance resulted in a rapturous review by E.T.A. Hoffmann in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung. He described the music with dramatic imagery: ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ...

Radiant beams shoot through the deep night of this region, and we become aware of gigantic shadows which, rocking back and forth, close in on us and destroy all within us except the pain of endless longing—a longing in which every pleasure that rose up amid jubilant tones sinks and succumbs. Only through this pain, which, while consuming but not destroying love, hope, and joy, tries to burst our breasts with a full-voiced general cry from all the passions, do we live on and are captivated beholders of the spirits.[7]

The symphony soon acquired its status as a central item in the repertoire. As an emblem of classical music, as it were, the Fifth was played in the inaugural concerts of the New York Philharmonic on December 7, 1842, and the National Symphony Orchestra on November 2, 1931. Groundbreaking both in terms of its technical and emotional impact, the Fifth has had a large influence on composers and music critics,[8] and inspired work by such composers as Brahms, Tchaikovsky (his 4th Symphony in particular),[9] Bruckner, Mahler, and Hector Berlioz.[10] The Fifth stands with the Third Symphony and Ninth Symphony as the most revolutionary of Beethoven's compositions. The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The National Symphony Orchestra (NSO), founded in 1931, is a major American symphony orchestra that performs at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington DC, USA. Since 1996, the music director of the orchestra is the American conductor Leonard Slatkin. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... Peter Ilich Tchaikovskys Symphony No. ... “Bruckner” redirects here. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Eroica Symphony Title Page The Symphony No. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ...


Instrumentation

The symphony is scored for piccolo (fourth movement only), 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B flat and C, 2 bassoons, contrabassoon (fourth movement only), 2 horns in E flat and C, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones (alto, tenor, and bass, fourth movement only), timpani and strings. The piccolo is a small flute. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... This is a contrabassoon. ... The horn (popularly known also as the French horn) is a brass instrument decended from the natural horn that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... The trumpet is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ...


Form

The work is in four movements:


First movement

The first movement opens with the four-note motif discussed below, one of the most famous in western music. There is considerable debate among conductors as to the manner of playing the four opening bars. Some conductors take it in strict allegro tempo; others take the liberty of a weighty treatment, playing the motif in a much slower and more stately tempo; yet others take the motif molto ritardando (a pronounced slowing through each four-note phrase), arguing that the fermata over the fourth note justifies this.[11] In music, a motif is a perceivable or salient reoccurring fragment or succession of notes that may used to construct the entirety or parts of complete melodies, themes. ... The first two measures of Mozarts Sonata XI, which indicates the tempo as Andante grazioso and a modern editors metronome marking: = 120. “Andante” redirects here. ...


The first movement is in the traditional sonata form that Beethoven inherited from his classical predecessors, Haydn and Mozart (in which the main ideas that are introduced in the first few pages undergo elaborate development through many keys, with a dramatic return to the opening section—the recapitulation—about three-quarters of the way through). It starts out with two dramatic fortissimo phrases, the famous motif, commanding the listener's attention. Following the first four bars, Beethoven uses imitations and sequences to expand the theme, these pithy imitations tumbling over each other with such rhythmic regularity that they appear to form a single, flowing melody. Shortly after, a very short fortissimo bridge, played by the horns, takes place before a second theme is introduced. This second theme is in E flat major, the relative major, and it is more lyrical, written piano and featuring the four-note motif in the string accompaniment. The codetta is again based on the four-note motif. The development section follows, using modulation, sequences and imitation, and including the bridge. After the recapitulation, there is a brief solo passage for oboe in quasi-improvisatory style, and the movement ends with a massive coda. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Recapitulation is the term used by Irenaeus to describe the manner in which God interacts with the world towards the final goal in space and time of mans salvation and redemption. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Coda sign Coda (Italian for tail; from the Latin cauda), in music, is a passage which brings a movement or a separate piece to a conclusion through prolongation. ...


Second movement

The second movement, in A flat major, is a lyrical work in double variation form, which means that two themes are presented and varied in alternation. Following the variations there is a long coda. The double variation is a musical form used in classical music. ...


The movement opens with an announcement of its theme, a melody in unison by violas and cellos, with accompaniment by the double basses. A second theme soon follows, with a harmony provided by clarinets, bassoons, violins, with a triplet arpeggio in the violas and bass. A variation of the first theme reasserts itself. This is followed up by a third theme, thirty-second notes in the violas and cellos with a counterphrase running in the flute, oboe and bassoon. Following an interlude, the whole orchestra participates in a fortissimo, leading to a series of crescendos, and a coda to close the movement.[12] Various arpeggios as seen on a staff Notation of a chord in arpeggio In music, an arpeggio is a broken chord where the notes are played or sung in succession rather than simultaneously. ... Crescendo may mean: In musical notation, crescendo refers to a passage of music during which the volume gradually increases. ...


Third movement

The third movement is in ternary form, consisting of a scherzo and trio. It follows the traditional mold of Classical-era symphonic third movements, containing in sequence the main scherzo, a contrasting trio section, a return of the scherzo, and a coda. (For further discussion of this form, see "Textual questions", below.) This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ...


The movement returns to the opening key of C minor and begins with the following theme, played by the cellos and double basses: (listen ) Image File history File links Beet5mov3bars1to4. ...

The 19th century musicologist Gustav Nottebohm first pointed out that this theme has the same sequence of pitches (though in a different key and range) as the opening theme of the final movement of Mozart's famous Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550. Here is Mozart's theme: (listen ) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1528x277, 2 KB) Summary Opening notes of third movement of Beethoven, Symphony No. ... Gustav Nottebohm was a pianist, teacher, musical editor and composer. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. ... Image File history File links Mozart40bars1to3. ...

(The derivation emerges more clearly if one listens first to Mozart's theme, then Mozart's theme transposed to Beethoven's key and range, then Beethoven's theme, thus: listen .) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1528x277, 3 KB) Summary Opening notes of Mozart, Symphony No. ... Image File history File links Beethoven5thSymphonyMozartBorrowing. ...


While such resemblances sometimes occur by accident, this is unlikely to be so in the present case. Nottebohm discovered the resemblance when he examined a sketchbook used by Beethoven in composing the Fifth Symphony: here, 29 measures of Mozart's finale appear, copied out by Beethoven.[13]


The opening theme is answered by a contrasting theme played by the winds, and this sequence is repeated. Then the horns loudly announce the main theme of the movement, and the music proceeds from there. A woodwind instrument is a wind instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating a thin piece of wood known as a reed, and in which the pitch governed by the resonant frequencies of an enclosed air column. ... The horn (popularly known also as the French horn) is a brass instrument decended from the natural horn that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ...


The trio section is in C major and is written in a contrapuntal texture. When the scherzo returns for the final time, it is performed by the strings pizzicato and very quietly. C major (often just C or key of C) is a musical major scale based on C, with pitches C, D, E, F, G, A, B and C. Its key signature has no flats/sharps (see below: Diatonic Scales and Keys). ... Jazz bass is played almost exclusively in pizzicato. ...


"The scherzo offers contrasts that are somewhat similar to those of the slow movement in that they derive from extreme difference in character between scherzo and trio ... The Scherzo then contrasts this figure with the famous 'motto' (3 + 1) from the first movement, which gradually takes command of the whole movement." [14]


Fourth movement

The triumphant and exhilarating finale begins without interruption after the scherzo. It is written in an unusual variant of sonata form: at the end of the development section, the music halts on a dominant cadence, played fortissimo, and the music continues after a pause with a quiet reprise of the "horn theme" of the scherzo movement. The recapitulation is then introduced by a crescendo coming out of the last bars of the interpolated scherzo section, just as the same music was introduced at the opening of the movement. The interruption of the finale with material from the scherzo was pioneered by Haydn, who had done the same in his Symphony No. 46 in B, from 1772. It is not known whether Beethoven was familiar with this work. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Musical development is the transformation and restatement of initial material, often contrasted with musical variation, with which it may be difficult to distinguish as a general process. ... In music, the dominant is the fifth degree of the scale. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... The Symphony No. ...


The Fifth Symphony finale includes a very long coda, in which the main themes of the movement are played in temporally compressed form. Towards the end the tempo is increased to presto. The symphony ends with 29 bars of C major chords, played fortissimo. Charles Rosen, in The Classical Style[15] suggests that this ending reflects Beethoven's sense of Classical proportions: the "unbelievably long" pure C major cadence is needed "to ground the extreme tension of [this] immense work." Presto is an italian word meaning quickly or prompt. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... In music, dynamics normally refers to the softness or loudness of a sound or note, but also to every aspect of the execution of a given piece, either stylistic (staccato, legato etc. ... Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ...


Lore

A great deal has been written about the Fifth Symphony in books, scholarly articles, and program notes for live and recorded performances. This section summarizes some themes that commonly appear in this material.


Fate motif

The initial motif of the symphony has sometimes been credited with symbolic significance as a representation of Fate knocking at the door. This idea comes from Beethoven's secretary and factotum Anton Schindler, who wrote, many years after Beethoven's death: Anton Felix Schindler (1795-1864) was an associate and early biographer of Ludwig van Beethoven. ...

The composer himself provided the key to these depths when one day, in this author's presence, he pointed to the beginning of the first movement and expressed in these words the fundamental idea of his work: "Thus Fate knocks at the door!"[16]

Schindler's testimony concerning any point of Beethoven's life is disparaged by experts (he is believed to have forged entries in Beethoven's conversation books).[17] Moreover, it is often commented that Schindler offered a highly romanticized view of the composer. Thus, although we cannot know whether Schindler actually fabricated this quotation, it seems a strong possibility.


There is another tale concerning the same motif; the version given here is from Antony Hopkins's description of the symphony (see References below). Karl Czerny (Beethoven's pupil, who premiered the "Emperor" Concerto) claimed that "the little pattern of notes had come to [Beethoven] from a yellow-hammer's song, heard as he walked in the Prater-park in Vienna." Hopkins further remarks that "given the choice between a yellow-hammer and Fate-at-the-door the public has preferred the more dramatic myth, though Czerny's account is too unlikely to have been invented." Antony Hopkins (born 1921) is an English composer, also known for his books of musical analysis and his radio programs Talking About Music broadcast for many years by the BBC. Not to be confused with actor Sir Anthony Hopkins who has composed some music, including some for the film August... Carl Czerny (sometimes Karl; February 21, 1791 – July 15, 1857) was an Austrian pianist, composer and teacher. ... Binomial name Emberiza citrinella Linnaeus, 1758 The Yellowhammer, Emberiza citrinella, is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a group now separated by most modern authors from the finches, Fringillidae. ... The Wiener Prater is a large public park in Viennas second district. ...


Evaluations of these interpretations tend to be skeptical. "The popular legend that Beethoven intended this grand exordium of the symphony to suggest 'Fate Knocking at the gate' is apocryphal; Beethoven's pupil, Ferdinand Ries, was really author of this would-be poetic exegesis, which Beethoven received very sarcastically when Ries imparted it to him."[11] Elizabeth Schwarm Glesner remarks that "Beethoven had been known to say nearly anything to relieve himself of questioning pests"; this might be taken to impugn both tales.[18] Ferdinand Ries (1784–1838) was a Bonn-born pupil of Beethoven who published a collection of reminiscences of his teacher. ... Sarcasm[1] Mockery, sarcasm is sneering, jesting, or mocking a person, situation or thing. ...


Beethoven's choice of key

The key of the Fifth Symphony, C minor, is commonly regarded as a special key for Beethoven, specifically a "stormy, heroic tonality".[19] Beethoven wrote a number of works in C minor whose character is broadly similar to that of the Fifth Symphony. Writer Charles Rosen says, "Beethoven in C minor has come to symbolize his artistic character. In every case, it reveals Beethoven as Hero. C minor does not show Beethoven at his most subtle, but it does give him to us in his most extroverted form, where he seems to be most impatient of any compromise".[20] In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ... C minor (abbreviated Cm) is a minor scale based on C, consisting of the pitches C, D, E-flat, F, G, A-flat, B-flat (often raised to B natural to function as a leading tone) and C. Its key signature consists of three flats. ... In the compositions of Ludwig van Beethoven, C minor is commonly regarded as a special key. ...


Repetition of the opening motif throughout the symphony

It is commonly asserted that the opening four-note rhythmic motif (short-short-short-long; see above) is repeated throughout the symphony, unifying it. According to Web, "it is a rhythmic pattern (dit-dit-dit-dot*) that makes its appearance in each of the other three movements and thus contributes to the overall unity of the symphony" (Doug Briscoe, [1]); "a single motif that unifies the entire work" (Peter Gutmann, [2]); "the key motif of the entire symphony" ([3]) ; "the rhythm of the famous opening figure ... recurs at crucial points in later movements" (Richard Bratby, [4]). The New Grove encyclopedia cautiously endorses this view, reporting that "[t]he famous opening motif is to be heard in almost every bar of the first movement – and, allowing for modifications, in the other movements."[21] The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a dictionary of music and musicians, generally considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ...


There are several passages in the symphony that have led to this view. The one most commonly noted occurs in the third movement, where the horns play the following solo in which the short-short-short-long pattern occurs repeatedly:

In the second movement, an accompanying line plays a similar rhythm (listen ): Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1702x280, 17 KB) Summary Musical quotation from Beethovens Fifth Symphony. ... Image File history File links BeethovenSymphony5Mvt2Bar76. ...

In the finale, Doug Briscoe (cited above) suggests that the motif may be heard in the piccolo part, presumably meaning the following passage (listen ): Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1735x452, 32 KB) Summary Musical quotation from Beethovens Fifth Symphony. ... The piccolo is a small flute. ... Image File history File links BeethovenSymphony5Mvt4Bar244. ...

Later, in the coda of the finale, the bass instruments repeatedly play the following (listen ):: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1912x455, 34 KB) Summary Quotation in music notation from Beethovens Fifth Symphony. ... Image File history File links BeethovenSymphony5Mvt4Bar362. ...

On the other hand, there are commentators who are unimpressed with these resemblances and consider them to be accidental. Antony Hopkins, [22] discussing the theme in the scherzo, says "no musician with an ounce of feeling could confuse [the two rhythms]", explaining that the scherzo rhythm begins on a strong musical beat whereas the first-movement theme begins on a weak one. Donald Francis Tovey[23] pours scorn on the idea that a rhythmic motif unifies the symphony: "This profound discovery was supposed to reveal an unsuspected unity in the work, but it does not seem to have been carried far enough." Applied consistently, he continues, the same approach would lead to the conclusion that many other works by Beethoven are also "unified" with this symphony, as the motif appears in the "Appassionata" piano sonata, the Fourth Piano Concerto (listen ), and in the String Quartet, Op. 74. Tovey concludes, "the simple truth is that Beethoven could not do without just such purely rhythmic figures at this stage of his art." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2152x985, 68 KB) Summary Musical quotation from Beethovens Fifth Symphony. ... Wikisource has original works written by or about: Donald Francis Tovey Sir Donald Francis Tovey (July 17, 1875 – July 10, 1940) was a British musical analyst, musicologist, writer on music, composer and pianist. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Sonata No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Piano Concerto No. ... Image File history File links BeethovenPianoConcertoNo4Opening. ... Ludwig van Beethovens String Quartet No. ...


To Tovey's objection can be added the prominence of the short-short-short-long rhythmic figure in earlier works by Beethoven's older Classical contemporaries Haydn and Mozart. To give just two examples, it is found in Haydn's "Miracle" Symphony, No. 96) ((listen ) and in Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 25, K. 503 ((listen ). Such examples show that "short-short-short-long" rhythms were a regular part of the musical language of the composers of Beethoven's day. The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Joseph Haydns 96th Symphony in D major, is better known as the Miracle It is so called as, during its premiere, a chandelier fell from the ceiling of the concert hall it was performed in. ... Image File history File links HaydnSymphony96Mvt1Excerpt. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... The Piano Concerto No. ... Image File history File links MozartPianoConcertoNo25ShortShortShortLongMotif. ...


It seems likely that whether or not Beethoven deliberately, or unconsciously, wove a single rhythmic motif through the Fifth Symphony will (in Hopkins's words) "remain eternally open to debate."


Trombones and piccolos

While it is commonly stated that the last movement of Beethoven's Fifth is the first time the trombone and the piccolo were used in a concert symphony, it is not true. The Swedish composer Joachim Nicholas Eggert specified trombones for his Symphony in E-flat major written in 1807[24], and examples of earlier symphonies with a part for piccolo abound, including Michael Haydn's Symphony no. 19 in C major composed in August 1773. The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The piccolo is a small flute. ... Joachim Nicolas Eggert, Swedish composer and musical director, (* 22 February 1779 in Gingst on Rügen, at that time part of Swedish Pommern; † 14 April 1813 in Thomestorp, Östergötland, Sweden). ... Michael Haydn Johann Michael Haydn (September 14, 1737 – August 10, 1806) was an Austrian composer, the younger brother of (Franz) Joseph Haydn. ...


Textual questions

Third movement repeat

In the autograph score (that is, the original version from Beethoven's hand), the third movement contains a repeat mark: when the scherzo and trio sections have both been played through, the performers are directed to return to the very beginning and play these two sections again. Then comes a third rendering of the scherzo, this time notated differently for pizzicato strings and transitioning directly to the finale (see description above). Most modern printed editions of the score do not render this repeat mark; and indeed most performances of the symphony render the movement as ABA' (where A = scherzo, B = trio, and A' = modified scherzo), in contrast to the ABABA' of the autograph score.


The repeat mark in the autograph is unlikely to be simply an error on the composer's part. The ABABA' scheme for scherzi appears elsewhere in Beethoven, in the Bagatelle for solo piano, Op. 33, No. 7 (1802), and in the Fourth, Sixth, and Seventh Symphonies. However, it is possible that for the Fifth Symphony Beethoven originally preferred ABABA', but changed his mind in the course of publication in favor of ABA'. The Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ... Ludwig van Beethoven began concentrated work on his Symphony No. ...


Since Beethoven's day, published editions of the symphony have always printed ABA'. However, in 1978 an edition specifying ABABA' was prepared by Peter Gülke and published by Peters. In 1999, yet another edition by Jonathan Del Mar was published by Bärenreiter[25] which advocates a return to ABA'. In the accompanying book of commentary,[26] Del Mar defends in depth the view that ABA' represents Beethoven's final intention; in other words, that conventional wisdom was right all along. Peters could be: J. Peters, head of secret apparatus of the CPUSA in the 1930s. ...


In concert performances, ABA' prevailed until fairly recent times. However, since the appearance of the Gülke edition conductors have felt more free to exercise their own choice. The conductor Caroline Brown, in notes to her recorded ABABA' performance with the Hanover Band (Nimbus Records, #5007), writes: The Hanover Band is a British period-instrument orchestra, widely acclaimed as one of the leading period-instrument orchestras in the world. ...

Re-establishing the repeat certainly alters the structural emphasis normally apparent in this Symphony. It makes the scherzo less of a transitional make-weight, and, by allowing the listener more time to become involved with the main thematic motif of the scherzo, the side-ways step into the bridge passage leading to the finale seems all the more unexpected and extraordinary in its intensity.

Performances with ABABA' seems to be particularly favored by conductors who specialize in authentic performance (that is, using instruments of the kind employed in Beethoven's day). These include Brown, as well as Christopher Hogwood, John Eliot Gardiner, and Nikolaus Harnoncourt. ABABA' performances on modern instruments have also been recorded by the Tonhalle Orchester Zurich under David Zinman and by the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra under Claudio Abbado. The authentic performance movement is an effort on the part of musicians and scholars to perform works of classical music in ways similar to how they were performed when they were originally written. ... Christopher Jarvis Haley Hogwood CBE (born 10 September 1941) is an English conductor, harpsichordist, writer and scholar of music. ... Gardiner conducting Sir John Eliot Gardiner CBE (born April 20, 1943, Fontmell, Dorset, England) is an English conductor. ... Nikolaus Harnoncourt (born Johann Nicolaus Graf de la Fontaine und dHarnoncourt-Unverzagt December 6, 1929 in Berlin) is an Austrian conductor, particularly known for his historically informed performances of music from the classical era and earlier. ... Tonhalle Orchester Zurich (Tonhalle-Orchester Zürich or Tonhalle Orchestra Zurich, as it is widely known in English and on its many recordings), is named after one of the major concert halls of the world, the Zurich Tonhalle. ... David Zinman (born New York, 10 July 1936) is an American conductor. ... The Berlin Philharmonic rehearsing in the Berliner Philharmonie. ... Claudio Abbado (born June 26, 1933) is a noted Italian conductor. ...


Reassigning bassoon notes to the horns

In the first movement, the passage that introduces the second subject of the exposition is assigned by Beethoven as a solo to the pair of horns. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The horn (popularly known also as the French horn) is a brass instrument decended from the natural horn that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ...

Image:BeethovenSymphonyNo5Mvt1SecondTheme.PNG

At this location, the theme is played in the key of E flat major. When the same theme is repeated later on in the recapitulation section, it is given in the key of C major. As Antony Hopkins (references below) notes, "this ... presented a problem to Beethoven, for the horns [of his day], severely limited in the notes they could actually play before the invention of valves, were unable to play the phrase in the 'new' key of C major. Beethoven therefore had to give the theme to a pair of bassoons, who, high in their compass, were bound to seem a less than adequate substitute. In modern performances the heroic implications of the original thought are regarded as more worthy of preservation than the secondary matter of scoring; the phrase is invariably played by horns, to whose mechanical abilities it can now safely be trusted." Image File history File links BeethovenSymphonyNo5Mvt1SecondTheme. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ...


In fact, since Hopkins wrote this passage (1981), conductors actually have experimented with preserving Beethoven's original scoring for bassoons. This can be heard on the performance conducted by Caroline Brown mentioned in the preceding section, as well as in a recent recording by Simon Rattle with the Vienna Philharmonic. Although horns capable of playing the passage in C major were developed not long after the premiere of the Fifth Symphony (according to this source, 1814), it is not known whether Beethoven would have wanted to substitute modern horns, or keep the bassoons, in the crucial passage. Simon Rattle recording Porgy and Bess with the London Symphony Orchestra at Abbey Road in 1988, aged 33. ... The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ...


Media

The following performance of the Fifth Symphony is by the Fulda Symphonic Orchestra (Fuldaer Symphonisches Orchester) under the direction of Simon Schindler. The recording is from a concert of March 10, 2000, performed in the Orangerie in Fulda, Germany. The Fulda Symphonic Orchestra (German: Fuldaer Symphonisches Orchester) is an orchestra based in Fulda, Germany. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... , Fulda (IPA: ) is a city in Hessen, Germany; it is located on the Fulda River and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis). ...

  • I. Allegro con brio
    II. Andante con moto
    III. Scherzo. Allegro
    IV. Allegro
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.
  • Link to download music - Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 recording from Musopen.

Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphonie 5 c-moll - 1. ... Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphonie 5 c-moll - 2. ... Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphonie 5 c-moll - 3. ... Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphonie 5 c-moll - 4. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Schauffler, Robert Haven. Beethoven: The Man Who Freed Music. Doubleday, Doran, & Company. Garden City, New York. 1933; pg 211
  2. ^ Hopkins, Antony. The Nine Symphonies of Beethoven. Scolar Press, 1977. ISBN 1-85928-246-6.
  3. ^ Beethoven's deafness
  4. ^ Kinderman, William. Beethoven. University of California Press. Berkeley, Los Angeles. 1995. ISBN 0-520-08796-8; pg 122
  5. ^ Parsons, Anthony. Symphonic birth-pangs of the trombone
  6. ^ Landon, H.C. Robbins. Beethoven: His Life, Work, and World. Thames and Hudson. New York City. 1992; pg 149
  7. ^ Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, July 1810
  8. ^ Moss, Charles K. Ludwig van Beethoven: A Musical Titan.
  9. ^ Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 by Richard Freed
  10. ^ Rushton, Julian. The Music of Berlioz; pg 244
  11. ^ a b Scherman, Thomas K, and Louis Biancolli. The Beethoven Companion. Double & Company. Garden City, New York. 1973; p. 570
  12. ^ Scherman, Thomas K, and Louis Biancolli. The Beethoven Companion. Double & Company. Garden City, New York. 1973; pg 572
  13. ^ Nottebohm, Gustav (1887) Zweite Beethoviana. Leipzig: C. F. Peters, p. 531.
  14. ^ Lockwood, Lewis. Beethoven: The Music and the Life. W.W. Norton & Company. New York. ISBN 0-393-05081-5; pg 223
  15. ^ Rosen, Charles (1997) The Classical Style, 2nd ed. New York: Norton, p. 72
  16. ^ Jolly, Constance. Beethoven as I Knew Him; London: Faber and Faber, 1966; as translated from Schindler's 'Biographie von Ludwig van Beethoven', 1860
  17. ^ Cooper, Barry. The Beethoven Compendium, Ann Arbor, MI: Borders Press, 1991, ISBN 0-681-07558-9.; pg 52
  18. ^ Classical Music Pages. Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphony No.5, Op.67
  19. ^ Wyatt, Henry. Mason Gross Presents - Program Notes: 14 June 2003. Mason Gross School of Arts.
  20. ^ Rosen, Charles. Beethoven's Piano Sonatas: A Short Companion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002, p. 134
  21. ^ "Ludwig van Beethoven." Grove Online Encyclopedia. online (subscription required).
  22. ^ Hopkins, Antony. The Nine Symphonies of Beethoven. Scolar Press, 1977. ISBN 1-85928-246-6.
  23. ^ Tovey, Donald Francis (1935) Essays in Musical Analysis, Volume 1: Symphonies. London: Oxford University Press.
  24. ^ Kallai, Avishai. Revert to Eggert. Retrieved on 2006-04-28.
  25. ^ Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor, edited by Jonathan Del Mar. Kassel: Bärenreiter (1999)
  26. ^ Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor; Critical Commentary, edited by Jonathan Del Mar. Kassel: Bärenreiter (1999)

Charles Rosen (born May 5, 1927) is an American pianist and music theorist. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Editions

  • The edition by Jonathan Del Mar mentioned above was published as follows: Ludwig van Beethoven. Symphonies 1–9. Urtext. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1996–2000
  • An inexpensive version of the score has been issued by Dover Publications. This is a 1989 reprint of an old edition (Braunschweig: Henry Litolff, no date). Reference: Symphonies Nos. 5, 6, and 7 in Full Score (Ludwig van Beethoven). New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-26034-8.

Dover Publications is a book publisher founded in 1941. ...

External links

  • Recording Free download featuring Maximianno Cobra directing the Europa Philharmonia Orchestra
  • General discussion and reviews of recordings
  • Brief structural analysis
  • Analysis of the Beethoven 5th Symphony, The Symphony of Destiny on the All About Ludwig van Beethoven Page
  • Program notes for a performance by the National Symphony Orchestra, Washington, DC.
  • 5th symphony (PDF): Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project.
  • Project Gutenberg has two MIDI-versions of Beethoven's 5th symphony: Etext No. 117 and Etext No. 156
  • Mutopia project has a piano reduction score of Beethoven's 5th Symphony
  • Full Score of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.
  • Complete performance by the Philadelphia Orchestra.

Beethovens Symphony No. ...


 
 

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