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Encyclopedia > Symphonic orchestra
The Boston Pops orchestra performing on the Charles River Esplanade in Boston, Massachusetts.
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The Boston Pops orchestra performing on the Charles River Esplanade in Boston, Massachusetts.

An orchestra is a musical ensemble used most often in classical music. A small orchestra is called a chamber orchestra. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x768, 671 KB) The Boston Pops Esplanade Orchestra performing at the Hatch Shell in Boston on 2005-07-04. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x768, 671 KB) The Boston Pops Esplanade Orchestra performing at the Hatch Shell in Boston on 2005-07-04. ... The Boston Pops Orchestra was founded in 1885 as a subsection of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. ... Charles River in Cambridge The Charles River is a small, relatively short Massachusetts river that separates Boston from Cambridge and Charlestown. ... Nickname: City on a Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Solar System), Athens of America Motto: Official website: www. ... A musical ensemble is, by definition, a group of three or more musicians who gather to perform music. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...


A full size orchestra may sometimes be called a "symphony orchestra" or "philharmonic orchestra"; these prefixes do not indicate any difference either to the instrumental content or role of the orchestra, but can be useful to distinguish different orchestras based in the same city (for instance, the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra). A symphony orchestra will usually have over eighty musicians on its staff, in some cases over a hundred, but the number of musicians used in a performance varies according to the work being played. A leading chamber orchestra might have forty or fifty members; some are much smaller than that. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The London Symphony Orchestra (frequently abbreviated to LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... The London Philharmonic Orchestra (frequently abbreviated to LPO), based in London, is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ...

Contents


Instrumentation

The typical symphony orchestra consists of four groups of musical instruments. In the order in which they appear on the score they are: A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ...

Other instruments are not standard in the orchestra but are scored on occasion. Examples of these instruments include saxophone, flugelhorn, cornet, euphonium, glass harmonica, wagner tuba, accordion, theremin, mandolin, and guitar. For example, saxophones appear in a limited 19th and 20th century repertoire. While they are occasionally only featured solo instruments in these works, as in Maurice Ravel's orchestration of Modeste Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition, other Ravel works such as his Bolero contain writing for saxophones as members of the orchestral ensemble. In addition, the euphonium, is featured in a few Romantic and 20th century works, and cornets appear in Tchaikovsky's ballet Swan Lake, Claude Debussy's La Mer, and many orchestral works by Hector Berlioz. Unless these instruments are played by members doubling with another instrument (for example, a trombone player changing to euphonium for a certain passage), orchestras will use freelance musicians to enable them to perform works which require instrumentalists that they do not have on staff. For instance, while most larger orchestras employ a harpist, those that don't or that require a second for a larger work will hire players who are not permanent members to play during those performances. A woodwind instrument is a wind instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... A Yamaha piccolo. ... Modern Oboe The oboe is a musical instrument of the woodwind double reed family. ... A cor anglais The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the oboe family. ... A bass clarinet, which sounds an octave lower than the more common Bâ™­ soprano clarinet. ... A typical bass clarinet The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... A Fox Instruments bassoon. ... Drawing of a Contrabassoon The contrabassoon or double bassoon is a larger version of the bassoon sounding an octave lower. ... A brass instrument is a musical instrument whose tone is produced by vibration of the lips as the player blows into a tubular resonator (mouthpiece). ... The horn is a brass instrument that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register other than the cornet, its above the horn, trombone, euphonium, and tuba. ... A lip-reed aerophone with a predominantly cylindrical bore, the trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The tuba is the largest of the low-brass instruments and is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. ... Percussion instruments are music instruments played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped, hence the percussive name. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings. ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... French type, four-octave Celesta or Celeste The celesta (IPA )) or celeste () is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. ... A grand piano A piano is a keyboard instrument, widely used in western music for solo performance, chamber music, and accompaniment, and also as a convenient aid to composing and rehearsal. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... The violin is a bowed stringed musical instrument that has four strings tuned a perfect fifth apart, the lowest being the G just below middle C. It is the smallest and highest-tuned member of the violin family of string instruments, which also includes the viola and cello. ... The viola (in French, alto; in German Bratsche) is a stringed musical instrument which serves as the middle voice of the violin family, between the upper lines played by the higher violin (soprano register) and the lower lines played by the deeper cello (bass) and double bass. ... A cello The cello (often formally referred to as the violoncello) is a stringed instrument and a member of the violin family. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Saxophones of different sizes play in different registers. ... Flugelhorn- this is a standard 3-valved Bb model. ... Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument that closely resembles the trumpet. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, tenor-voiced brass instrument. ... A glass harmonica. ... A Wagner tuba. ... A button accordion An accordion is a musical instrument of the handheld bellows-driven free reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as squeezeboxes. ... Léon Theremin playing an early theremin The theremin or thereminvox (originally pronounced but often anglicized as [1]) is one of the earliest fully electronic musical instruments. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... A guitar is a stringed musical instrument. ... Joseph-Maurice Ravel (March 7, 1875 – December 28, 1937) was a French composer and pianist, known especially for the subtlety, richness, and poignancy of his music and generally considered to be one of the major composers of the 20th century. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Моде́ст Петро́вич Му́соргский) (March 21, 1839 – March 28, 1881; sometimes spelt Modeste Moussorgsky), was an innovative Russian composer famed for his colourful, exotic, and lush orchestral pieces dedicated to various subjects of medieval Russian history. ... Pictures at an Exhibition (or Pictures from an Exhibition) is a famous suite of 15 musical pieces, composed by Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky in 1874. ... The Boléro is one of Maurice Ravels (1875-1937) most famous pieces of music. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, tenor-voiced brass instrument. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... 20th century classical music, the classical music of the 20th century, was extremely diverse, beginning with the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff and the Impressionism of Claude Debussy, and ranging to such distant sound-worlds as the complete serialism of Pierre Boulez, the simple triadic harmonies of minimalist composers... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (help· info) (Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайкóвский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... // Swan Lake (Russian: Лебединое Озеро) is one of the most famous and critically-acclaimed ballets, with music by Tchaikovsky (opus 20). ... Claude Debussy Achille-Claude Debussy (August 22, 1862 – March 25, 1918) was a composer of European classical music. ... La mer is the name of: La Mer, a composition by Claude Debussy. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer best known for the Symphonie fantastique, first performed in 1830, and for his Grande Messe des morts Requiem of 1837, with its tremendous resources that include four antiphonal brass choirs. ... A freelancer or (freelance worker) is a self-employed person working in a profession or trade in which full-time employment is also common. ... Harp is also a slang term for the diatonic harmonica. ...


Organization

Between the instrument groups and within each group of instruments, there is a generally accepted hierarchy of leadership. Every instrumental group (or section) has a principal (or soloist) who is generally responsible for playing solos within and leading the group. The violins are divided into two groups, first violin and second violin, and therefore have two principals. The principal first violin is called the concertmaster (or leader) and is considered the leader of not only the string section, but of the entire orchestra, subordinate only to the Conductor. The principal trombone is considered the leader of the low-brass (trombone, bass-trombone, tuba) section, while the principal trumpet is generally considered the leader of the entire brass section. Similarly, the principal oboe (or sometimes the principal flute) is considered the leader of the entire woodwind section. The horn, while technically a brass instrument, often acts in the role of both woodwind and brass. Most sections also have an Assistant principal (or Co-principal, or Associate principal), or in the case of the first violins, an Assistant concertmaster, who often plays a tutti part in addition to replacing the principal in his or her absence. A tutti (or section) player generally plays either a unique but non-solo part (in the case of winds, brass and percussion), or in unison with a group (in the case of the strings). Where a solo part is called for in a string section, for example in the violins, that part is invariably played by the section leader. This article is about the musical term solo; for other uses, see solo. ... Concert-master. ... Concert-master. ... See Conductor for other possible uses of the word. ... The horn is a brass instrument that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... In music, a tutti section in a concerto is one in which the orchestra plays and the soloist does not. ... UNISON logo UNISON is the largest trade union in the United Kingdom, with over 1. ...


In modern times, the musicians are usually directed by a conductor, although early orchestras did not have one, using instead the concertmaster or the harpsichordist playing the continuo for this role. Some modern orchestras also do without conductors, particularly smaller orchestras and those specialising in historically accurate performances of baroque music and earlier. A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... See Conductor for other possible uses of the word. ... Concert-master. ... Harpsichord in Flemish style; for more info, click the image. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 to 1750 (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ...


The most frequently performed repertoire for a symphony orchestra is Western classical music or opera. However, orchestras are sometimes used in popular music, and are also used extensively in film music. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A symphony is an extended piece of music usually for orchestra and comprising several movements. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Popular music is music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and mostly distributed commercially. ... A film score is the background music in a film, generally specially written for the film and often used to heighten emotions provoked by the imagery on the screen or by the dialogue. ...


History of the orchestra

In the 15th and 16th centuries in Italy the households of nobles had musicians to provide music for dancing and the court, however with the emergence of the theatre, particularly opera, in the early 17th century, music was increasingly written for groups of players in combination: which is the origin of orchestral playing. Opera originated in Italy, and Germany eagerly followed. Dresden, Munich and Hamburg successively built opera houses At the end of the 17th century opera flourished in England under Henry Purcell, and in France under Lully, who with the collaboration of Molière also greatly raised the status of the entertainments known as ballets, interspersed with instrumental and vocal music. A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... A court is an official, public forum which a sovereign establishes by lawful authority to adjudicate disputes, and to dispense civil, labour, administrative and criminal justice under the law. ... From left to right: Brühls Terrace; the Hofkirche and the castle; the Semper Opera House. ... Munich and the Bavarian Alps Munich (German: München (pronounced listen) is the largest city and capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... Alster Lake at dusk Hamburg is the second largest city in Germany and with the Hamburg Harbour, its principal port. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (September 10, 1659 - November 21, 1695), a Baroque composer, is generally considered to be one of Englands greatest composers — indeed, he has often been called Englands finest native composer. ... Jean-Baptiste Lully, originally Giovanni Battista Lulli (November 28, 1632–March 22, 1687), was an Italian-born French composer, who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. ... Molière, engraved frontispiece to his Works Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, better known as Molière (January 15, 1622 – February 17, 1673), was a French theatre writer, director and actor, one of the masters of comic satire. ... The Waltz of the Snowflakes from Tchaikovskys The Nutcracker Ballet is the name given to a specific dance form and technique. ...


In the 17th century and early 18th century instrumental groups were taken from all of the available talent. A composer such as Johann Sebastian Bach had control over almost all of the musical resources of a town, whereas Handel would hire the best musicians available. This placed a premium on being able to rewrite music for whichever singers or musicians were best suited for a performance—Handel produced different versions of the Messiah oratorio almost every year. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Johann Sebastian Bach (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together almost all of the strands of the baroque style and brought it to its ultimate maturity. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ anointed one, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew Arabic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ...


As nobility began to build retreats from towns, they began to hire standing bodies of musicians. Composers such as the young Joseph Haydn would have, then, a fixed body of instrumentalists to work with. At the same time, travelling virtuoso performers would write concerti that featured their skills, and travel from town to town, arranging concerts from whoever was there. The aristocratic orchestras worked together over long periods of time, making it possible for ensemble playing to improve over time. Franz Joseph Haydn (March 31 or April 1, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the Classical period, called the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent most of his career as a court musician for the...


This change, from civic music making where the composer had some degree of time or control, to smaller court music making and one-off performance, placed a premium on music that was easy to learn, often with little or no rehearsal. The results were changes in musical style and emphasis on new techniques. Mannheim had one of the most famous orchestras of that time, where notated dynamics and phrasing, previously quite rare, became standard (see Mannheim school). It also attended a change in musical style from the complex counterpoint of the baroque period, to an emphasis on clear melody, homophonic textures, short phrases, and frequent cadences: a style that would later be defined as classical. Basic information Country: Germany Federal state: Land Baden-Württemberg Regions: Rhein-Neckar District: Independent municipality Population: 324,787 (Mai 2005) Additional information Area: 144. ... Mannheim school refers to both the orchestral techniques pioneered by the court orchestra of Mannheim in the latter half of the 18th century as well as the group of composers who wrote such music for the orchestra of Mannheim and others. ... Counterpoint is a musical technique involving the simultaneous sounding of separate musical lines. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint In the arts, Baroque (or baroque) is both a period and the artistic style that dominated it. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 and 1820, but there was considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ...


Throughout the late 18th century composers would continue to have to assemble musicians for a performance, often called an "Academy", which would, naturally, feature their own compositions. In 1781, however, the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra was organized from the merchants concert society, and it began a trend towards the formation of civic orchestras that would accelerate into the 19th century. In 1818, Boston's Handel and Haydn Society was founded, in 1842 the New York Philharmonic and the Vienna Philharmonic were formed, and in 1858, the Hallé Orchestra was formed in Manchester. There had long been standing bodies of musicians around operas, but not for concert music: this situation changed in the early 19th century as part of the increasing emphasis in the composition of symphonies and other purely instrumental forms. This was encouraged by composer critics such as E.T.A. Hoffmann who declared that instrumental music was the "purest form" of music. The creation of standing orchestras also resulted in a professional framework where musicians could rehearse and perform the same works over and over again, leading to the concept of a repertoire in instrumental music. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra is a German orchestra based in Leipzig, Germany. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in New York City. ... The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) is the best known orchestra in Austria and one of Europes major ensembles. ... The Hallé Orchestra is one of Britains longest established orchestras, and is based in Manchester. ... A symphony is an extended piece of music usually for orchestra and comprising several movements. ... ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


In the 1830s conductor François Antoine Habeneck, in order to perform the symphonies of Beethoven, which had not been heard in their entirety in Paris, began rehearsing a selected group of musicians. He developed techniques of rehearsing the strings separately, notating specifics of performance, and other techniques of cueing entrances that were spread across Europe. His rival and friend Hector Berlioz would adopt many of these innovations in his touring of Europe. Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer best known for the Symphonie fantastique, first performed in 1830, and for his Grande Messe des morts Requiem of 1837, with its tremendous resources that include four antiphonal brass choirs. ...


This was paralleled by a rapid standardization of instruments. The invention of the piston or valve by Stolzel and Blilmel, both Silesians, in 1815, was the first in a series of innovations, including the use of valves for the flute by Theobald Boehm and the innovations of Adolphe Sax in the woodwinds. These advances would lead Hector Berlioz to write his famous book on instrumentation, which was the first systematic treatise on the use of instrumental sound as an expressive element of music. The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Theobald Boehm (April 9, 1794- November 25, 1881) was a Bavarian inventor and musician, who perfected the modern flute and its improved fingering system, which has not changed since his time. ... Life-size statue of Adolphe Sax outside his birthplace in Dinant, Belgium. ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer best known for the Symphonie fantastique, first performed in 1830, and for his Grande Messe des morts Requiem of 1837, with its tremendous resources that include four antiphonal brass choirs. ... There is also an article on the instrumentation amplifier, an integrated circuit sometimes used in measurement instruments. ...


The effect of the invention of valves was felt at once: instrument-makers in all countries helped with each other in making use of the newly refined instruments and in bringing them to perfection; and the orchestra was before long enriched by a new family of valved instruments, variously known as tubas, or euphoniums and bombardons, having a chromatic scale and a full sonorous tone of great beauty and immense volume, forming a magnificent bass. This also made possible a more uniform playing of notes or intonation, which would lead to a more and more "smooth" orchestral sound that would peak in the 1950s with Eugene Ormandy and The Philadelphia Orchestra and the conducting of Herbert von Karajan with The Berlin Philharmonic. The tuba is the largest of the low-brass instruments and is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, tenor-voiced brass instrument. ... The tuba is the largest of the low-brass instruments and is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. ... Intonation is a term used to cover particular uses of tones in linguistics and music. ... Eugene Ormandy in the 1950s Eugene Ormandy (November 18, 1899 – March 12, 1985) was a conductor and violinist. ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... Herbert von Karajan (Salzburg April 5, 1908 – Anif near Salzburg July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the worlds leading orchestras. ...


During the transition to using these instruments, which made the performance of more difficult works easier, many composers, including Wagner and Berlioz, notated the brass parts for some of their compositions for "natural" instruments rather than the newer valved instruments. This practice made it possible for players with natural horns, for instance, to perform from the same sheet music as players with valve instruments. However, over time, use of the valved instruments became standard, indeed universal, until the revival of older instruments in the contemporary movement towards authentic performance (sometimes known as "historically informed performance"). The authentic performance movement is an effort on the part of musicians and scholars to perform works of classical music in ways similar to how they were performed when they were originally written. ...


New orchestral effects were possible now that standing orchestras had been formed, winds and brass had been expanded, and had an increasingly easy time playing in tune with each other: particularly the ability for composers to score for large masses of wind and brass that previously had been impractical. Works such as the Requiem of Berlioz would have been impossible to perform just a few decades earlier, with its demanding parts for twenty woodwinds, as well as a gigantic brass ensemble including six horns, eight trumpets, eight trombones, and three tubas.


The next major expansion of symphonic practice came, ironically, from Wagner's Bayreuth orchestra, founded to play his musical dramas. Wagner needed to have a series of composers and notators for the complex scores he wrote, and had a specific role for the conductor of an orchestra that he described in his influential work "On Conducting". This led to a revolution in orchestral practice, and set the style for orchestral performance for the next eighty years. Wagner's theories changed tempi, dynamics, bowing of string instruments and the role of principals in the orchestra. Conductors who studied his methods would go on to be influential themselves. The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ...


As the early 20th century dawned, symphony orchestras were larger, better-funded, and better-trained than ever before; consequently, composers could compose larger and more ambitious works. With the recording era beginning, the standard of performance reached a pinnacle. In recordings, small errors in a performance could be "fixed," but many older conductors and composers could remember a time when simply "getting through" the music as best as possible was the standard. Combined with the wider audience made possible by recording, this led to a renewed focus on particular conductors and on a high standard of orchestral execution. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


In the 1920s and 1930s economic and artistic considerations led to the formation of small concert societies, particularly those dedicated to the performance of music of the avant-garde, including Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg. This tendency to start festival orchestras or dedicated groups would also be pursued in the creation of summer musical festivals, and orchestras for the performance of smaller works. Among the most influential of these was the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields under the baton of Sir Neville Marriner. Igor Stravinsky in his middle ages. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1938 For the American music critic and journalist, see Harold Charles Schonberg. ... The Academy of St. ... Sir Neville Marriner (born April 15, 1924) is a conductor and violinist. ...


With the advent of the early music movement, orchestras where players worked on execution of works in styles derived from the study of older treatises on playing became common. These include the London Classical Players under the direction of Sir Roger Norrington and the Academy of Ancient Music under Christopher Hogwood, among others. London Classical Players - a British orchestra, founded and conducted by Sir Roger Norrington. ... Sir Roger Arthur Carver Norrington (born March 16, 1934) is a British conductor best known for performances of Baroque, Classical and Romantic music using period instruments and period style. ... The original Academy of Ancient Music (AAM) was founded in London, England in 1726 for the purpose of studying and performing old music -- defined initially as anything composed at least a century earlier but soon grew to include more contemporary composers, most notably Handel. ... Christopher Jarvis Haley Hogwood (born 10 September 1941) is a well-known British conductor and harpsichordist. ...


The late 20th century saw a crisis of funding and support for orchestras in the United States and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. The size and cost of a symphony orchestra, compared to the size of the base of supporters, became an issue that struck at the core of the institution. The drastic falling-off of revenues from recording, tied to no small extent to changes in the recording industry itself, began a period of change that has yet to reach its conclusion. Critics such as Norman Lebrecht were vocal in their diagnosis of the problem as the "jet set conductor" and the problems of orchestral repertory and management, while other music administrators such as Michael Tilson Thomas and Esa-Pekka Salonen argued that new music, new means of presenting it, and a renewed relationship with the community could revitalize the symphony orchestra. Michael Tilson Thomas (born December 21, 1944), nicknamed MTT, is a Jewish-American conductor, pianist and composer. ... Esa-Pekka Salonen (born June 30, 1958) is a prominent Finnish orchestral conductor and composer. ...


In the meantime, orchestras made their way to the mass culture. Versatile composer Michael Jackson used symphonic orchestra to implement his artistic self-expression in postmodern music and neoclassical pieces (Morphine, 1997, Childhood, Little Susie, 1995, Speechless, 2001). Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Postmodern music is both a musical style and a musical condition. ...


A conductorless orchestra

The post-revolutionary Первый Симфонический Ансамбль (Pervyi Simfonicheskii Ansambl' - First Symphonic Ensemble) was formed in the USSR in 1922. The unusual aspect of the orchestra was that, believing that in the ideal Marxist state all men are equal, its members felt that there was no need to be led by the dictatorial baton of a conductor; instead they were led by a committee. Although it was a partial success, the principal difficulty with the concept was in changing tempo. The orchestra survived for ten years and had to be disbanded only when the individual talents began to rebel against the rigid control under which they were expected to play. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... See Conductor for other possible uses of the word. ... A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ...


Some ensembles, such as the Orpheus Ensemble, based in New York City, have had more success, although decisions are likely to be deferred to some sense of leadership within the ensemble (for example, the principal wind and string players). Nickname: The Big Apple Motto: Official website: City of New York Location [[Image:|250px|250px|Location of City of New York, New York]] Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R...


Others have returned to the tradition of a principal player, usually a violinist, being the artistic director and running rehearsals (such as the Australian Chamber Orchestra). The Australian Chamber Orchestra is based in Sydney, but tours its programs to most major Australian cities. ...


See also

This list of symphony orchestras contains orchestras with entries in the Wikipedia plus other particularly noted orchestras. ... This is a list of 25 notable orchestras worldwide, organised by country and then by city, as included in the Encyclopædia Britannica Almanac 2005, p. ... A list of people known as choral, orchestral or operatic conductors. ...

Other meanings

In ancient Greece the orchestra was the space between the auditorium and the proscenium (or stage), in which were stationed the chorus and the instrumentalists. This is how the modern orchestra got its name. An auditorium is the area within a theatre, concert hall or other performance space where the audience is located in order to hear and watch the performance. ... A proscenium theater is a theater space whose primary feature is a large archway (the proscenium arch) at or near the front of the stage, through which the audience views the play. ... Interior of the 1928 B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, Boston, Massachusetts. ... In tragic plays of Ancient Greece, the chorus (choros) was originally made up of 12 singing and dancing members (choreutai). ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ...


In some theaters, the orchestra is the area of seats directly in front of the stage (called "primafila" or "platea"); the term more properly applies to the place in a theatre, or concert hall set apart for the musicians. A Concert hall is a cultural building, which serves as performance venue, chiefly for classical instrumental music. ...


External links

  • The Orchestra: A User's Manual - A fairly concise overview, including detailed video interviews with players of each instrument and various resources
  • orcheseek - professional orchestras' links of all over the world
  • Art of the States: Orchestra works for orchestra by American composers

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