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Encyclopedia > Sympathomimetic amine

Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and the hormome/neurotransmitter norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Image File history File links Adrenaline. ... Image File history File links Adrenaline. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Image File history File links Norepinephrine_structure. ... Image File history File links Norepinephrine_structure. ... Norepinephrine (INN) or noradrenaline (BAN) is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Chemical structure of D-Aspartic Acid, a common Amino Acid neurotransmitter. ... Norepinephrine (INN) or noradrenaline (BAN) is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ...

Contents

Mechanisms of action

Norepinephrine transporter blockade

Classical sympathomimetic drugs are amphetamines (including MDMA), ephedrine and cocaine, which act by blocking and reversing norepinephrine transporter (NET) activity. NET is a transport protein expressed on the surface of some cells that clears noradrenaline and adrenaline from the extracellular space and into cells, terminating the signaling effects. Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Cocaine (or crack in its freebase form) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... The norepinephrine transporter or NET is a monoamine transporter that transports the neurotransmitter norepinephrine from the synapse back to its vesicles for storage until later use. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means outside the cell. This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ...


Adrenergic receptor agonism

Direct stimulation of the α- and β-adrenergic receptors can produce sympathomimetic effects. Albuterol is a very commonly used direct-acting β2-agonist. Epinephrine Norepinephrine The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. ... Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. It is marketed by the Allen & Hanburys respiratory division of GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Ventolin. ... Beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of drugs used to treat asthma. ...


Inhibition of epinephrine and norepinephrine metabolism

Inhibition of norepinephrine metabolism can produce sympathomimetic effects. Norepinephrine is mainly metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase, the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) drugs can induce such effects. Monoamine oxidase Monoamine oxidases (singular abbreviation MAO) (EC 1. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ...


Cross-reactivity

Substances like cocaine also affect dopamine, and some substances like MDMA affect serotonin. Cocaine (or crack in its freebase form) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ...


Norepinephrine is synthesized by the body into epinephrine, causing central nervous system stimulation. Thus, all sympathimimetic amines fall into the larger group of stimulants (see psychoactive drug chart). Many of these stimulants have therepeutic use and abuse potential, can induce tolerance, and possibly physical dependence. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Stimulants are drugs that increase alertness and wakefulness. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Drug abuse has a wide range of definitions related to taking a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Physical dependence describes increased tolerance of a drug combined with a physical need of the drug to function. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Denaturants for sympathomimetic amine salts - Patent 6359011 (7287 words)
The interference with the separation is predominately due to the inability of the sympathomimetic amine to be physically isolated from the composition.
Sympathomimetic amines are compounds that cause vasoconstriction in the vascular bed of the nasal mucosa resulting in a shrinking of the engorged mucous membranes.
The amount of inhibitor needed to effectively interfere with the isolation of the sympathomimetic amine and the conversion of the sympathomimetic amine to another pharmacologically active compound from a composition is dependent upon the size of the unit dose.
Denaturants for sympathomimetic amine salts invention (2720 words)
[0002] The present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising a sympathomimetic amine salt and at least one combination inhibitor, the combination inhibitor which acts both to interfere with the isolation of the sympathomimetic amine from the composition and to interfere with the conversion of the sympathomimetic amine to another pharmacologically active compound.
[0018] For the purposes of this invention, the term "combination inhibitor" refers to a component of a composition which both interferes with the isolation of a sympathomimetic amine from the composition and interferes with the conversion of the sympathomimetic amine to another pharmacologically active compound.
[0020] A "separation inhibitor" in the instant invention is a component of a composition that primarily interferes with the separation of the sympathomimetic amine from the composition.
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