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Encyclopedia > Sympathetic trunk
Nerve: Sympathetic trunk
Abdominal portion of the sympathetic trunk, with the celiac plexus and hypogastric plexus. (Sympathetic trunk labeled at center left.)
Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve. 1. Somatic efferent. 2. Somatic afferent. 3,4,5. Sympathetic efferent. 6,7. Sympathetic afferent.
Latin truncus sympathicus
Gray's subject #214 976
Dorlands/Elsevier t_20/12826120

The sympathetic trunk (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) is a bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the skull to the coccyx. There are two sympathetic trunks in the body, a right one and a left one. The solar plexus, also known as the celiac plexus or plexus cœliacus, is an autonomous cluster of nerve cells (see Plexus) in the human body behind the stomach and below the diaphragm near the celiac artery in the abdominal cavity. ... The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... A hippopotamus skull A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure of Craniates which serves as the general framework for a head. ... The coccyx is formed of four fused vertebrae. ...

Contents


Structure

Trunk

The sympathetic trunk travels inferiorly from the skull, just lateral to the vertebral bodies. It interacts with the spinal nerves or their ventral root by way of rami communicantes. The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ...


The superior end of it is continued upward through the carotid canal into the skull, and forms a plexus on the internal carotid artery; the inferior part travels in front of the coccyx, where it converges with the other trunk at a structure known as the ganglion impar. On the interior surface of the temporal bone, behind the rough surface of the apex, is the large circular aperture of the carotid canal, which ascends at first vertically, and then, making a bend, runs horizontally forward and medialward; it transmits into the cranium the internal carotid artery, and the... PLEXUS (Physics Learning EXperience Using Software) is a name of project that was started by Vibor Cipan, physics student form Croatia and it is based on utilization of usage of computer technology to enhance learning of physics. ... The carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that supplies blood to the head and neck. ... The coccyx is formed of four fused vertebrae. ...


Paravertebral ganglia

Along the length of the sympathetic trunk are ganglia known as paravertebral ganglia (ganglia trunci sympathici). The ganglia are distinguished as cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral and, except in the neck, they closely correspond in number to the vertebrae. GÃ…NGLÃŽÃ… is a 1 man electronic grindcore band from Los Angeles California that began in August of 1999. ... In anatomy, cervical is an adjective that has two meanings: of or pertaining to the neck. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body, that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... In anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum (pelvis). ... Sacrum, pelvic surface The sacrum (os sacrum) is a large, triangular bone at the base of the vertebral column and at the upper and back part of the pelvic cavity, where it is inserted like a wedge between the two hip bones. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ...


They are arranged thus:


Cervical portion: 3 ganglia

The cervical portion usually has three ganglia, although the inferior ganglion may be fused with the first thoracic ganglion to form a single structure, the stellate ganglion. GÃ…NGLÃŽÃ… is a 1 man electronic grindcore band from Los Angeles California that began in August of 1999. ... The stellate ganglion is a ganglion formed by the fusion of inferior cervical ganglion and the first paravertebral ganglion. ...


Nerves emerging from cervical sympathetic ganglia contribute to the cardiac plexus, among other things.


Thoracic portion: 12 ganglia

The thoracic portion typically has 12 ganglia. Emerging from the ganglia are thoracic splancic nerves (the greater, lesser, and least splanchic nerves) that help provide sympathetic innervation to abdominal structures.


Also, the ganglia of the thoracic sympathetic trunk have both white and gray rami communicantes. The white rami carry sympathetic fibers arising in the spinal cord into the sympathetic trunk. The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ...


Lumbar portion: 4 ganglia

The lumbar portion typically has 4 ganglia. The lumbar splanchnic nerves arise from the ganglia here, and contribute sympathetic efferent fibers to the nearby plexuses.


The first two lumbar ganglia have both white and gray rami communicantes.


Sacral portion: 4 or 5 ganglia

As the sympathetic trunk heads inferiorly down the sacram, it turns medially. There are generally four or five ganglia. In addition to gray rami communicantes, the ganglia send off sacral splanchnic nerves to join the inferior hypogastric plexus.


Near the coccyx, the right and left sympathetic trunks join to form the ganglion impar.


Function

The sympathetic trunk is a fundamental part of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. It allows nerve fibers to travel to spinal nerves that are superior and inferior to the one in which it originated. Also, a number of nerves, such as most of the splanchnic nerves, arise directly from the trunks. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The splanchnic nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system. ...


See also

The splanchnic nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system. ... The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

External links

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... GPnotebook is a British medical database for general practitioners (GPs. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... UM also has campuses in Dearborn and Flint. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

Autonomic nervous system

preganglionic fibers - postganglionic fibers This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


sympathetic nervous system: sympathetic trunks (white ramus communicans, gray ramus communicans) - collateral ganglia
cavernous plexus - cervical ganglia: (superior, middle, inferior) - splanchnic nerves: (thoracic, lumbar, sacral) - ganglion impar Grays FIG. 838– The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. ... Each spinal nerve receives a branch, gray ramus communicans, from the adjacent ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. ... Collateral Ganglia lie between the sympathetic chain and the organ of supply. ... The superior cervical ganglion, the largest of the cervical ganglia, is placed opposite the second and third cervical vertebræ. It is of a reddish-gray color, and usually fusiform in shape; sometimes broad and flattened, and occasionally constricted at intervals; it is believed to be formed by the coalescence of...


internal carotid - cardiac


celiac: celiac ganglia - aorticorenal - renal - spermatic/ovarian - superior mesenteric - aortic plexus - inferior mesenteric - hepatic - splenic - gastric - pancreatic - suprarenal The solar plexus, also known as the celiac plexus or plexus cœliacus, is an autonomous cluster of nerve cells (see Plexus) in the human body behind the stomach and below the diaphragm near the celiac artery in the abdominal cavity. ... The superior gastric plexus (gastric or coronary plexus) accompanies the left gastric artery along the lesser curvature of the stomach, and joins with branches from the left vagus. ...


hypogastric: superior hypogastric - inferior hypogastric - vesical - prostatic - uterovaginal


parasympathetic nervous system: ciliary ganglion (short ciliary nerves) - pterygopalatine ganglion (nerve of pterygoid canal) - submandibular ganglion - otic ganglion - pelvic splanchnic It has been suggested that Parasympatholytic be merged into this article or section. ... The ciliary ganglion is small parasympathetic ganglion lying in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle that is associated with the nasociliary nerve (a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve). ... The branches of the ciliary ganglion are the short ciliary nerves. ... The sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the spheno-maxillary fossa. ... The nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve), formed by the junction of the great petrosal nerve and the deep petrosal nerve in the cartilaginous substance which fills the foramen lacerum, passes forward, through the pterygoid canal, with the corresponding artery, and is joined by a small ascending sphenoidal branch... The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is of small size and is fusiform in shape. ... The Otic Ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale. ...

Spinal cord

epidural space, dura mater, subdural space, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, pia mater, denticulate ligaments, conus medullaris, cauda equina, filum terminale, cervical enlargement, lumbar enlargement, anterior median fissure, dorsal root, dorsal root ganglion, dorsal ramus, ventral root, ventral ramus, sympathetic trunk, gray ramus communicans, white ramus communicans The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The epidural space is a part of the human spine which is very close to the spinal cord, lying just outside the dura mater. ... The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ... The Cavum Subdurale (subdural space) is an artificial space created by the separation of the arachnoid mater from the dura mater as the result of trauma or pathologic process. ... The Arachnoid mater is one of the three layers of the meninges, interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater and separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that contain the brain. ... The pia mater (Latin: tender mother, itself a translation from Arabic) is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges - the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. ... The pia mater has 21 pairs of denticulate ligaments which attach it to the arachnoid and dura maters. ... The conus medullaris is the terminal end of the spinal cord. ... The cauda equina is a structure within the lower end of the spinal column, that consists of nerve roots and rootlets from above. ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... The cervical enlargement corresponds with the attachments of the large nerves which supply the upper limbs. ... The lumbar enlargement (or lumbosacral enlargement) gives attachment to the nerves which supply the lower limbs. ... Anterior median fissure can refer to: Anterior median fissure of the spinal cord Anterior median fissure of the medulla oblongata Category: ... penis ... This is a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from a chicken embryo (around stage of day 7) after incubation overnight in NGF growth medium stained with anti-neurofilament antibody. ... The posterior (or dorsal) branches (or divisions) of the spinal nerves are as a rule smaller than the anterior divisions. ... In anatomy and neurology, the ventral root is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve. ... Each spinal nerve receives a branch, gray ramus communicans, from the adjacent ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. ...


grey matter: central canal, substantia gelatinosa of Rolando, reticular formation, substantia gelatinosa centralis, interneuron, anterior horn, lateral horn, posterior horn (column of Clarke, dorsal spinocerebellar tract) Grey matter is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of nerve cell bodies and short nerve cell extensions/processes (axons and dendrites). ... Cross-section through cervical spinal cord. ... The apex of the posterior column is capped by a V-shaped or crescentic mass of translucent, gelatinous neuroglia, termed the substantia gelatinosa of Rolando (or gelatinous substance of posterior horn of spinal cord), which contains both neuroglia cells, and small nerve cells. ... Reticular formation is a part of the brain which is involved in stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, and lying down. ... Throughout the cervical and thoracic regions the central canal is situated in the anterior third of the medulla spinalis; in the lumbar enlargement it is near the middle, and in the conus medullaris it approaches the posterior surface. ... An interneuron (also called relay neuron or association neuron) is a neuron that communicates only to other neurons. ... The anterior horn of the spinal cord (or anterior cornu, or anterior column) is the ventral (front) grey matter section of the spinal cord. ... In the thoracic region, the postero-lateral part of the anterior column projects lateralward as a triangular field, which is named the lateral column (lateral cornu, lateral horn). ... The posterior horn of the spinal cord is dorsal(more towards the back) to the anterior horn. ... The dorsal nucleus (column of Clarke, Clarkes columns, posterior thoracic nucleus) occupies the medial part of the base of the posterior column, and appears on the transverse section as a well-defined oval area. ... The dorsal spinocerebellar tract conveys proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebellum. ...


white matter: anterior funiculus: descending (anterior corticospinal tract, vestibulospinal fasciculus, tectospinal tract), ascending (anterior spinothalamic tract, anterior proper fasciculus) White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... The most lateral of the bundles of the anterior nerve roots is generally taken as a dividing line which separates the antero-lateral region into two parts, viz. ... The anterior corticospinal tract (also called the direct pyramidal tract or anterior cerebrospinal fasciculus) is a small bundle of descending fibers that connect the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. ... The tectospinal tract is part of the indirect extrapyramidal tract and is responsible for coordinating head and eye movements, It is responsible for impulses that are motor. ... The spinothalamic tract is the sensory pathway in the body that transmits pain, temperature, itch and crude touch. ... The remaining fibers of the anterior funiculus constitute what is termed the anterior proper fasciculus (anterior basis bundle). ...


lateral funiculus: descending (lateral corticospinal tract, rubrospinal tract, olivospinal tract), ascending dorsal spinocerebellar tract, ventral spinocerebellar tract, spinothalamic tract, lateral spinothalamic tract, anterior spinothalamic tract, spinotectal tract, posterolateral tract, lateral proper fasciculus, medial longitudinal fasciculus The most lateral of the bundles of the anteior nerve roots is generally taken as a dividing line which separates the antero-lateral region into two parts, viz. ... The corticospinal or pyramidal tract is a massive collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain and the spinal cord. ... The rubrospinal tract is part of the indirect extra-pyramidal tract and is responsible for large muscle movement such as the arms and the legs. ... The olivospinal fasciculus (Helweg) arises in the vicinity of the inferior olivary nucleus in the medulla oblongata, and is seen only in the cervical region of the medulla spinalis, where it forms a small triangular area at the periphery, close to the most lateral of the anterior nerve roots. ... The dorsal spinocerebellar tract conveys proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebellum. ... The ventral spinocerebellar tract conveys proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebellum. ... The spinothalamic tract is the sensory pathway in the body that transmits pain, temperature, itch and crude touch. ... The spinothalamic tract is the sensory pathway in the body that transmits pain, temperature, itch and crude touch. ... The spinothalamic tract is the sensory pathway in the body that transmits pain, temperature, itch and crude touch. ... The spinotectal tract (spinotectal fasciculus) is supposed to arise in the dorsal column and terminate in the inferior and superior colliculi. ... The posterolateral tract (fasciculus of Lissauer, tract of Lissauer) is a small strand situated in relation to the tip of the posterior column close to the entrance of the posterior nerve roots. ... The lateral proper fasciculus (lateral basis bundle) constitutes the remainder of the lateral column, and is continuous in front with the anterior proper fasciculus. ... The medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is a group of axons on each side of the brainstem, that carry information about the direction that the eyes should move. ...


posterior funiculus: fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus, posterior proper fasciculus The portion of the medulla spinalis which lies between the posterolateral sulcus and the posterior median sulcus is named the posterior funiculus. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The fasciculus cuneatus (tract of Burdach) is triangular on transverse section, and lies between the fasciculus gracilis and the posterior column, its base corresponding with the surface of the medulla spinalis. ... The posterior proper fasciculus (posterior ground bundle; posterior basis bundle) arises from cells in the posterior column; their axons bifurcate into ascending and descending branches which occupy the ventral part of the funiculus close to the gray column. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Autonomic nervous system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3024 words)
The Sympathetic Afferent Fibers of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve are supposed to arise either in the dorsal nucleus (nucleus ala cinerea) or in a distinct nucleus, the inferior salivatory nucleus, situated near the dorsal nucleus.
Sympathetic Afferent Fibers, whose cells of origin lie in the superior or inferior ganglion of the trunk, are supposed to terminate in the dorsal nucleus.
The Sympathetic Efferent Fibers of the Vagus Nerve are supposed to arise in the dorsal nucleus (nucleus ala cinerea).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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