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Encyclopedia > Symon Petlura
Head Otaman Symon Petlura

Symon Petlura (Ukrainian: Симон Петлюра (Simon Petljura); in English, also occasionally spelled "Simon Petliura" or "Petlyura"; May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a publicist, writer, journalist, Ukrainian politician and statesman, a leader of Ukraine's unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 436 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 879 pixel, file size: 671 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Symon Petlura Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 436 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 879 pixel, file size: 671 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Symon Petlura Metadata This file contains... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


During the Russian Civil War, he was briefly Head of the Ukrainian State. In 1926 Petlura was assassinated in Paris. Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...

Contents

Biography

Symon Petlura.
Symon Petlura.

Petlura was born in Poltava, the son of Vasyl' Petlura and Olha Marchenko, urban dwellers of Cossack background. His initial education was obtained in church schools and he initially planned to become an orthodox priest. In 1895 he studied for the priesthood at the Poltava Orthodox Seminary. In 1898 he joined a secret Ukrainian society within the confines of the Orthodox Seminary. When this was discovered he was expelled from the seminary in 1901. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Poltava highlighted. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Poltava highlighted. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1900 while in the Poltava Seminary he joined the Ukrainian Revolutionary Party (RUP). In 1902 under the threat of arrest he moved to Yekaterinodar in the Kuban where he worked as a school teacher and later worked in the archives of the Kuban Cossack Host. In December 1903 he was arrested for organizing a branch of RUP in Yekaterinodar and for publishing inflammatory anti-tsarist articles in the foreign press outside of Russia. He was released in March 1904 moving briefly to Kiev and then emigrating to the Western Ukrainian city of Lviv (then Lemberg) which was then part of Austria-Hungary. Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... 19th century photo depicting Kuban Cossacks obelisk in Krasnodar Krasnodar (Russian: ) is a city in Southern Russia on the Kuban River. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... Russian Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские козаки, Kubanskie Kozaki) were cossacks that settled in the region around the Kuban River protected the southern borders of the Russian Empire. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Location Map of Ukraine with Lviv. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


After amnesty was declared at the end of 1905 he returned briefly to Kiev and then moved to the Russian capital of Petersburg in order to publish a monthly magazine with a Socialist-democratic leaning called "Vilna Ukrayina" (Free Ukraine). After the closing of this magazine in July 1905 he moved back to Kiev where he worked in the magazine "Rada" (Council). From 1907-1909 he became the editor of the magazine "Slovo" and also a co-editor of the magazine "Ukraina". Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


With the closure of these journals by the Russian Imperial authorities Petlura was forced to move to Moscow in 1909, where he worked briefly as an accountant. There he married Olha Bilska. From 1912 he was a co-editor of the Russian language journal "Ukrainskaya zhizn'" (Ukrainian life) which he continued to edit till 1917. Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


The Revolution in Ukraine

Symon Petlura
General Listowski and Symon Petlura
General Listowski and Symon Petlura

As a delegate to the first All-Ukrainian Army Congress in Kiev in May 1917 he was elected head of the Ukrainian General Army Committee. With the proclamation of the Ukrainian Central Council (28.06.1917) he became the first secretary for military matters. Disagreeing with the politics of the Head of the General Secretariat Volodymyr Vynnychenko he left the government and organized the "Haydamaka Regiment of Sloboda Ukraina" which in January-February was successful in stopping Bolshevik aggression in Kiev. Image File history File links Symon_Petliura. ... Image File history File links Symon_Petliura. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Central Rada or Tsentralna Rada (Ukrainian: ) was a representative body formed in 1917 in Kiev (Kyiv) to govern the Ukrainian Peoples Republic— which was first an autonomous polity and then later a fully independent state. ... Volodymyr Vynnychenko (Ukrainian: Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko) (July 26 [O.S. July 14] 1880 – March 6, 1951) was a Ukrainian politician, statesman, and writer. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


After the Hetmanate Putsch (28.04.1918) he was arrested administration and spent 4 months incarcerated in Bila Tserkva. The Hetmanate (Ukrainian: , Het’manat) was a short-lived provisional government of Ukraine, installed by Germany after disbanding the Central Rada of the Ukrainian National Republic in 1918. ... Location Government Country Oblast Raion Ukraine Kiev Oblast Bila Tserkva City Municipality Founded 1032 Magdeburg Rights 1589 Head of City Council Vasyl Savchuk Geographical characteristics Area  - City 34 km² Population  - City (01-01-2004) 203,300 Coordinates Other Information Postal Code 09100-09117 Dialing Code +380 4463 Sister cities Barysaw...


After being released, he participated in the anti-Hetmanate putsch and became a member of the Directorate of Ukraine as the Chief of Military Forces. With the fall of Kiev and the emigration of Vynnychenko from Ukraine, Petlura became the leader of the Directorate. In his capacity as head of the Army and State he continued to fight both Red and White Russian aggression in Ukraine for 10 months. The Directorate, or Directory (Директория, Dyrektoriya), was a government of the Ukrainian National Republic formed in 1918 in rebellion against Skoropadskys Hetmanate. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... White Army redirects here. ...


In January 1919, on the outbreak of war between Ukraine and Soviet Russia, he became the leading figure in the Directorate. In the Russian Civil War, he fought against the Bolsheviks, Anton Denikin's White Russians, the Germans, Pavlo Skoropadsky's Ukrainians, Poles and Romanians. In late 1918 Ukraine was occupied by White Russian forces, but by autumn 1919 most of the Whites were defeated but in the meantime the Soviets had become the dominant force in Ukraine. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... General Anton Denikins Volunteer Army and regional Armed forces after Armistice of Mudros Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 – August 8, 1947) was Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and one of the foremost leading generals of the anti-Bolshevik White Russians in the civil war. ... The term White Russian may refer to: A member of the White movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. ... Pavlo Skoropadsky Pavlo Skoropadsky (Ukrainian: Павло Скоропадський, also spelled Pavel Skoropadsky or Skoropadski, born: May 3, 1873, in Wiesbaden, Germany, died: April 26, 1945, Metten monastery clinic, Bavaria, Germany) was a Ukrainian politician. ... The term White Russian may refer to: A member of the White movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


By the end of 1919, Petlura withdrew to Poland, which recognized him as the head of the legal government of Ukraine. In March 1920, as head of the Ukrainian People's Republic, he signed an alliance in Lublin with the Polish government, agreeing to a border on the River Zbruch and recognizing Poland's right to Lviv and Galicia in exchange for Polish help in overthrowing the Bolshevik regime. In 1920, Polish forces, reinforced by Petlura's remaining troops (some 2 divisions), attacked Kiev in a turning point of the Polish-Bolshevik war (1919-1921) (7.5.1920). Following temporary successes, Piłsudski's and Petlura's forces were pushed back to the Vistula River and the Polish capital, Warsaw. The Polish Army managed to defeat the Bolshevik Russians, but were unable to secure independence for Ukraine, which after the Peace of Riga was divided between Poland and Soviet Russia. Petlura directed the Ukrainian government-in-exile from Tarnów and, later, Warsaw. In October Petlura and his forces were interned by the Poles in Kalisz. Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... Zbruch River (Ukrainian: Збруч) is a river in Western Ukraine (length: 247 km, basin: 3330 sq. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Location Map of Ukraine with Lviv. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Kiev Offensive (1920) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date April-June, 1920 Place Ukraine Result inconclusive The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an important military operation, carried out by Polish Army and allied Ukrainian forces during the Polish-Bolshevik War, from April 1920 to June of the same year. ... Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919–1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War (also known as the Polish-Bolshevik War or the Polish-Russian War) was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays... Vistula river basin Vistula (Polish Wisła), is the longest river in Poland. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... Tarnów is a city in south-eastern Poland with 121,500 inhabitants (1995). ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ...


With persistent demands by Bolshevik Russia to hand over Petlura in late 1923 Petlura, under an assumed name, escaped from Poland, traveling initially to Budapest, then Vienna, Geneva and finally settling settled in Paris in 1924. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Italy (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Paris and Emigration

In Paris Petlura directed the activities of the government of the Ukrainian National Republic in exile. He launched a weekly paper "Tryzub" (Trident) and continued to edit and write numerous articles under various pen names with an emphasis on questions dealing with national oppression in Ukraine. These articles were written with a literary flare. The National question was of significant importance in his literary articles and criticism.


His articles had a significant impact on shaping Ukrainian national awareness. He published articles and brochures under a variety of nom-de-plumes such as V. Marchenko, V. Salevsky, I. Rokytsky, O. Riastr as well as other pseudonyms.[1]


Role in pogroms

During Petlura's term as Head of State, pogroms continued on Ukrainian territory. Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ...


At that time it is estimated that a third of Europe's Jewry lived within ethnic borders of Ukraine in the Pale of Settlement. During the Russian Civil War, an estimated 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire. In Ukraine itself, the estimates of civilian Jews killed range from 35,000 to 50,000 during the period 1919-20. History of the Jews in Ukraine // Kievan Rus’ Main article: Kievan Rus’ Halych-Volynia Main article: Halych-Volynia 14th Century Main article: 14th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in the 10th century through the creation of the Polish... Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Some historians suggest that Petlura did not do enough to stop the pogroms, and in this way encouraged them as a means to strengthen his base of support among his soldiers, commanders and the peasant population at large, by appealing to antisemitic sentiments. [2] The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards or prejudice against Jews (not, in common usage, Semites in general — see the Scope section below). ...


Yuri Finkelshtein has published an excellent book on antisemitic massacres of Petlura's army[3]. He gives much a much greater number of Jewish civilians killed: 500,000 form Petlura's army alone. He puts on Petlura responsibility for doing nothing about the pogroms, provides strong evidence to show shows how consistently avoided any efforts to stop the massacres, tells about the "Whites" of Denikin who were almost as bloody as Petlura, as well as of other armies (the "Reds", Mahno) who took a different course. He argues that Petlura originally was not an antisemite, but became one because he lacked the guts to oppose extremely strong antisemitism in his army. Unfortunately, the book is available only in Russian.


Petlura's supporters on the other hand have claimed that Petlura himself was not an anti-Semite, and that he tried to stop anti-Jewish violence on numerous occasions and by finally introducing capital punishment for the crime of pogroming. [4] [5] Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku Klux Klan National Party (South Africa) American Nazi Party Kahanism · Supremacism Anti...


Assassination

Ukrainian President Victor Yushchenko and his wife laying flowers at Symon Petlura's grave in Paris 2005
Ukrainian President Victor Yushchenko and his wife laying flowers at Symon Petlura's grave in Paris 2005

On May 25, 1926, while window shopping along a Paris boulevard, Petlura was approached by a Jewish anarchist Sholom Schwartzbard who pulled out a gun, and shot him three times. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Shopping is the purchase of goods and services from retailers. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Sholom Schwartzbard (1886-1938) was an anarchist and political assassin, who was acquitted by a French jury of the assassination of Symon Petlura. ...


Schwartzbald's parents were among 15 members of his family murdered in the Russian pogroms. The core of his defence was—as presented by barrister Henri Torrès—that he was avenging the deaths of victims of the pogroms. This premise found favour with the French jury, which acquitted him. // Artists impression of an English barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ...


Petlura is buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris, France. The Cimetière du Montparnasse is a famous cemetery in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, France. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


His two sisters, who were Orthodox nuns, and who had remained in Poltava, were arrested and shot by the NKVD in 1928. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...


Notes

  1. ^ *Encyclopedia of Ukraine - Paris-New York 1970, Volume 6, (p.2029-2030)
  2. ^ See Friedman, Saul S.. Pogromchik: The Assassination of Simon Petlura. New York : Hart Pub, 1976.
  3. ^ Юрий Финкельштейн. …За дела рук своих: Загадка Симона Петлюры или парадокс антисемитизма. N-Y., Слово-World, 1995.
  4. ^ Symon Petlura. Against pogrom. The Appeal to Ukrainian Army.
  5. ^ Symon Petlura. The Articles, letter, the documents. 2006. - Т. IV. - 704 s. ISBN 966-2911-00-6

Sources

  • Encyclopedia of Ukraine - Paris-New York 1970, Volume 6, (p.2029-2030)

External links

English
Non-English
  • "Unknown Symon Petliura: history of an interview," Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly), July 7-13, 2001. Available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.
  • "A Belated Idealist," Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly), May 22-28, 2004. Available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.
  • "Symon Petliura as opponent of Jewish pogroms," Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly), July 25-31, 1996. Available online in Russian.

  Results from FactBites:
 
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Sholom Schwartzbard (328 words)
In 1926 he assassinated Symon Petlura, the head of the government-in-exile of Ukrainian People's Republic in Paris.
In 1917, while travelling to Odessa to join the Red Guard, he reportedly was told of Petlura's responsibility for pogroms in the Ukraine, a widely held belief among Jews at the time.
After the assassination of Petlura, Schwartzbard was arrested and his trial began on October 18, 1927.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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