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Encyclopedia > Symbiosis
An example of mutual symbiosis is the relationship between Ocellaris clownfish that dwell among the tentacles of Ritteri sea anemones. The territorial fish protects the anemone from anemone-eating fish, and in turn the stinging tentacles of the anemone protect the clownfish from its predators (a special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging tentacles).
An example of mutual symbiosis is the relationship between Ocellaris clownfish that dwell among the tentacles of Ritteri sea anemones. The territorial fish protects the anemone from anemone-eating fish, and in turn the stinging tentacles of the anemone protect the clownfish from its predators (a special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging tentacles).[1]

The term symbiosis (from the Greek: συμ, sym, "with"; and βίοσίς, biosis, "living") can be used to describe various degrees of close relationship between organisms of different species. The term was first used in 1879 by the German mycologist, Heinrich Anton de Bary, who defined it as: "the living together of unlike organisms".[2][3] Symbiosis can refer to: Symbiosis in ecology Symbiosis (movie) a film. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name (Lacépède, 1802) The Ocellaris clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) or false Percula clownfish is a popular aquarium fish. ... Tentacles can refer to the elongated flexible organs that are present in some animals, especially invertebrates, and sometimes to the hairs of the leaves of some insectivorous plants. ... Binomial name Heteractis magnifica (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) Heteractis magnifica (known variously as magnificent sea anemone or Ritteri anemone) is a species of sea anemone that lives in the Indo-Pacific area, and can grow up to 1 metre (3 feet) in diameter in the wild. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... // For eat or EAT as an abbreviation or acronym, see EAT. In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming nutrition, i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Venom. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of the mucous membranes in the body. ... This is a list of English prepositions. ... Look up living in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mycology is the study of fungi, their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source for medicinals (see penicillin) and food (beer, wine, cheese, edible mushrooms), as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. ... Anton de Bary Heinrich Anton de Bary (January 26, 1831 - January 19, 1888) was a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist (fungal systematics and physiology). ...


There is no single universally agreed upon definition of symbiosis. Some define symbiosis in the sense that De Bary intended, describing a close relationship between organisms in which the outcome for each is highly dependent upon the other. The relationship may be categorized as mutualism, parasitism, commensalism, or any biological interaction in which at least one organism benefits. Others define it more narrowly, as only those relationships from which both organisms benefit, in which case it would be synonymous with mutualism.[4][5][6] In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope (LTSEM) image of Varroa destructor on a honey bee host Mites parasitising a harvestman Parasitism is one version of symbiosis (living together), a phenomenon in which two organisms which are phylogenetically unrelated co-exist over a prolonged period of time, usually the lifetime of one... Commensalism is a term employed in ecology to describe a relationship between two living organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped. ... Biological interactions result from the fact that organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other, in the natural world, no organism is an autonomous entity isolated from its surroundings. ...


Symbiotic relationships may involve an organism living on another (ectosymbiosis), inside another (endosymbiosis), or organisms related by mutual stereotypic behaviours. Further, symbiotic relationships, may be either obligate, which is to say necessary to the survival of at least one organism, or facultative, where the relationship is useful but not vital.[7][8] Ectosymbiosis is symbiosis in which the symbiont lives on the body surface of the host, including internal surfaces such as the lining of the digestive tube and the ducts of glands. ... An endosymbiont (also known as intracellular symbiont) is any organism that lives within cells of another organism, i. ...

Contents

Physical interaction

Endosymbiosis is any symbiotic relationship in which the symbiont lives within the tissues of the host; either in the intracellular space or extracellularly.[9][10] Examples are nitrogen-fixing bacteria (called rhizobia) which live in root nodules on legume roots, single-celled algae inside reef-building corals, and bacterial endosymbionts that provide essential nutrients to about 10%–15% of insects. An endosymbiont (also known as intracellular symbiont) is any organism that lives within cells of another organism, i. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Soybean root nodules, each containing billions of Bradyrhizobium bacteria Rhizobia (from the Greek words riza = root and bios = Life) are soil bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophy) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). ... Root nodules occur on the roots of plants that associate with symbiotic bacteria. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... A coral reef can be an oasis of marine life. ...


Ectosymbiosis, also referred to as exosymbiosis, is any symbiotic relationship in which the symbiont lives on the body surface of the host, including the inner surface of the digestive tract or the ducts of exocrine glands.[11][12] Examples of this include ectoparasites such as lice, commensal ectosymbionts, such as the barnacles that attach themselves to the jaw of baleen whales, and mutualist ectosymbionts such as cleaner fish. Ectosymbiosis is symbiosis in which the symbiont lives on the body surface of the host, including internal surfaces such as the lining of the digestive tube and the ducts of glands. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Exocrine gland refers to glands that secrete their products via a duct. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... Commensalism is a term employed in ecology to describe a relationship between two living organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped. ... Orders Ascothoracica Acrothoracica Thoracica Rhizocephala A barnacle is a type of arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea and is hence distantly related to crabs and lobsters. ... Families Balaenidae Balaenopteridae Eschrichtiidae Neobalaenidae Scientifically known as the Mysticeti, the baleen whales, also called whalebone whales or great whales, form a suborder of the order cetacea. ... Mutualism is an economic theory based on a labor theory of value that advocates that equal amounts of labor should receive equal pay. ... The cleaner wrasses Labroides dimidiatus removing dead skin and external parasites from the grouper Epinephelus tukula. ...


Mutualism

Main article: Mutualism
Some goby fish species live in symbiosis with a shrimp. The shrimp digs and cleans a burrow, which it shares with the fish,whose movements alert it to predators.
Some goby fish species live in symbiosis with a shrimp. The shrimp digs and cleans a burrow, which it shares with the fish,whose movements alert it to predators.

The term Mutualism describes any relationship between individuals of different species where both individuals derive a fitness benefit.[13] Generally only lifelong interactions involving close physical and biochemical contact, can properly be considered symbiotic. Mutualistic relationships, may be either obligate for both species, obligate for one but facultative for the other, or facultative for both. Many biologist restrict the definition of symbiosis to close mutualist relationships. In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gobie_and_Shrimp. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gobie_and_Shrimp. ... Subfamilies Amblyopinae Gobiinae Gobionellinae Oxudercinae Sicydiinae See also list of Gobiidae genera The gobies form the family Gobiidae, which is one of the largest families of fish, with more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera. ... Binomial name Miya & Miyake, 1969 The tiger pistol shrimp (Alpheus bellulus) is a species of snapping shrimp also called symbiosis shrimp. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ...


A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut fauna that help them digest plant matter, which is more difficult to digest than animal prey.[14] Coral reefs are the result of mutualisms between coral organisms and various types of algae that live inside them.[15] Most land plants and land ecosystems rely on mutualisms between the plants which fix carbon from the air, and Mycorrhyzal fungi which help in extracting minerals from the ground.[16] In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Carbon fixation is a process found in autotrophs, usually driven by photosynthesis, whereby carbon dioxide is converted into organic compounds. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ...


Another example is the goby fish, which sometimes lives together with a shrimp. The shrimp digs and cleans up a burrow in the sand in which both the shrimp and the goby fish live. The shrimp is almost blind leaving it vulnerable to predators when above ground. In case of danger the goby fish touches the shrimp with its tail to warn it. When that happens both the shrimp and goby fish quickly retract into the burrow.[17] Subfamilies Amblyopinae Gobiinae Gobionellinae Oxudercinae Sicydiinae See also list of Gobiidae genera The gobies form the family Gobiidae, which is one of the largest families of fish, with more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ...


One of the most spectacular examples of obligate mutualism is between the siboglinid tube worms and symbiotic bacteria that live at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. The worm has no digestive tract and is solely reliant on their internal symbionts for nutrition. The bacteria oxidize either hydrogen sulfide or methane which the host supplies to them. These worms were discovered in the late 1980s at the hydrothermal vents near the Galapagos Islands and have since been found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in all of the world's oceans.[18] Genera Birsteinia Choanophorus Cyclobrachia Lamellibrachia Lamellisabella Osedax Paraescarpia Ridgeia Riftia Siboglinoides Siboglinum Volvobrachia . ... The name tube worm describes several groups of marine worms that secrete tubes which they then inhabit, emerging to filter feed. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Hydrothermal vents are fissures in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... Tubeworms, soft corals and chemosynthetic mussels at a seep located 3,000 metres down on the Florida Escarpment. ... The term deep sea refers to those areas of oceans to which little or no light penetrates (the aphotic zone). ...

Commensalism

Main article: Commensalism

Commensalism describes a relationship between two living organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped. It is derived from the English word commensal, meaning the sharing of food, and used of human social interaction. The word derives from the Latin com mensa, meaning sharing a table.[19][20] Commensalism is a term employed in ecology to describe a relationship between two living organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped. ... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ...


Commensal relationships may involve an organism using another for transportation (phoresy), for housing (inquilinism), or it may also involve an organism using something another created, after the death of the first (metabiosis). An example is the hermit crabs that use gastropod shells to protect their bodies. Another example is when spiders create their webs on trees. In ecology, commensalism is an interaction between two living organisms, where one creature benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped. ... In zoology, an inquiline is an animal that lives commensally in the nest, burrow, or dwelling place of an animal of another species. ... In ecology, commensalism is an interaction between two living organisms, where one creature benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped. ... Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infra-order Paguroidea, distinct from the true crabs in the infra-order Brachyura. ... Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class...


Parasitism

Main article: Parasitism

A parasitic relationship is one in which one member of the association benefits while the other is harmed.[21] Parasitic symbioses take many forms, from endoparasites that live within the host's body, to ectoparasites that live on its surface. In addition, parasites may be necrotrophic, which is to say they kill their host, or biotrophic, meaning they rely on their host surviving. Biotrophic parasitism is an extremely successful mode of life. Depending on the definition used, as many as half of all animals have at least one parasitic phase in their life cycles, and it is also frequent in plants and fungi. Moreover, almost all free-living animals are host to one or more parasite taxa. Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope (LTSEM) image of Varroa destructor on a honey bee host Mites parasitising a harvestman Parasitism is one version of symbiosis (living together), a phenomenon in which two organisms which are phylogenetically unrelated co-exist over a prolonged period of time, usually the lifetime of one... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...


Symbiosis and evolution

Leaf Hoppers protected by an army of meat ants
Leaf Hoppers protected by an army of meat ants

While historically, symbiosis has received less attention than other interactions such as predation or competition,[22] it is increasingly recognised as an important selective force behind evolution,[23][24] with many species having a long history of interdependent co-evolution.[25] In fact the evolution of all eukaryotes (plants, animals, fungi, protists) is believed to have resulted from a symbiosis between various sorts of bacteria.[26][27][28] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1067 × 1600 pixel, file size: 527 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Leaf Hopper nymph of the Common Jassid (Eurymela fenestrata). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1067 × 1600 pixel, file size: 527 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Leaf Hopper nymph of the Common Jassid (Eurymela fenestrata). ... genera: many hundreds including: Graminella Graphocephala Idiocerus Leafhopper is a common name applied to species from the family Cicadellidae. ... Binomial name Iridomyrmex golbachi Smith, 1858 Meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus), also known as meat-eater ants or gravel ants, are a species of ant belonging to the Iridomyrmex genus. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ... Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... It has been suggested that Proto-mitochondrion be merged into this article or section. ...


Symbiogenesis

The biologist Lynn Margulis, famous for the work on endosymbiosis, contends that symbiosis is a major driving force behind evolution. She considers Darwin's notion of evolution, driven by competition, as incomplete, and claims evolution is strongly based on co-operation, interaction, and mutual dependence among organisms. According to Margulis and Dorion Sagan, "Life did not take over the globe by combat, but by networking."[29] Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... An endosymbiont (also known as intracellular symbiont) is any organism that lives within cells of another organism, i. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Co-operation or co-operative behaviours are terms used to describe behaviours by biological organisms which are beneficial to other members of the same species. ... For other uses, see Interaction (disambiguation). ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... “Fights” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with social network services such as MySpace, etc. ...


Co-evolution

Symbiosis played a major role in the co-evolution of flowering plants and the animals that pollinate them. Many plants that are pollinated by insects, bats or birds, have very specialized flowers modified to promote pollination by a specific pollinator that is also correspondingly adapted. The first flowering plants in the fossil record had relatively simple flowers. Adaptive speciation quickly gave rise to many diverse groups of plants, and at the same time, corresponding speciation occurred in certain insects groups. Some groups of plants developed nectar and large sticky pollen while insects evolved more specialized morphologies to access and collect these rich food sources. In some taxa of plants and insects the relationship has become dependent,[30] where the plant species can only be pollinated by one species of insect. [31] Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ...


Objections

Creationists have long claimed that obligate symbioses are evidence against evolution, arguing that since neither organism can survive without the other, they must have come into existence at exactly the same time.[32] This simplistic point of view ignores the extreme variety of symbiotic relationships as well the mutability of species over time. Obligate mutualisms could easily evolve from facultative relationships in which neither species is fully committed. These arguments persist despite many examples of facultative symbioses and multiple theoretical and computational models describing how such a relationship would evolve.[33][34][35][36]


Notes

example: Parasitism: one kinds of parasitism is viruses that enter our cells and demolish the cells and make them disorganized to increase itself The bacteria of small intestine of cow body hydrolyze cellolose to glucose and make them comfortable that is called mutualism Vulture is an animal that use remainder of hunters food and its kind of commensialism The louse of head is a kind of parasitism that is useful for louse but its harmful for us


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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Talk. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ...

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Symbiosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (822 words)
Symbiosis (pl. symbioses)(from the Greek words syn = with/plus and bio = life) is an interaction between two organisms living together in more or less intimate association or even the merging of two dissimilar organisms.
An example of mutual symbiosis is the relationship between clownfish of the genus Amphiprion (family, Pomacentridae) that dwell among the tentacles of tropical sea anemones.
A famous land version of symbiosis is the relationship of the Egyptian Plover bird and the crocodile.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Symbiosis (2203 words)
Ectosymbiosis is symbiosis in which the symbiont lives on the body surface of the host, including internal surfaces such as the lining of the digestive tube and the ducts of glands.
Symbiosis (pl. symbioses) (from the Greek words syn = with/plus and bio = life) is an interaction between two organisms living together in more or less intimate association or even the merging of two dissimilar organisms.
The type of symbiosis known as commensalism is an association between two different kinds of nonparasitic animals, called commensals, that is harmless to both and in which one of the organism benefits.
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