FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Syed Ahmed Khan
South Asia
Modern era
Name: Syed Ahmed Khan
Birth: October 17, 1817
Death: March 27, 1898
School/tradition: Sunni; Mughal
Main interests: education, politics
Notable ideas: Aligarh Muslim University
Influences: Mughal Empire, Western education
Influenced: Muslim League

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Bahadur, GCSI (Urdu: سید احمد خان بہا در; October 17, 1817March 27, 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Indian educator and politician who pioneered modern education for the Muslim community in India by founding the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later developed into the Aligarh Muslim University. His work gave rise to a new generation of Muslim intellectuals and politicians who composed the Aligarh movement to secure the political future of Muslims in India. He was also a very polite man, who made sure he treated everyone with dignity. This article is about the geopolitical region in Asia. ... Image File history File links Sir_Syed1. ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in leap years). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sunni Muslims are by far the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University is located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... Diagram illustrating the English, Welsh and Northern Irish state schooling system (does not apply to independent schools) Education in the United Kingdom only gives an overview of the education system in the United Kingdom. ... Aga Khan III, one of the founders of the Muslim League Navin had a boner and put it in his mouth The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ) was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British... Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India. ... (اردو), historically spelled Ordu, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to Indo-European family of languages. ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in leap years). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Politics of India takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of India is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Islam is the second-largest religion in India (after Hinduism - 76. ... MAO College MAO College (or Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College) was founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the leader of Muslim renaissance in Indian subcontinent, in 1875 at Aligarh. ... Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University is located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Sir Syed, the founder of Aligarh movement Aligarh Movement, was the movement led by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, to educate the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent after their defeat in the freedom struggle of 1857. ...


Born into Mughal nobility, Sir Syed earned a reputation as a distinguished scholar while working as a jurist for the British East India Company. Personally affected by the turmoil of the Indian rebellion of 1857, he penned the booklet Asbab-e-Bhaghawath-e-Hind (The Causes of the Indian Mutiny) — a daring critique, at the time, of British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt. Believing that the future of Muslims was threatened by their orthodox nature and outlook, Sir Syed began promoting Western-style scientific education by founding modern schools and journals and organising Muslim intellectuals. Inspired by the functioning of British colleges, Sir Syed founded the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College in 1875 with the aim of promoting social and economic development of Indian Muslims. The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock company (preceded only by the Dutch East India Company) which was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a strictly British perspective. ... Diagram illustrating the English, Welsh and Northern Irish state schooling system (does not apply to independent schools) Education in the United Kingdom only gives an overview of the education system in the United Kingdom. ...


One of the most influential Muslim politicians of his time, Sir Syed was suspicious of the Indian independence movement and called upon Muslims to loyally serve the British Raj. He denounced nationalist organisations such as the Indian National Congress, instead forming organisations to promote Muslim unity and pro-British attitudes and activities. Sir Syed promoted the adoption of Urdu as the lingua franca of all Indian Muslims, and mentored a rising generation of Muslim politicians and intellectuals. Although hailed as a great Muslim leader and social reformer, Sir Syed remains the subject of controversy for his views on Hindu-Muslim issues. The Indian independence movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... The flag of British India Map of British India, 1855 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule from Sanskrit Rajya) refers to the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, or present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Myanmar, during the period whereby these lands were under... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party or Congress (I), abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Contents

Early life

See also: Timeline of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan's life

Syed Ahmed Khan Bahadur was born in Delhi, then the capital of the Mughal Empire. His family is said to have migrated from Herat (now in Afghanistan)[1] in the time of emperor Akbar, although by other accounts his family descended from Arabia.[2][3] Many generations of his family had since been highly connected with the Mughal administration. His maternal grandfather Khwaja Fariduddin served as wazir in the court of Akbar Shah II.[4] His paternal grandfather Syed Hadi held a mansab, a high-ranking administrative position and honorary name of Jawwad Ali Khan in the court of Alamgir II. Sir Syed's father Mir Muhammad Muttaqi was personally close to Akbar Shah II and served as his personal adviser.[5] However, Sir Syed was born at a time when rebellious governors, regional insurrections and the British colonialism had diminished the extent and power of the Mughal state, reducing its monarch to a figurehead status. With his elder brother Syed Muhammad Khan, Sir Syed was raised in a large house in a wealthy area of the city. They were raised in strict accordance with Mughal noble traditions and exposed to politics. Their mother Azis-un-Nisa played a formative role in Sir Syed's life, raising him with rigid discipline with a strong emphasis on education.[6] Sir Syed was taught to read and understand the Qur'an by a female tutor, which was unusual at the time. He received an education traditional to Muslim nobility in Delhi.[4] Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817 - 1898) Timeline of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, who was an Indian educationalist and politician who pioneered modern education for the Muslim community in India by founding the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College, which later developed into the Aligarh Muslim University. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... Court of the Friday Mosque in Herāt. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (Persian: جلال الدین محمد اکبر), (alternate spellings: Jellaladin, Celalettin) also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (October 15, 1542 – October 27, 1605) was the son of Nasiruddin Humayun whom he succeeded as ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1605. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... a potrait of Akbar II at Smithsonian Institute Akbar Shah II (1760 - 1837), also known as Mirza Akbar, was the second-to-last of the Mughal emperors of India. ... Mansabdar was the generic term for the military -type grading of all imperial officials of the Mughal empire. ... Alamgir II (عالمگير Û²) (1699 - 1759) was the Mughal emperor of India between 1754 and 1759. ... A figurehead is a person, usually in a political role, who may hold an important title or office yet executes little actual power. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Under the charge of Maulvi Hamiduddin, Sir Syed was trained in Persian, Arabic, Urdu and religious subjects. He read the works of Muslim scholars and writers such as Sahbai, Rumi and Ghalib.[6] Other tutors instructed him in mathematics, astronomy and Islamic jurisprudence.[7][4] Sir Syed was also adept at swimming, wrestling and other sports. He took an active part in the Mughal court's cultural activities. His elder brother founded the city's first printing press in the Urdu language along with the journal Sayyad-ul-Akbar.[6] Sir Syed pursued the study of medicine for several years, but did not complete the prescribed course of study.[4] Maulvi (also spelled: Moulvi, Mawlawi and Mawlvi Persian: مولوی) is an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names, similar to the titles Maulana, Mullah or Shaykh. ... Persian (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī ) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Mawlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī[2] (Persian: ‎ , Turkish: Mevlânâ Celâleddin Mehmed Rumi) , also known as Mawlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (Persian: ‎ ), but known to the English-speaking world simply as Rumi, (1207 — 1273 CE) was a 13th century Persian... Mirza Ghalib (1796-1869), One of the greatest Urdu poets Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan (Urdu/Persian: مرزا اسد اللہ خان ), pen-name Ghalib (Urdu/Persian: غالب, ġhālib) and Asad (former pen-name)(27 December 1796 — 15 February 1869), was a renowned classical Urdu and Persian poet of India. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Ulugh Beg, founder of a large Islamic observatory, honoured on this Soviet stamp. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Swimming is a technique that humans and animals use to move through water using only movements of the body, often for exercise, fun and competition. ... This article is about all wrestling. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ...


Until the death of his father in 1838, Sir Syed had lived a life customary for an affluent young Muslim noble.[4] Upon his father's death, he inherited the titles of his grandfather and father and was awarded the title of Arif Jung by the emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar.[8] Financial difficulties put an end to Sir Syed's formal education, although he continued to study in private, using books on a variety of subjects. Sir Syed assumed editorship of his brother's journal and rejected offers of employment from the Mughal court. Having recognised the steady decline in Mughal political power, Sir Syed entered the British East India Company's civil service. He was appointed serestadar at the courts of law in Agra, responsible for record-keeping and managing court affairs.[6] In 1840, he was promoted to the title of munshi. Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) aka Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet) was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. ... A civil servant or public servant is a civilian career public sector employee working for a government department or agency. ... Serestadar is a record-keeping official in courts in India. ... Agra   (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎), (IPA: ) is a medevial city on the banks of the Yamuna River in India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Scholarly works

The Social Reformer was a pioneering publication initiated by Sir Syed to promote liberal ideas in Muslim society.
The Social Reformer was a pioneering publication initiated by Sir Syed to promote liberal ideas in Muslim society.

While continuing to work as a jurist, Sir Syed began focusing on writing on various subjects, mainly in Urdu. His career as an author began when he published a series of treatises in Urdu on religious subjects in 1842. He published the book Athar Assanadid (Great Monuments) documenting antiquities of Delhi dating from the medieval era. This work earned him the reputation of a cultured scholar. In 1842, he completed the Jila-ul-Qulub bi Zikr il Mahbub and the Tuhfa-i-Hasan, along with the Tahsil fi jar-i-Saqil in 1844. These works focused on religious and cultural subjects. In 1852, he published the two works Namiqa dar bayan masala tasawwur-i-Shaikh and Silsilat ul-Mulk. He released the second edition of Athar Assanadid in 1854.[9] He also penned a commentary on the Bible — the first by a Muslim — in which he argued that Islam was the closest religion to Christianity, with a common lineage from Abrahamic religions.[4] Image File history File links P0402020301. ... Image File history File links P0402020301. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ...


Acquainted with high-ranking British officials, Sir Syed obtained close knowledge about British colonial politics during his service at the courts. At the outbreak of the Indian rebellion, on May 10, 1857, Sir Syed was serving as the chief assessment officer at the court in Bijnor.[10] Northern India became the scene of the most intense fighting.[9] The conflict had left large numbers of civilians dead. Erstwhile centres of Muslim power such as Delhi, Agra, Lucknow and Kanpur were severely affected. Sir Syed was personally affected by the violence and the ending of the Mughal dynasty amongst many other long-standing kingdoms.[10] Sir Syed and many other Muslims took this as a defeat of Muslim society.[11] He lost several close relatives who died in the violence. Although he succeeded in rescuing his mother from the turmoil, she died in Meerut, owing to the privations she had experienced.[9][2] An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a strictly British perspective. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Bijnor, variously spelt as Bijnaur and Bijnour, is a town, which is the district headquarters of Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh state, India. ... Lucknow   (Hindi: लखनऊ; Urdu: لكهنو;) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Meerut   (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) is an ancient city located 72km (44 miles) north-east of New Delhi in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


In 1858, he was appointed to a high-ranking post at the court in Muradabad, where he began working on his most famous literary work. Publishing the booklet Asbab-e-Bhaghawath-e-Hind (The Causes of the Indian Mutiny) in 1859, Sir Syed studied the causes of the revolt. In this, his most famous work, he rejected the common notion that the conspiracy was planned by Muslim élites, who were insecure at the diminishing influence of Muslim monarchs.[10] Sir Syed blamed the British East India Company for its aggressive expansion as well as the ignorance of British politicians regarding Indian culture. However, he gained respect for British power, which he felt would dominate India for a long period of time. Seeking to rehabilitate Muslim political influence, Sir Syed advised the British to appoint Muslims to assist in administration. His other writings such as Loyal Muhammadans of India, Tabyin-ul-Kalam and A Series of Essays on the Life of Muhammad and Subjects Subsidiary Therein helped to create cordial relations between the British authorities and the Muslim community.[4][10] Muradabad is a city in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...


Muslim reformer

Through the 1850s, Syed Ahmed Khan began developing a strong passion for education. While pursuing studies of different subjects including European jurisprudence, Sir Syed began to realise the advantages of Western-style education, which was being offered at newly-established colleges across India. Despite being a devout Muslim, Sir Syed criticised the influence of traditional dogma and religious orthodoxy, which had made most Indian Muslims suspicious of British influences.[12][13] Sir Syed began feeling increasingly concerned for the future of Muslim communities.[6][13] A scion of Mughal nobility, Sir Syed had been reared in the finest traditions of Muslim élite culture and was aware of the steady decline of Muslim political power across India. The animosity between the British and Muslims before and after the rebellion of 1857 threatened to marginalise Muslim communities across India for many generations.[13] Sir Syed intensified his work to promote co-operation with British authorities, promoting loyalty to the Empire amongst Indian Muslims. Committed to working for the upliftment of Muslims, Sir Syed founded a modern madrassa in Muradabad in 1859; this was one of the first religious schools to impart scientific education. Sir Syed also worked on social causes, helping to organise relief for the famine-struck people of the Northwest Frontier Province in 1860. He established another modern school in Ghazipur in 1863. Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Ghazipur is a town in Uttar Pradesh, India, on the Ganges River. ...


Upon his transfer to Aligarh in 1864, Sir Syed began working wholeheartedly as an educator. He founded the Scientific Society of Aligarh, the first scientific association of its kind in India. Modelling it after the Royal Society and the Royal Asiatic Society,[7] Sir Syed assembled Muslim scholars from different parts of the country. The Society held annual conferences, disbursed funds for educational causes and regularly published a journal on scientific subjects in English and Urdu. Sir Syed felt that the socio-economic future of Muslims was threatened by their orthodox aversions to modern science and technology.[13] He published many writings promoting liberal, rational interpretations of Islamic scriptures. However, his view of Islam was rejected by Muslim clergy as contrary to traditional views on issues like jihad, polygamy and animal slaughtering. Clerics of the Deobandi and Wahhabi schools condemned him harshly as a kaffir.[14] In face of pressure from religious Muslims, Sir Syed avoided discussing religious subjects in his writings, focusing instead on promoting education.[15] Aligarh   is a city in Aligarh District in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Scientific Society of Aligarh was an organisation founded by Syed Ahmed Khan, who also founded the Aligarh Muslim University. ... The premises of the Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... Article 90a of the bylaws of the Royal Asiatic Society. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Islamic holy books are the books the Quran records as dictated by Allah to prophets; they are the Tawrat (Torah), the Zabur (commonly the Psalms), the Injil (commonly the Gospel), and the Quran. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jawwad, Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djehad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, literally meaning struggle in the way of God and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such. ... The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology and sociology. ... The Deobandi (Hindi: देवबन्दि, Urdu: دیو بندی) is an Islamic revivalist movement in South Asia which has more recently also spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Wahhabism (Arabic: الوهابية, Wahabism, Wahabbism, Whahhabism) is an Islamic movement, named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... The term Kaffir applies to various black nationalities inhabitting Southern Africa, and is today used as a derogatory term in South Africa. ...


Advocacy of Urdu

See also: Hindi-Urdu controversy

The onset of the Hindi-Urdu controversy of 1867 saw the emergence of Sir Syed as a political leader of the Muslim community. He became a leading Muslim voice opposing the adoption of Hindi as a second official language of the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh). Sir Syed perceived Urdu as the lingua franca of Muslims. Having been developed by Muslim rulers of India, Urdu was used as a secondary language to Persian, the official language of the Mughal court. Since the decline of the Mughal dynasty, Sir Syed promoted the use of Urdu through his own writings. Under Sir Syed, the Scientific Society translated Western works only into Urdu, even though it was used only by a small minority of Indian society. The schools established by Sir Syed imparted education in the Urdu medium. The demand for Hindi, led largely by Hindus, was to Sir Syed an erosion of the centuries-old Muslim cultural domination of India. Testifying before the British-appointed education commission, Sir Syed controversially exclaimed that "Urdu was the language of gentry and Hindi that of the vulgar."[16] His remarks provoked a hostile response from Hindu leaders, who unified across the nation to demand the recognition of Hindi. In 1867, some Hindus began to demand that Hindi should be made an official language in place of Urdu 1. ... In 1867, some Hindus began to demand that Hindi should be made an official language in place of Urdu 1. ... Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी or हिंदी; IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu, and Gujarati... The United Provinces (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden/Provinciën, Republic of the Seven United Netherlands/Provinces — 1581–1795) was a European republic which is now known as the Netherlands. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P. It is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The success of the Hindi movement led Sir Syed to further advocate Urdu as the symbol of Muslim heritage and as the language of all Indian Muslims. His educational and political work grew increasingly centred around and exclusively for Muslim interests. He also sought to persuade the British to give Urdu extensive official use and patronage. His colleagues and protégés such as Mohsin-ul-Mulk and Maulvi Abdul Haq developed organisations such as the Urdu Defence Association and the Anjuman Taraqqi-i-Urdu, committed to the perpetuation of Urdu.[16] Sir Syed's protégé Shibli Nomani led efforts that resulted in the adoption of Urdu as the official language of the Hyderabad State and as the medium of instruction in the Osmania University. Sir Syed is widely criticised for making the use of Urdu a political issue that served as a wedge between Muslims and Hindus, who saw Sir Syed's advocacy as an effort to re-establish Muslim hegemony.[16][17] To Muslims in northern and western India, Urdu had became an integral part of political and cultural identity. However, the division over the use of Hindi or Urdu further provoked communal conflict between Muslims and Hindus in India.[16] Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk (Dec 9, 1837 - 1907), also known as Syed Mehdi Ali was one of the founders of All India Muslim League. ... Maulvi Abdul Haq (1870–1961) was the noted Urdu linguist, scholar, writer, researcher and activist who is unanimously celebrated as Baba-i-Urdu (Father of Urdu). ... The Urdu Defence Association was an organisation developed by Mohsin-ul-Mulk for the advocacy of Urdu as the lingua franca of the Muslim community of India. ... Anjuman Taraqqi-i-Urdu is an organisation founded by Maulvi Abdul Haq for the promotion of Urdu language, Urdu literature and Muslim cultural heritage. ... Mawlana Shibli Numani (in Arabic: شبلي نعماني) was a famous Indian Muslim scholar (1857 - 1914). ... Flag of the State of Hyderabad. ... Osmania University is a university situated in the city of Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh, India. ...


Founding Aligarh

Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university
Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university

On April 1, 1869 Sir Syed travelled to England, where he was awarded the Order of the Star of India from the British government on August 6. Travelling across England, he visited its colleges and was inspired by the culture of learning established after the Renaissance.[10] Sir Syed returned to India in the following year determined to build a "Muslim Cambridge."[18] Upon his return, he organised the "Committee for the Better Diffusion and Advancement of Learning among Muhammadans" on December 26, 1870. Sir Syed described his vision of the institution he proposed to establish in an article written sometime in 1872 and re-printed in the Aligarh Institute Gazette of April 5, 1911: Aligarh Universitys Victoria gate File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Aligarh Universitys Victoria gate File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ...

I may appear to be dreaming and talking like Shaikh Chilli, but we aim to turn this MAO College into a University similar to that of Oxford or Cambridge. Like the churches of Oxford and Cambridge, there will be mosques attached to each College… The College will have a dispensary with a Doctor and a compounder, besides a Unani Hakim. It will be mandatory on boys in residence to join the congregational prayers (namaz) at all the five times. Students of other religions will be exempted from this religious observance. Muslim students will have a uniform consisting of a black alpaca, half-sleeved chugha and a red Fez cap… Bad and abusive words which boys generally pick up and get used to, will be strictly prohibited. Even such a word as a "liar" will be treated as an abuse to be prohibited. They will have food either on tables of European style or on chaukis in the manner of the Arabs… Smoking of cigarette or huqqa and the chewing of betels shall be strictly prohibited. No corporal punishment or any such punishment as is likely to injure a student's self-respect will be permissible… It will be strictly enforced that Shia and Sunni boys shall not discuss their religious differences in the College or in the boarding house. At present it is like a day dream. I pray to God that this dream may come true."[18] The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Unaani (in Arabic, Hindustani, Persian, Pashtu, Urdu etc) means Greek. ... Hakim may refer to: al-Hakim one of names of Allah Hakim, a character on Sesamstraat Naji Hakim, the Lebanese-born organist Hakim Rifle, Egyptian rifle This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Salah (also known as salat, solat, solah and several other spellings) (Arabic: صلاة, Quranic Arabic: صلوة) refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). ... Fez can refer to: Fez (clothing), a type of hat Fes, Morocco (or, Fez), the name of a city in Morocco Fez (That 70s Show), a character in That 70s Show, played by Wilmer Valderrama Functional electrical stimulation, FES FeS2, Pyrite, otherwise known as fools gold [[Fez (album)], this... It has been suggested that Fork etiquette be merged into this article or section. ... Arab cuisine is the cuisine of the Arab countries. ... Man holding a water pipe (hookah) A hookah (Arabic: حقہ) is a multi-stemmed, often times glass based water pipe device for smoking, originating from India. ... Binomial name Piper betle L. The Betel (Piper betle) is a spice whose leaves have medicinal properties. ... Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to correct behavior or to punish. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sunni Muslims are by far the largest denomination of Islam. ...

By 1873, the committee under Sir Syed issued proposals for the construction of a college in Aligarh. He began publishing the journal Tahzib al-Akhlaq (Social Reformer) to spread awareness and knowledge on modern subjects and promote reforms in Muslim society.[2] Sir Syed worked to promote reinterpretation of Muslim ideology in order to reconcile tradition with Western education. He argued in several books on Islam that the Qur'an rested on an appreciation of reason and natural law, making scientific inquiry important to being a good Muslim. Sir Syed established a modern school in Aligarh and, obtaining support from wealthy Muslims and the British, laid the foundation stone of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College on May 24, 1875. He retired from his career as a jurist the following year, concentrating entirely on developing the college and on religious reform.[7] Sir Syed's pioneering work received support from the British. Although intensely criticised by orthodox religious leaders hostile to modern influences, Sir Syed's new institution attracted a large student body, mainly drawn from the Muslim gentry and middle classes.[6][14] The curriculum at the college involved scientific and Western subjects, as well as Oriental subjects and religious education.[7] The first chancellor was Sultan Shah Jahan Begum, a prominent Muslim noblewoman, and Sir Syed invited an Englishman, Theodore Beck, to serve as the first college principal.[14] The college was originally affiliated with Calcutta University but was transferred to the Allahabad University in 1885. Near the turn of the 20th century, it began publishing its own magazine and established a law school. In 1920, the college was transformed into a university. May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... Shahjahan Begum Sultan Shahjahan Begum (July 29, 1838 - June 16, 1901) was the ruler of the princely state of Bhopal in central India for two terms: 1844-60, and secondly during 1868-1901. ... Theodore Beck was a British educationalist working for the British Raj in India, who was invited by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan to serve as the first principal of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh, which would later evolve into the Aligarh Muslim University. ... Established in January 24, 1857, the University of Calcutta (also known as Calcutta University) is the first modern university in the Indian sub_continent. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Political career

Sir Syed with political associates
Sir Syed with political associates

In 1878, Sir Syed was nominated to the Viceroy's Legislative Council.[19] He testified before the education commission to promote the establishment of more colleges and schools across India. In the same year, Sir Syed founded the Muhammadan Association to promote political co-operation amongst Indian Muslims from different parts of the country. In 1886, he organised the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in Aligarh, which promoted his vision of modern education and political unity for Muslims. His works made him the most prominent Muslim politician in 19th-century India, often influencing the attitude of Muslims on various national issues. He supported the efforts of Indian political leaders Surendranath Banerjea and Dadabhai Naoroji to obtain representation for Indians in the government and civil services. In 1883, he founded the Muhammadan Civil Service Fund Association to encourage and support the entry of Muslim graduates into the Indian Civil Service (ICS).[7] Image File history File links P0402030201. ... Image File history File links P0402030201. ... The All India Muhammadan Educational Conference was an organisation promoting modern, liberal education for the Muslim community in India. ... Sir Surendranath Banerjea (b. ... Statue of Naoroji in Mumbai Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825–30 June 1917) was a Parsi intellectual and educator, and an early Indian political leader. ... Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, was the elite civil service of the Indian Government. ...


However, Sir Syed's political views were shaped by a strong aversion to the emerging nationalist movement, which was composed largely of Hindus. Sir Syed opposed the Indian National Congress (created in 1885) on the grounds that it was a Hindu-majority organisation, calling on Muslims to stay away from it.[20] While fearful of the loss of Muslim political power owing to the community's backwardness, Sir Syed was also averse to the prospect of democratic self-government, which would give control of government to the Hindu-majority population:[21][22] Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party or Congress (I), abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ...

"At this time our nation is in a bad state in regards education and wealth, but God has given us the light of religion and the Koran is present for our guidance, which has ordained them and us to be friends. Now God has made them rulers over us. Therefore we should cultivate friendship with them, and should adopt that method by which their rule may remain permanent and firm in India, and may not pass into the hands of the Bengalis… If we join the political movement of the Bengalis our nation will reap a loss, for we do not want to become subjects of the Hindus instead of the subjects of the "people of the Book…"[22] The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) in Indian subcontinent with a history going back more than two millennia. ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ...

His fierce criticism of the Congress and Indian nationalists created rifts between Muslims and Hindus.[20] At the same time, Sir Syed sought to politically ally Muslims to the British government. An avowed loyalist of the British Empire, Sir Syed was nominated as a member of the Civil Service Commission in 1887 by Lord Dufferin. In 1888, he established the United Patriotic Association at Aligarh to promote political co-operation with the British and Muslim participation in the government. Syed Ahmed Khan was knighted by the British government in 1888 and in the following year he received an LL.D. honoris causa from the Edinburgh University.[7] The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Lord Dufferin as a young man Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, KP, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (21 June 1826–12 February 1902) was a British public servant and prominent member of Victorian society. ... The United Patriotic Association was a political organisation founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the founder of the Aligarh Muslim University. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Legacy

Sir Syed's gravesite
Sir Syed's gravesite

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan lived the last two decades of his life in Aligarh, regarded widely as the mentor of 19th- and 20th-century Muslim intellectuals and politicians. He remained the most influential Muslim politician in India, with his opinions guiding the convictions of a large majority of Muslims.[2] Battling illnesses and old age, Sir Syed died on March 27, 1898. He was buried near the central mosque on the campus of the Aligarh university. His funeral was attended by thousands of students, Muslim leaders and British officials. Sir Syed is widely commemorated across South Asia as a great Muslim reformer and visionary.[7] Sir Syeds grave File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sir Syeds grave File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in leap years). ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The university he founded remains one of India's most prominent institutions. Prominent alumni of Aligarh include Muslim political leaders Maulana Mohammad Ali, Abdur Rab Nishtar, Maulana Shaukat Ali and Maulvi Abdul Haq, who is hailed in Pakistan as Baba-i-Urdu (Father of Urdu). The first two Prime Ministers of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan and Khawaja Nazimuddin, as well as the late Indian President Dr. Zakir Hussain, are amongst Aligarh's most famous graduates. In India, Sir Syed is commemorated as a pioneer who worked for the socio-political upliftment of Indian Muslims, though his views on Hindu-Muslim issues are a subject of controversy. Sir Syed is also hailed as a founding father of Pakistan for his role in developing a Muslim political class independent of Hindu-majority organisations. The Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology was established in honour of Sir Syed in Karachi and is a leading technical institution in Pakistan. Note : Do not confuse with Ahmadi Maulana Muhammad Ali , Muhammad Ali ,the Muslim boxer or any other people named Muhammad Ali : Muhammad Ali (disambiguation) Muhammad Ali Jouhar Maulana Mohammad Ali (1878 - 1931), also addressed with the suffix Jauhar, which was his pen name, was an Indian Muslim nationalist and leader... Abdur Rab Nishtar Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (13 June 1899 - 14th February 1958) Muslim League stalwart and Pakstan movement activist Sardar Nishtar was born in Peshawar, NWFP. He completed his early education mission school and later Sanatan Dharram High School in Peshawar. ... Maulana Shaukat Ali (Born in 1873) is an Indian nationalist Muslim and freedom fighter. ... Maulvi Abdul Haq (1870–1961) was the noted Urdu linguist, scholar, writer, researcher and activist who is unanimously celebrated as Baba-i-Urdu (Father of Urdu). ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Wazir-e- Azam in Urdu)is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Nawabzaada Khan Liaquat Ali Khan (October 1, 1896 – October 16, 1951) was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Khawaja Nazimuddin Khawaja Nazimuddin (Urdu: خواجہ ناظم الدین) (Bengali: খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন)(July 19, 1894 - 1964) was the second Governor-General of Pakistan, and later the second Prime Minister of Pakistan as well. ... The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... Dr Zakir Husain (February 8, 1897 - May 3, 1969) was the third President of India from May 13, 1967 until his death. ... Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Karachi (Urdu: كراچى, Sindhi: ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan, sometimes known as the City of Lights and the City of Quaid (شہرِ قائد), after Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founder of Pakistan. ...


Criticism

During his lifetime and in contemporary times, Sir Syed was criticised for encouraging communal divisions between Hindus and Muslims. He is identified by historians as one of the earliest advocates of the Two-Nation Theory — that Hindus and Muslims were distinct and incompatible nations.[12] Historians argue that Sir Syed was emotionally unable to accept the prospect that an independent India's Hindu-majority would come to rule Muslims, who had been the erstwhile colonial rulers.[21] He also feared that Hindu culture would diminish the Perso-Arabic nature of Muslim culture, which had enjoyed a dominant status under Muslim rulers for centuries.[12] His condemnation of Indian nationalists and profession of the incompatibility of Muslims and Hindus widened the socio-political gulf between the communities that had emerged with the Urdu-Hindi controversy.[12][20] At the same time, Sir Syed was intensely criticised by religious Muslims who regarded his liberal reinterpretation of Islamic scripture as blasphemy.[12] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islam â–¶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, the worlds second-largest religion, and said by some sources to be the fastest growing religion in some parts of the world. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Supporters of Sir Syed contend that his political vision gave an independent political expression to the Muslim community, which aided its goal to secure political power in India.[10][14] His philosophy guided the creation of the All India Muslim League in 1906, as a political party separate from the Congress. Sir Syed's ideas inspired both the liberal, pro-British politicians of the Muslim League and the religious ideologues of the Khilafat struggle. The Muslim League remained at odds with the Congress and continued to advocate the boycott of the Indian independence movement. In the 1940s, the student body of Aligarh committed itself to the establishment of Pakistan and contributed in a large measure in the activities of the Muslim League.[10] Sir Syed's patronage of Urdu led to its widespread use amongst Indian Muslim communities and following the Partition of India its adoption as an official language in Pakistan. (Hindi and English continue to be the officially sanctioned languages in India.) [1] Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ... The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a movement amongst the Muslims of British India (the largest single Muslim community in one geo-political entity at the time) to ensure that the British, victors of World War I, kept a promise made at the Versailles. ... Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी or हिंदी; IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu, and Gujarati... Look up English, english in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also


       Aligarh - Muslim University & the Movement        Download high resolution version (434x724, 35 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... Aligarh Universitys Victoria gate File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

History: 1857 War of Independence - Hindi-Urdu controversy - Aligarh Movement - MAO College - Aligarh Muslim University - Pakistan movement
Pioneers: Sir Syed - Mohsin-ul-Mulk - Viqar-ul-Mulk - Maulana Hali - Shibli Nomani - Hakim Ajmal Khan - more...
Alumni: Ross Masood - Maulana Mohammad Ali - Liaquat Ali Khan - Khawaja Nazimuddin - Zakir Hussain - Abdur Rab Nishtar - Sheikh Abdullah - Ziauddin Ahmed - Maulana Shaukat Ali - Zafar Ali Khan - more...


An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a strictly British perspective. ... In 1867, some Hindus began to demand that Hindi should be made an official language in place of Urdu 1. ... Sir Syed, the founder of Aligarh movement Aligarh Movement, was the movement led by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, to educate the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent after their defeat in the freedom struggle of 1857. ... MAO College MAO College (or Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College) was founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the leader of Muslim renaissance in Indian subcontinent, in 1875 at Aligarh. ... Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University is located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Pakistan Movement is a name given to the independence struggle carried out by the Muslims of British South Asia to create a separate homeland. ... Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk (Dec 9, 1837 - 1907), also known as Syed Mehdi Ali was one of the founders of All India Muslim League. ... Nawab Mushtaq Hussain Viqar-ul-Mulk (March 24, 1841-January 27, 1917), also known as Mushtaq Hussain, was a Muslim politician and one of the founders of All India Muslim League. ... Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali was an Urdu poet, and the last student of Mirza Ghalib. ... Mawlana Shibli Numani (in Arabic: شبلي نعماني) was a famous Indian Muslim scholar (1857 - 1914). ... Dr Hakim Ajmal Khan was an Indian freedom fighter, a Muslim doctor and educationalist. ... Ross (r) with Iqbal (l), and Suleman Nadvi Sir Ross Masood (February 15, 1889 - 1937), was the only grandson of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the father of Muslim renaissance in Indian subcontinent . ... Note : Do not confuse with Ahmadi Maulana Muhammad Ali , Muhammad Ali ,the Muslim boxer or any other people named Muhammad Ali : Muhammad Ali (disambiguation) Muhammad Ali Jouhar Maulana Mohammad Ali (1878 - 1931), also addressed with the suffix Jauhar, which was his pen name, was an Indian Muslim nationalist and leader... Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Nawabzaada Khan Liaquat Ali Khan (October 1, 1896 – October 16, 1951) was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Khawaja Nazimuddin Khawaja Nazimuddin (Urdu: خواجہ ناظم الدین) (Bengali: খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন)(July 19, 1894 - 1964) was the second Governor-General of Pakistan, and later the second Prime Minister of Pakistan as well. ... Dr Zakir Husain (February 8, 1897 - May 3, 1969) was the third President of India from May 13, 1967 until his death. ... Abdur Rab Nishtar Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (13 June 1899 - 14th February 1958) Muslim League stalwart and Pakstan movement activist Sardar Nishtar was born in Peshawar, NWFP. He completed his early education mission school and later Sanatan Dharram High School in Peshawar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed Dr. Sir Ziauddin Ahmed (February 13, 1878 - December 23, 1947) was an eminent scholar and Rector of Aligarh Muslim University, India. ... Maulana Shaukat Ali (Born in 1873) is an Indian nationalist Muslim and freedom fighter. ... Zafar Ali Khan Maulana Zafar Ali Khan (1873–1956), was a writer, poet, and journalist who took an important part in Pakistan Movement. ...

                       Creation of Pakistan                Download high resolution version (434x724, 35 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Jinnah1. ... Pakistan Movement is a name given to the independence struggle carried out by the Muslims of British South Asia to create a separate homeland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

History: General History - British East India Company - Indian rebellion of 1857 - Aligarh Movement - Urdu movement - Partition of Bengal - Lucknow Pact - Khilafat Movement - Nehru Report - Fourteen Points of Jinnah - Allahabad Address - Now or Never pamphlet - Two-Nation Theory - Indian Round Table Conferences - Pakistan Resolution - Indian Muslim Nationalism - Cabinet Mission - Indian Independence Act - Radcliffe Line - Pakistan - Objectives Resolution - Yaum e Azadi
Organisation: Muslim League - Unionist Muslim League - Jamaat-e-Islami - Khaksars
Leaders: Sir Syed - Iqbal - Quaid-i-Azam - Liaquat Ali Khan - Bahadur Yar Jung - Abdur Rab Nishtar - Fatima Jinnah - Choudhary Rahmat Ali - Muhammad Ali Jouhar - Shaukat Ali - A. K. Fazlul Huq - Sir Sikandar Hyat Khan - Zafar Ali Khan - Khawaja Nazimuddin - Abdul Qayyum Khan - Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy - Begum Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan - more...
Activists: ZA Suleri - Hameed Nizami - Altaf Husain - Yusuf Khattak - Shaukat Hayat Khan - more...

The nation-state of Pakistan was established in 1947 as one of the two successor states of British India, yet the land and its people possess an extensive and continuous history that can be traced back to very ancient times. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was one of the first joint-stock company (preceded only by the Dutch East India Company) which was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a strictly British perspective. ... Sir Syed, the founder of Aligarh movement Aligarh Movement, was the movement led by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, to educate the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent after their defeat in the freedom struggle of 1857. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in The Urdu movement was a socio-political movement aimed at making Urdu the universal language and symbol of the cultural and political identity of the Muslim communities of India. ... The Partition of Bengal in 1905, was made on 16 October by then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. ... In 1916, Mohammed Ali Jinnah a member of Indian National Congress was owned by saif aljashamy he negotiated with Muslim League to reach an agreement to pressurise British Government to have a more liberal approach to India and give Indians more authority to run their country. ... The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a movement amongst the Muslims of British India (the largest single Muslim community in one geo-political entity at the time) to ensure that the British, victors of World War I, kept a promise made at the Versailles. ... The Nehru Report (1928) was a memorandum outlining a proposed new Dominion (see dominion status) constitution for India. ... Following are Fourteen Points of Mr. ... Allahabad Address was the Presidential Address by Allama Iqbal to the 25th Session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December 1930, at Allahabad. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // British Commitments to Self-government And so the two sides returned to what from a British perspective was a mundane process of political bargaining, and to what in the Indian view was a freedom struggle that must endure until swaraj arrived indeed. ... All India Muslim League Working Committee, Lahore session, March 1940 The Lahore Resolution, later called Pakistan Resolution, is a political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League on 23 March 1940. ... Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... The British Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss and finalize plans for the transfer of power from the British Raj to Indian leadership, providing India with independence under Dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations. ... 1. ... The Radcliffe line was the line which drew borders between newly created India and Pakistan. ... The Quran The Objectives Resolution states that the future constitution of Pakistan would be modeled on the ideology and democratic faith of Islam. ... Pakistan Day یوم پاکستان(Urdu) is observed on 14 Augest. ... Aga Khan III, one of the founders of the Muslim League Navin had a boner and put it in his mouth The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ) was a political party in British India and was the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British... The Unionist Muslim League, also known simply as the Unionist party was a political party based in the province of Punjab during British Raj in India. ... Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu: جماعتِ اسلامی, Islamic Assembly Jamaat, JI) is an Islamic political movement founded in Lahore by Syed Abul Ala Maududi on 26 August 1941. ... Khaksari Flag The Khaksar Tehrik, based in Lahore, Pakistan, was established by Allama Mashriqi in 1930, keeping in mind the plight and poor condition of the masses in India. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu: ‎) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu: محمد على جناح)  (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Liaquat Ali Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Nawabzaada Khan Liaquat Ali Khan (October 1, 1896 – October 16, 1951) was the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Majlis-e-Ittihad-ul-Muslimeen was formed by Muhammad Bahadur Khan to unite various Islamic sects for the solution of their problems within the principle of Islam and to protect the economic, social and educational interests of the Muslims. ... Abdur Rab Nishtar Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar (13 June 1899 - 14th February 1958) Muslim League stalwart and Pakstan movement activist Sardar Nishtar was born in Peshawar, NWFP. He completed his early education mission school and later Sanatan Dharram High School in Peshawar. ... Fatima Jinnah (Urdu: فاطمہ جناح) (July 30, 1893 — July 8, 1967) was the sister of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan and an active political figure in movement for independence from the British Raj. ... Choudhary Rahmat Ali Choudhary Rahmat Ali (1895 - February 12, 1951) was the reactionary founder of the Pakistan National Movement, and was an early proponent of the formation of Pakistan. ... Note : Do not confuse with Ahmadi Maulana Muhammad Ali , Muhammad Ali ,the Muslim boxer or any other people named Muhammad Ali : Muhammad Ali (disambiguation) Muhammad Ali Jouhar Maulana Mohammad Ali (1878 - 1931), also addressed with the suffix Jauhar, which was his pen name, was an Indian Muslim nationalist and leader... Maulana Shaukat Ali (Born in 1873) is an Indian nationalist Muslim and freedom fighter. ... Sher-e-Bangla (Urdu phrase meaning The Tiger of Bengal) Abul Kashem Fazlul Huq (Bangla:আবুল কাসেম ফজলুল হক) (born 26 October 1873-died 27 April 1962) was a famous Bengali statesman in the first half of the 20th century. ... Sikander Hyat Khan was an Indian Muslim political leader in the province of Punjab, when India was a part of the British Empire. ... Zafar Ali Khan Maulana Zafar Ali Khan (1873–1956), was a writer, poet, and journalist who took an important part in Pakistan Movement. ... Khawaja Nazimuddin Khawaja Nazimuddin (Urdu: خواجہ ناظم الدین) (Bengali: খাজা নাজিমুদ্দীন)(July 19, 1894 - 1964) was the second Governor-General of Pakistan, and later the second Prime Minister of Pakistan as well. ... Abdul Qayyum Khan Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan (nicknamed the Lion of the Frontier by his supporters) was a major figure in Pakistan politics, in particular in the North West Frontier Province where he served as deputy speaker, Chief Minister and Minister in the Central Government as well as Federal Interior... Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (September 8, 1892 - December 5, 1963) was a politician from Bengal in undivided India, and later in East Pakistan, who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1956 until 1957. ... Begum Raana Liaquat Ali Khan Begum Raana Liaquat Ali Khan was born at Almora in the United Provinces in the year 1905 and was educated at Lucknow. ... Ziauddin Ahmad Suleri (1913-1999) was a notable journalist and writer from Pakistan. ... Hameed Nizami - Founding editor of Nawa-i-Waqt Hameed Nizami (October 3, 1915 - 1962) was an eminent journalist from Pakistan. ... Altaf Husain - Fouding editor of Dawn Altaf Husain was an eminent journalist from Pakistan. ... Muhammad Yusuf Khan Khattak (18 November 1917 – 29 July 1991) was a Pakistan movement activist . ... Shaukat Hayat Khan b. ...

References

Find more information on Syed Ahmed Khan
by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
 Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews
 Learning resources from Wikiversity
  1. ^ GRAHAM, George Farquhar (1885). The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan, C. S. L.. Blackwood, 1. 
  2. ^ a b c d Sir Syed. National Informatics Centre. Aligarh Muslim University. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  3. ^ AHMED, Dr. Ziauddin. Sir Syed & Aligarh. AMU Post. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Story of Pakistan. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  5. ^ GRAHAM, George Farquhar (1885). The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan, C. S. L.. Blackwood, 4. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Sir Syed Ahmad Khan: Phenomene Perplexe. Cyber AMU. Retrieved on 2006-11-14.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g (1997) “Sir Syed Ahmed Khan”, Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed., Gale Research, 17 vols. Retrieved on 2006-10-14. 
  8. ^ GRAHAM, George Farquhar (1885). The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan, C. S. L.. Blackwood, 7. 
  9. ^ a b c Sir Syed Ahmad Khan — Chronology. Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g UPADHYAY, R (2003-02-20). Aligarh Movement — Could it fulfil the dream of Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan?. South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  11. ^ MUHAMAD, Dr. Shan (1978). The Aligarh Movement. Meerut: Meenakshi Prakashan, IX. 
  12. ^ a b c d e UPADHYAY, R. Indian Muslims — under siege?. South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved on 2006-10-19.
  13. ^ a b c d KUMAR, S (2000). Educational Philosophy in Modern India. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., 59. 
  14. ^ a b c d Nazeer Ahmed (2000). Islam in Global History. Xlibris Corporation, 231. 
  15. ^ ALI, Engineer Asghar (2001). Rational Approach to Islam. Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 191. 
  16. ^ a b c d UPADHYAY, R. Urdu Controversy is dividing the nation further. South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  17. ^ ABBASI, Yusuf (1981). Muslim Politics and Leadership in the South Asian Sub-continent. Institute of Islamic History, Culture and Civilization, Islamic University (Islamabad), 90. 
  18. ^ a b Sir Syed — his vision. Aligarh Muslim University. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  19. ^ GRAHAM, George Farquhar (1885). The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan, C. S. L.. Blackwood, 289. 
  20. ^ a b c MAJUMDAR, RC (1969). Struggle for Freedom. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1967. ASIN: B000HXEOUM. 
  21. ^ a b BAIG, MRA (1974). The Muslim Dilemma in India. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 51–2. 
  22. ^ a b KUMAR, S (2000). Educational Philosophy in Modern India. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., 60. 

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... Meerut   (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) is an ancient city located 72km (44 miles) north-east of New Delhi in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... Islamabad (Urdu: اسلام آباد, abode of Islam), is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

  • Graham, George Farquhar Irving. The Life and Work of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1974)
  • Encyclopedia of World Biography — Syed Ahmed Khan, 2nd ed. 17 Vols. (Gale Research, 1998)
  • Majumdar, R.C. Struggle for Freedom (Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1969; ASIN: B000HXEOUM)
  • Baig, M. R. A. The Muslim Dilemma in India (Vikas Publishing House, Delhi, 1974)
  • Engineer, Asghar Ali. Rational Approach to Islam (Gyan Publishing House, Delhi, 2001; ISBN 81-212-0725-8)
  • Abbasi, Yusuf. Muslim Politics and Leadership in the South Asian Sub-continent (Institute of Islamic History, Culture and Civilization, Islamic University (Islamabad), 1981)

Karachi (Urdu: كراچى, Sindhi: ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan, sometimes known as the City of Lights and the City of Quaid (شہرِ قائد), after Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founder of Pakistan. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Islamabad (Urdu: اسلام آباد, abode of Islam), is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hakim Ajmal Khan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (552 words)
Hakim Ajmal Khan was born in 1863 in Delhi.
Khan's involvement in politics began with writing for the Urdu weekly Akmal-ul-Akhbar, which was founded in 1865-70 and was run by his family.
Khan was in the deputation of Muslims that met the Viceroy of India in Shimla in 1906, presenting him a memorandum on behalf of the community, and in 1907 was present in Dhaka where the All India Muslim League was created.
Syed Ahmed Khan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1083 words)
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan Bahadur, born on October 17, 1817 at Delhi, died March 27, 1898 at Aligarh, was a Muslim educator, jurist, and author, founder of the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College, which later became Aligarh Muslim University, at Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Sir Syed's brother established one of the first printing presses at Delhi and started one of the earliest newspapers in Urdu.
Sir Syed, the foremost intellectual among the Indian Muslim population and probably the native Indian to whom the British lent the most credence, was greatly affected by the Hindi-Urdu Controversy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m