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Encyclopedia > Swing (genre)
Swing
Stylistic origins: New Orleans jazz, Kansas City jazz, New York jazz
Cultural origins: 1920s
Typical instruments: clarinet, saxophone, trumpet, trombone, piano, double bass, drums
Mainstream popularity: 1930s and 1940s

Swing music, also known as swing jazz, is a form of jazz music that developed during the 1920s and had solidified as a distinctive style by 1935 in the United States. Swing is distinguished primarily by a strong rhythm section, usually including double bass and drums, medium to fast tempo, and the distinctive swing time rhythm that is common to many forms of jazz. Dixieland music is a style of jazz. ... Memorial to Charlie Parker at the American Jazz Museum at 18th and Highland in Kansas City Kansas City Jazz is a style of jazz that developed and flourished in Kansas City, Missouri during the 1930s and marked the transition from the structured big band style to the musical improvisation style... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family, usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece like the clarinet. ... The trumpet is the highest brass instrument in register, above the horn, trombone, euphonium and tuba. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... A grand piano, with the lid up. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Classic-Spanish Marching Drum A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion family, technically classified as a membranophone. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans at around the start of the 20th century. ... The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Rhythm section refers to the musicians whose primary jobs in a jazz or popular music band or ensemble is to establish the rhythm of a song or musical piece, often via repeated riffs or ostinati. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl or TEMPO is the chemical compound with the formula (CH2)3(CMe2)2NO. This heterocycle is a red-orange, sublimable solid. ... This article is about the film. ...

Contents

History

African American "swing" is not, as some Eurocentric musicologists would try to characterize in Western musical paradigms, syncopation, nor does it have a "tripleted feel."[citation needed] Rather, it is a hybrid concept of time/pulse and rhythm: the result of the miscegenation between West African triple meter and multiple rhythmic layering with Western European duple meter and singular rhythm. This "3 inside 2" is a fundamentally a West African-descended phenomenon, found in all African diasporic musics where more than one time and more than one rhythm coexist. Enslaved Africans in the Diaspora developed unique types of "swing" - in Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Brazil, etc. The first recordings labeled swing style date from the 1920s, and come from both the United States and the United Kingdom. They are characterized by the swing rhythm already at that time common in jazz music, and a lively style which is harder to define but distinctive. Although swing evolved out of the lively jazz experimentation that began in New Orleans and that developed further (and in varying forms) in Kansas City and New York City, what is now called swing diverged from other jazz music in ways that distinguished it as a form in its own right. It has been suggested that Swung note be merged into this article or section. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans at around the start of the 20th century. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Nickname: City of Fountains or Heart of America Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ...


Swing bands tended to be bigger and more crowded than other jazz bands, necessitating a slightly more detailed and organized type of composition and notation than was then the norm. Band leaders put more energy into developing arrangements, perhaps reducing the chaos that might result from as many as 12 or 16 musicians spontaneously improvising. But the best swing bands at the height of the era explored the full gamut of possibilities from spontaneous ensemble playing to highly orchestrated music in the vein of European art music. Musical composition is: an original piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A musical composition A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance... Hand-written musical notation by J.S. Bach: beginning of the Prelude from the Suite for Lute in G minor BWV 995 (transcription of Cello Suite No. ... In popular music an arrangement is a setting of a piece of music, which may have been composed by the arranger or by someone else. ... Improvising is the art of organizing sound and/or motion during performance. ...


A typical song played in swing style would feature a strong, anchoring rhythm section in support of more loosely tied wind, brass, and later, string and/or vocal sections. The level of improvisation that the audience might expect at any one time varied depending on the arrangement, the band, the song, and the band-leader. The most common style consisted of having one soloist at a time taking center stage, and take up an improvised routine, with her/his bandmates playing support. As a song progressed, multiple soloists might be expected to pick up the baton, and then pass it on. That said, it was far from uncommon to have two or three band members improvising at any one time. Rhythm section refers to the musicians whose primary jobs in a jazz or popular music band or ensemble is to establish the rhythm of a song or musical piece, often via repeated riffs or ostinati. ... Wind, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Wind is the rough horizontal movement of air (as opposed to an air current) caused by uneven heating of the Earths surface. ... Brass is the term used for alloys of copper and zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses each with unique properties[1]. Note that in comparison bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... In music a singer or vocalist is a type of musician who sings, i. ... This article is about the musical term solo; for other uses, see solo. ...


Swing jazz began to be embraced by the public around 1935. Previously to that time it had had only a very limited acceptance, mostly among Black audiences and cognoscenti. As the music began to grow in popularity throughout the States, a number of changes occurred in the culture that surrounded the music. For one, the introduction of swing music, with its strong rhythms, loud tunes, and "swinging" style led to an explosion of creative dance in the black community. The various rowdy, energetic, creative, and improvisational dances that came into effect during that time came to be known, collectively, as swing dance. Unlucky black cat. ... Culture (from the [[Latin)) cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... Look up black in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Swing is a group of related street dances, that evolved from Lindy Hop. ...


The second change that occurred as swing music increased in popularity outside the black community, was, to some extent, an increasing pressure on musicians and band leaders to soften (some would say dumb-down) the music to cater to a more staid and conservative, Anglo-American audience. In the United States, there was some resistance to the acceptance of swing music until around 1939. SoCon redirects here, for the athletic conference see: Southern Conference // Social conservatism, is a political philosophy that supports what its adherents believe to be traditional morality. They are not opposed to social change per se, but believe that any changes should be directed in such a way as to prohibit... The term Anglo-America is used to describe those parts of North America in which English is the main language. ...


Similar conflicts arose when Swing spread to other countries. In Germany, it conflicted with Nazi ideology (see Swing Kids) and was declared officially forbidden by the Nazi regime. And, while jazz music was initially embraced during the early years of the Soviet Union, it was soon forbidden as a result of being deemed politically unacceptable. After a long hiatus, though, jazz music was eventually readmitted to Soviet audiences. National Socialism redirects here. ... For the San Diego hardcore punk band, see Swing Kids (band). ...


In later decades, the popular, sterilized, mass-market form of swing music would often, and unfortunately, be the first taste that younger generations might be exposed to, which often led to it begin labeled something akin to 'old fogey big-band dance music'. Old fogey is a nickname used to describe someone as slightly old fashioned: out of touch with modern ideals. ...


Ironically, early swing musicians were often in fact annoyed by the young people who would throw a room into chaos by seemingly tossing each other across the floor at random — thus somewhat nullifying the idea that swing was developed as dance music, when in fact, swing dancing evolved among young aficionados to complement the energy of the music. Fans of Janet Jackson, at Much Music in Toronto The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ...


The decline and evolution of swing

Swing music began to decline in popularity during WWII because of several factors. Most importantly it became difficult to staff a "big band" because many musicians were overseas fighting in the war. Also, the cost of touring with a large ensemble became prohibitive because of wartime economics. These two factors made smaller 3 to 5 piece combos more profitable and manageable. This changed the quintessential swing sound and gave rise to Rhythm and blues, jump blues and bebop. A third reason is the recording bans of 1942 and 1948 because of union-musician strikes. Rhythm and blues (aka R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences — first performed by African American artists. ... Jump blues is a type of up-tempo blues music influenced by big band sound. ... Bebop or bop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


The year 1947 saw the pressing of what would turn out to be the last swing records. In 1948, there were no records legally made at all, although independent labels continued to bootleg records in small numbers. When the ban was over in January 1949, swing had evolved into several divergent genres of art and popular music, including jump blues, rhythm and blues, bebop, rock and roll, country and western, and funk. In general, the shuffle rhythm was replaced in prominence by the backbeat. The shuffle rhythm is a rhythm that can be regarded as the basis of the blues backbeat, and can be heard on many jazz, rock and roll and soul music recordings. ... Backbeat can mean one of two things: Backbeat or Back beat is a style of rock music percussion Backbeat is a 1994 bio-pic of the early career of The Beatles, starring Stephen Dorff, Sheryl Lee, and Ian Hart Categories: Disambiguation ...


Although ensembles like the Count Basie Orchestra and the Stan Kenton Orchestra survived for decades by incorporating new musical styles into their repertoire, they were no longer the hallmark of American popular music. In the 1990s there was a short-lived Swing Revival movement, led by bands such as Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, Cherry Poppin' Daddies, Royal Crown Revue, Brian Setzer, and Stray Cats. The Swing Revival was cultural phenomenon of the 1990s and early 2000s which featured renewed popular interest in music in the style of the swing period of the 1930s and 1940s. ... Big Bad Voodoo Daddy is a contemporary swing band from southern California. ... Cherry Poppin Daddies Cherry Poppin Daddies is an American band formed in 1989 in Eugene, Oregon. ... The Royal Crown Revue is a band formed in the early 1990s. ... Brian Setzer (born April 10, 1959 in Massapequa, Long Island, New York) is an American guitarist, singer and songwriter. ... // Formation and rapid U.K. success The Stray Cats are a rockabilly band first formed in 1979 by guitarist/vocalist Brian Setzer (Bloodless Pharaohs/Brian Setzer Orchestra) with school friends Lee Rocker (born Leon Drucker) and Slim Jim Phantom (born James McDonnell) in the Long Island town of Massapequa, New...


Samples

Begin the Beguine is a song written by Cole Porter and introduced by June Knight in the Broadway musical Jubilee (1934). ... Artie Shaw (May 23, 1910, New York, New York – December 30, 2004, Thousand Oaks, California) was an accomplished American jazz clarinetist, composer, bandleader and author of both fiction and non-fiction. ... Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... William Count Basie (August 21, 1904 - April 26, 1984) was a jazz pianist, organist, and bandleader. ... Benny Goodman (May 30, 1909 – June 13, 1986) was an American jazz musician, known as King of Swing, Patriarch of the Clarinet, The Professor, and Swings Senior Statesman. He was one of the most important performer of popular music in the twentieth century. ... Martha Tilton (born November 14, 1915 in Corpus Christi, Texas) is an American popular singer best-known for her 1939 recording of And the Angels Sing with Benny Goodman. ...

Famous swing musicians

Band leaders:


Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Fletcher Henderson Dorsey Brothers|The Dorsey Brothers, Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw Gene Krupa, Glenn Miller, Chick Webb


Clarinet:


Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw


Trumpet:


Louis Armstrong, Roy Eldridge, Harry Edison


Piano:


Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Earl Hines, Art Tatum, Oscar Peterson, Teddy Wilson, Jelly Roll Morton


See also

See also: Genealogy of musical genres Music can be divided into genres in many different ways. ... The Swing Revival was cultural phenomenon of the 1990s and early 2000s which featured renewed popular interest in music in the style of the swing period of the 1930s and 1940s. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Swing Dancing The term swing dance is commonly used to refer either to a group of dances developing to the evolving Jazz music during the Jazz a. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from 1935 until the late 1940s. ...

Further reading

  • Erenberg, Lewis A. Swingin' the Dream: Big Band Jazz and the Rebirth of American Culture (1998), a history of big-band jazz and its fans.
  • Gitler, Ira. Swing to Bop: An Oral History of the Transition in Jazz in the 1940s (1987), on the emergence of bop from big-band swing.
  • Hennessey, Thomas J. From Jazz to Swing: African-Americans and Their Music, 1890-1935 (1994).
  • Schuller, Gunther. The Swing Era: The Development of Jazz, 1930-1945 (1991), a musicological study.
  • Stowe, David. Swing Changes: Big-Band Jazz in New Deal America (1996), a musicological study.
  • Tucker, Sherrie. Swing Shift: 'All-Girl' Bands of the 1940s (2000)
  • Yanow, Scott (2000). Swing. San Francisco, California: Miller Freeman Books. ISBN 0-87930-600-9. 

Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City; The City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

External links

Jazz | Jazz genres The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans at around the start of the 20th century. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans at around the start of the 20th century. ... Acid jazz Avant-jazz Bebop Dixieland Calypso jazz Chamber jazz Cool jazz Creative jazz Free jazz Gypsy jazz Hard bop Jazz blues Jazz fusion Jazz rap Latin jazz Mini-jazz Modal jazz M-Base Nu jazz Smooth jazz Soul jazz Swing Trad jazz West coast jazz ...


Acid jazz - Asian American jazz - Avant-garde jazz - Bebop - Dixieland - Calypso jazz - Chamber jazz - Cool jazz - Free jazz - Gypsy jazz - Hard bop - Jazz blues - Jazz-funk - Jazz fusion - Jazz rap - Latin jazz - Mini-jazz - Modal jazz - M-Base - Nu jazz - Smooth jazz - Soul jazz - Swing - Trad jazz - West coast jazz Acid jazz (sometimes groove jazz) is a musical genre that combines jazz influences with elements of soul music, funk, disco and hip hop. ... Asian American jazz is a musical movement in the United States begun in the 20th century by Asian American jazz musicians. ... Avant-jazz (also known as avant-garde jazz) is a style of music and improvisation that combines elements of avant-garde art music composition with elements of traditional jazz. ... Bebop or bop is a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz. ... Calypso jazz is a style of music and improvisation that combines elements of calypso music with elements of traditional jazz. ... Chamber jazz is a genre of jazz based around small, acoustic-based ensembles where group interplay is important. ... CD reissue of Daviss 1957 LP Birth of the Cool, collecting much of his 1949 to 1950 work. ... Free jazz is a movement of jazz music developed in the 1950s and 1960s by artists such as Ornette Coleman, Eric Dolphy, Cecil Taylor, Albert Ayler, Joe Harriott, Archie Shepp, Bill Dixon and Paul Bley. ... Gypsy jazz is an idiom that was pioneered in the 1930s by guitar legend Django Reinhardt. ... Hard bop is an extension of bebop (bop) music which incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. ... Jazz blues is a musical style that combines jazz and blues. ... Jazz-funk is a sub-genre of jazz music characterized by a strong back beat, electrified sounds. ... Bitches Brew (1970) by Miles Davis is considered the most influential early fusion album. ... Jazz rap is a fusion of alternative hip hop music and jazz, developed in the very late 1980s and early 1990s. ... Latin jazz is the general term given to music that combines rhythms from African and Latin American countries with jazz harmonies from the United States. ... Originating in Haiti during the 1960s, the mini-jazz movement was influenced by other Caribbean music styles, the British Invasion, and French pop. ... Modal jazz is jazz played using musical modes rather than chord progressions. ... M-Base is a form of modern jazz music which reached its peak in the mid-to-late-80s and early 90s. ... Nu-jazz (sometimes electro-jazz) was coined in the late 1990s to refer to styles which combine jazz textures and sometimes jazz instrumentation with electronic music. ... Smooth jazz is generally described as a genre of music that utilizes instruments (and, at times, improvisation) traditionally associated with jazz and stylistic influences drawn from, among other sources, funk, pop and R&B. Since the late 1980s, it has become highly successful as a radio format; one can tune... Soul jazz was a development of hard bop which incorporated strong blues and gospel influences in music for small groups featuring keyboards, especially the Hammond organ. ... Trad jazz, short for traditional jazz is a music genre popular in Britain and Australia from the 1940s onward through the 1950s and which still has enthusiasts today. ... West coast jazz is a form of jazz music that developed around Los Angeles at about the same time as hard bop jazz was developing in New York City, in the 1950s and 1960s. ...


Other topics


Musicians - Jazz standard - Jazz royalty - Jazz band - Big band - Word origin This is a list of jazz musicians on whom Wikipedia has articles. ... Jazz standard refers to a tune that is widely known, performed, and recorded among jazz musicians. ... Jazz royalty is a term that reflects the many great jazz musicians who have some sort of royal title in their names or nicknames. ... A jazz band (or jazz ensemble in western dialects of American English) is a musical ensemble that plays jazz music. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from 1935 until the late 1940s. ... The origin of the word jazz is one of the most sought-after word origins in modern American English. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jonathan and Sylvia (244 words)
Swing: The term "swing dance" is commonly used to refer either to a group of dances developing to the evolving Jazz music during the Jazz a.k.a.
Swing era (late 1910s to 1940s) or to the forms that are later evolutions based upon swing era dancing.
Most swing dances developed in response to swing (genre) music, though many of these styles and their descendents are danced today to modern music.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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