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Encyclopedia > Swimming
A competitive human swimmer performing the front crawl.
A competitive human swimmer performing the front crawl.

Swimming is the movement by humans or animals through water, usually without artificial assistance. Swimming is an activity that can be both useful and recreational. Its primary uses are bathing, cooling, travel, fishing, escape, and sport. // This page describes a type of scuba diver. ... -1... Swimmer breathing during front crawl Front crawl is the fastest swimming style known. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... Heat flow along perfectly insulated wire Conduction is the transfer of heat or electric current from one substance to another by direct contact. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... Look up escape in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Animals with lungs have an easier time floating than those without.[1] Almost all mammals can swim by instinct, including bats, kangaroos, moles and sloths. The few exceptions include apes and possibly giraffes and porcupines. There are several reports of apes in zoos falling and drowning in water moats without any struggle (see Bender 1999: 114-119).[citation needed] However, some apes can learn swimming: there is a report of two gorillas swimming in a zoo (Bender 1999: 116-117) and of some orangutans of the Kaja Islands who have learned to swim (Schuster, Smits & Ullal 2008: 102). Land birds can swim or float for at least some time. Ostriches, cassowaries and tortoises can swim. Juvenile penguins drown if they accidentally fall in water since their down cover is not designed for aquatic activities. The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Species Macropus rufus Macropus giganteus Macropus fuliginosus Macropus antilopinus A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning large foot). In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family, the Red Kangaroo, the Antilopine Kangaroo, and the Eastern and Western Grey Kangaroo... For other uses, see Mole. ... This article is about the South American mammal. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Distribution of Ostriches. ... Species Casuarius casuarius Casuarius unappendiculatus Casuarius bennetti Cassowaries (genus Casuarius) are very large flightless birds native to the tropical forests of New Guinea and northeastern Australia. ... For other uses, see Tortoise (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of swimming

Drawings from the Stone Age were found in "the cave of swimmers" near Sura, dating back to 2000 B.C.[2] There is evidence that swimming was also a very popular sport in Greece and Rome in the original Olympic games. In 1538, Nicolas Wynman, German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book. Competitive swimming in Europe started around 1800, mostly using breaststroke.[3] The front crawl, then called the trudgen (now known predominantly as the "front crawl" or "freestyle") was introduced in 1873 by John Arthur Trudgen, copying it from Native Americans.[4] Leander swimming across the Hellespont. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Breaststroke by Michael Phelps at 2008 Missouri Grand Prix. ... Swimmer breathing during front crawl Front crawl is the fastest swimming style known. ...



Swimming was part of the first modern 1896 Summer Olympics games in Athens. In 1900, backstroke was included as an Olympic Event. In 1908, the world swimming association Federation Internationale de Natation was formed. Butterfly was first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in the 1952 Olympics. At present, there are the four recognized strokes of butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle; while the IM ("Individual Medley") is a combination of all four of the strokes in a specific order. Butterfly is done first, followed by backstroke, breaststroke, and then finishing with freestyle. The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were celebrated in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ... Backstroke swimming (amateur competition, non-optimal style) Backstroke also sometimes called back crawl is one of the three swimming styles regulated by FINA, and the only regulated style swum on the back. ... The butterfly, (fly for short) is a swimming stroke swum on the breast, with both arms moving simultaneously. ...


Non-aquatic animals

Humans do not swim instinctively, but they feel attracted to water and show a broader range of swimming movements than other non-aquatic animals (Bender 1999: 119-169). In contrast, many monkeys can naturally swim and some, like the proboscis monkey, crab-eating macaque, and Rhesus macaque swim regularly. For the TV show Monkey see Monkey (TV series) Cynomolgus Monkey at Batu Caves, Malaysia A monkey is any member of two of the three groupings of simian primates. ... Binomial name Wurmb, 1787 The Proboscis Monkey, Nasalis larvatus also known as Long-nosed Monkey is a reddish-brown arboreal Old World monkey. ... Binomial name Macaca fascicularis Raffles, 1821 The Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an arboreal macaque native to South-East Asia. ... Binomial name Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780) The Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), often called the Rhesus Monkey, is one of the best known species of Old World monkeys. ...

A dog swimming
A dog swimming

Some breeds of dog swim recreationally. Umbra, a world record-holding dog, can swim 4 miles (6.4 km) in 73 minutes, placing her in the top 25% in human long-distance swimming competitions[5]. Although most cats hate water, adult cats are good swimmers. The fishing cat is one wild species of cat that has evolved special adaptations for an aquatic or semi-aquatic lifestyle - webbed digits. Tigers and some individual jaguars are the only big cats known go into water readily, though other big cats, including lions, have been observed swimming. A few domestic cat breeds also like swimming, such as the Turkish Van. In a unpublished research carried out 2002 at the University of Bern (Switzerland) , Bender & Hirt showed that the Turkish Van has less inhibition to enter in shallow water compared to another breed, the Russian Blue. This behavior can be partially explained by the character of the Turkish Van, who seems to be more curious and enterprising than other cat breeds (see Widmer 1990). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1488x1056, 745 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Swimming ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1488x1056, 745 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Swimming ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... “km” redirects here. ... Cats may refer to: Felines, members of the animal family Felidae The domesticated animal, cat The musical, yeah right, I bet that this was really dumb. ... Binomial name Prionailurus viverrinus or Felis viverrina (Bennett, 1833) The Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus or Felis viverrina) is a medium-sized cat of Asia. ... The Turkish Van is a rare, naturally occurring breed of cat from the Lake Van region of present-day Turkey. ...


Horses, moose, and elk are very powerful swimmers, and can travel long distances in the water. Elephants are also capable of swimming, even in deep waters. Eyewitnesses have confirmed that camels, including Dromedaries and Bactrians, can swim[6], despite the fact that there is little deep water in their natural habitats. Who ever deleted my page is a prat and i wil hunt them down on lucy and shout at them loudly! RAAAAARRR! connie sansom ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Elk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Elephant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Bactrian Camel range The Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of eastern Asia. ...


Both domestic and wild rabbits can swim. Domestic rabbits are sometimes trained to swim as a circus attraction. A wild rabbit famously swam in an apparent attack on U.S. President Jimmy Carter's boat when it was threatened in its natural habitat.[7] For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... The rabbit swimming away from the President Dubbed the killer rabbit attack by the media, the Jimmy Carter rabbit incident involved a swamp rabbit that caught press imagination after trying furiously to board then-U.S. President Jimmy Carters fishing boat on April 20, 1979. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


The Guinea pig (or cavy) is noted as having an excellent swimming ability.[8]. Mice can swim quite well. They do panic when placed in water, but many lab mice are used in the Morris water maze, a test to measure learning. When mice swim, they use their tails like flagella and kick with their legs. For other uses, see Guinea pig (disambiguation). ... Mice may refer to: An abbreviation of Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions. ... In neuroscience, the Morris water maze is a behavioral procedure designed to test spatial memory. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ...


Many species of snakes are aquatic and live their entire lives in the water, but all terrestrial snakes are excellent swimmers as well.[citation needed] The larger pythons and anacondas spend the majority of their time in the water; their skeletons are not able to support their body weight well on dry land. Many Beetles are able to swim, some species of diving beetle spend most of their time in the water. Families Acrochordidae Aniliidae Anomalepididae Anomochilidae Atractaspididae Boidae Bolyeriidae Colubridae Cylindrophiidae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Leptotyphlopidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Typhlopidae Uropeltidae Viperidae Xenopeltidae Snakes are cold blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. ... Synonyms Pythonoidea - Fitzinger, 1826 Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831 Holodonta - Müller, 1832 Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840 Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythones - Cope, 1861 Pythonidae - Cope, 1864 Peropodes - Meyer, 1874... For other uses, see Anaconda (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... Genera at least 160, see text The predaceous diving beetles (also spelled predacious) are a family (Dytiscidae) of water beetles. ...


Competitive swimming

The goal of competitive swimming is to be the fastest over a given distance. Competitive swimming became popular in the nineteenth century, and comprises 34 individual events - 17 male events and 17 female events. Swimming is an event at the Summer Olympic Games, where male and female athletes compete in 13 of the recognized events each. Olympic events are held in a 50 meter pool. Competitive swimming's international governing body is FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation), the International Swimming Federation. The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad are an international multi-sport event usually Quadrennial, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Fina may refer to: Fina is the name of Belgian petroleum company Petrofina. ...


The four competitive strokes are the butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, and freestyle (front crawl). While "freestyle" and "front crawl" are often used interchangeably, freestyle is the more common name and is used in almost all competitive, club-swimming or international competitions.Swimmers generally choose to swim front crawl in a freestyle event since it is the fastest and easiest stroke. Disqualification will occur if the stroke is not swum correctly, for example if the swimmer does not touch the wall with two hands during breaststroke or butterfly. The butterfly, (fly for short) is a swimming stroke swum on the breast, with both arms moving simultaneously. ... Backstroke swimming (amateur competition, non-optimal style) Backstroke also sometimes called back crawl is one of the three swimming styles regulated by FINA, and the only regulated style swum on the back. ... Breaststroke by Michael Phelps at 2008 Missouri Grand Prix. ... Freestyle is one of the official swimming competitions according to the rules of FINA. However, it is technically not a style, as there are very few regulations about the way freestyle has to be swum. ...


These strokes can be swum individually or together in an individual medley (IM). The IM order is: 1) butterfly, 2) backstroke, 3) breaststroke, and 4) freestyle. There are two types of relays: medley and freestyle. The medley relay order is: 1) backstroke, 2) breaststroke, 3) butterfly, and 4) freestyle. Each of the four swimmers in the relay swims a predetermined distance, dependent on the overall length of the relay. The three relay lengths are 200 meters or yards, 400 meters or yards, and 800 meters or yards (which is only swum freestyle). In a 50 meter pool, each swimmer swims one length for the 200 relay, two lengths for the 400 relay, and four lengths for the 800 relay. In a 25 meter or yard pool, each swimmer swims two lengths for the 200 relay, four lengths for the 400 relay, and eight lengths for the 800 relay.There have also been 100 yard relays that have been done by 8 and under swimmers, but is very rare except in summer recreation leagues. Many full-size competition pools in the United States have a length of 50 meters and a width of 25 yards (the Olympic pool size, allowing both short course (25 m or 25 yd pool) and long course (50 m pool) races to be held. Medley is a combination of four different swimming styles into one race. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... This derivation of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts nine historical units of measurement: the Yard, the Span, the Cubit, the Flemish Ell, the English Ell, the French Ell, the Fathom, the Hand , and the Foot. ... This derivation of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts nine historical units of measurement: the Yard, the Span, the Cubit, the Flemish Ell, the English Ell, the French Ell, the Fathom, the Hand , and the Foot. ...


There are several types of judges: a starter sends the swimmers off the blocks and may also call a false-start if a swimmer leaves the block before the starter sends them; finish judges make sure the swimmers touch the wall with the appropriate number of hands (one hand for freestyle and backstroke, two for breaststroke and butterfly with the swimmer's hands touching the wall at the same time, not one after another) turn judges check that the swimmers' turns are within rules; stroke judges check the swimmers' strokes; time keepers time the swims; and the referee along with the starter and the officials make sure everything is running smoothly. If an official catches a swimmer breaking a rule concerning the stroke he or she is swimming, that swimmer is said to be disqualified (commonly referred to as a "DQ") and the swim is not considered valid. An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organisation or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either his own or that of his superior and/or employer, public or legally private). ...


There are two types of meets. 'A' meets are official meets that allow qualification for a special or bigger meet if the qualifying time is met. Scores are kept to see how each team did at the end of the season. 'B' meets are used as practice meets, where the normal, or prime stroke is swum if not yet qualified. Scores are not kept.


In the USA and the UK, communities may sponsor competitive swimming leagues for children and teenagers, made up of swim teams. These leagues for the most part adhere to recognized swimming rules, swim the standard strokes, but swim shorter lengths as events in swim meets. These leagues are usually active in the warmer months, and are not directly associated with a national or world swim organization. However, swimmers who begin their competitive swimming experience on such a local swim team may go on to join a nationally-governed team.


In Australia such competition is usually conducted under the auspices of a club affiliated with the State Association which in turn is affiliated with Swimming Australia, the FINA accredited body. This provides a direct pathway to top level competition for those capable of taking it while still providing a more relaxed environment for those whose main intent is to have fun swimming competitively.


Masters swimming is a club sport for adults who have a competitive spirit. Swimming at this level differs from competitive club swimming. In swim meets masters are allowed to compete in the 50, 100 and 200 of backstroke, fly and breaststroke and the 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1650 of freestyle. The age groups are organized into 5 year increments (Masters, 1). “Swimming has continually been identified as the best way to exercise. Stress reduction, weight control, cardiovascular fitness, reduced cholesterol, muscle tone and endurance are all positively influenced by exercise. Masters Swimmers swear by it (Masters, 1).” Shoulder injuries are the most common because of the repetitive motion of freestyle, butterfly, and backstroke. Knee injuries often occur from breaststroke due to the unnatural kick. Incorrect stroke technique can also lead to injuries.


Changes to the sport

Swimming times have dropped over the years due to better training techniques and to new developments.


In the first four Olympics competitions were not held in pools, but in open water (1896- The Mediterranean, 1900- The Seine River, 1904- an artificial lake, 1906- The Mediterranean). The 1904 Olympics' freestyle race was the only one ever measured at 100 yards, instead of the usual 100 meters. A 100 meter pool was built for the 1908 Olympics and sat in the center of the main stadium's track and field oval. The 1912 Olympics, held in the Stockholm harbour, marked the beginning of electronic timing. (Redirected from 1904 Olympics) The 1904 Summer Olympics, formally known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in St. ... (Redirected from 1908 Olympics) The Games of the IV Olympiad, originally scheduled to be held in Rome, were instead held in 1908 in London, England. ... (Redirected from 1912 Olympics) The Games of the V Olympiad were held in 1912 in Sweden. ...


Male swimmers wore full body suits until the 1940s, which caused more drag in the water than their modern swim-wear counterparts. Competition suits now include engineered fabric and designs to reduce swimmers' drag in the water and prevent athlete fatigue. Also, over the years, pool designs have lessened the drag. Some design considerations allow for the reduction of swimming resistance, making the pool faster. Namely, proper pool depth, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, and the use of other innovative hydraulic, acoustic and illumination designs. An object moving through a gas or liquid experiences a force in direction opposite to its motion. ...


The 1924 Olympics were the first to use the standard 50 meter pool with marked lanes. In the freestyle, swimmers originally dove from the pool walls, but diving blocks were incorporated at the 1936 Summer Olympics. The flip-turn was developed by the 1950s. In addition, a split stroke in the breaststroke start and turns have been added to help speed up the stroke. The 1924 Olympics may refer to two things: The 1924 Winter Olympics took place in Chamonix,France. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ...


Recreational swimming

The most common purpose for swimming is recreation. Recreational swimming is a good way to relax, while enjoying a full-body workout. Several swimming styles are suitable for recreational swimming; most recreational swimmers prefer a style that keeps their head out of the water and has an underwater arm recovery. Breaststroke, side stroke, head up front crawl and dog paddle are the most common strokes utilized in recreational swimming, but the out-of-water arm recovery of freestyle or butterfly gives rise to better exploitation of the difference in resistance between air and water. This is a List of swimming styles commonly known and swum. ... Breaststroke by Michael Phelps at 2008 Missouri Grand Prix. ... Side stroke is a swimming stroke, so named because the swimmer lies on one side. ... Swimmer breathing during front crawl Front crawl is the fastest swimming style known. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...

A recreational breaststroke swimmer
A recreational breaststroke swimmer

The butterfly stroke, which consists of out-of-water recovery with even symmetry in body movements, is most suited to rough water swimming. For example, in a record-setting example of endurance swimming, Vicki Keith crossed the rough waters of Lake Ontario using butterfly. Most recreational swimming takes place in swimming pools, and calm natural waters (sea, lakes, rivers), therefore front crawl is suitable. Part of the breaststroke, in a hotel swimming pool at Brixham, Devon, England. ... Part of the breaststroke, in a hotel swimming pool at Brixham, Devon, England. ... Breaststroke by Michael Phelps at 2008 Missouri Grand Prix. ... The butterfly, (fly for short) is a swimming stroke swum on the breast, with both arms moving simultaneously. ... Vicki Keith (born 26 February 1961) is a Canadian ultra marathon swimmer. ... 50 meter indoor swimming pool A swimming pool, swimming bath, or wading pool is an artificially enclosed body of water intended for recreational or competitive swimming, or for other bathing activities that do not involve swimming, i. ...


Occupational swimming

Some occupations require the workers to swim. For example, abalone divers or pearl divers swim and dive to obtain an economic benefit, as do spear fishermen. Species Many, see species section. ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... // Spearfisherman hunting dog-tooth tuna in the Ryu-Kyu Islands Dutch fishermen using tridents in the 17th century Night spear fishing, Amazon basin, Peru. ...


Swimming is used to rescue other swimmers in distress. In the USA, most cities and states have trained lifeguards, such as the Los Angeles City Lifeguards, deployed at pools and beaches. There are a number of specialized swimming styles specially for rescue purposes (see List of swimming styles). Such techniques are studied by lifeguards or members of the Coast Guard. The training for these techniques has also evolved into competitions such as surf lifesaving. This is a List of swimming styles commonly known and swum. ... For other uses, see Lifeguard (disambiguation). ... For the 2002 South Korean film, see The Coast Guard (film). ... Surf Ski Carnival in Alexandra Heads. ...


Swimming is also used in marine biology to observe plants and animals in their natural habitat. Other sciences use swimming, for example Konrad Lorenz swam with geese as part of his studies of animal behavior. Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903 in Vienna – February 27, 1989 in Vienna) was an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. ... Geese redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Swimming also has military purposes. Military swimming is usually done by special forces, such as Navy SEALS. Swimming is used to approach a location, gather intelligence, sabotage or combat, and to depart a location. This may also include airborne insertion into water or exiting a submarine while it is submerged. Due to regular exposure to large bodies of water, all recruits in the United States Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard are required to complete basic swimming or water survival training. The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... SEALs in from the water. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...


Swimming is also a professional sport. Companies such as Speedo, TYR Sports, Arena and Nike sponsor swimmers who are at the international level. Cash awards are also given at many of the major competitions for breaking records.[citation needed] The Speedo boomerang logo Speedo is a swimsuit manufacturer that began on Bondi Beach near Sydney, Australia. ... Categories: Swimwear manufacturers | Stub ... Nike, Inc. ...

Swimming as exercise

Swimming is an excellent form of exercise. Because the density of the human body is very similar to that of water, the body is supported by the water and less stress is therefore placed on joints and bones. Swimming is frequently used as an exercise in rehabilitation after injuries or for those with disabilities.


Resistance swimming is one form of swimming exercise. It is done either for training purposes, to hold the swimmer in place for stroke analysis, or to enable swimming in a confined space for athletic or therapeutic reasons. Resistance swimming can be done either against a stream of moving water (often termed a swimming machine) or by holding the swimmer stationary with elastic attachments.


Swimming is primarily an aerobic exercise due to the long exercise time, requiring a constant oxygen supply to the muscles, except for short sprints where the muscles work anaerobically. As with most aerobic exercise swimming is believed to reduce the harmful effects of stress. Swimming can improve posture and develop a strong lean physique, often called a "swimmer's build." Muscle development depends upon the stroke and distances trained, but avid swimmers typically have well-developed triceps, upper backs, deltoids, and as well as quadriceps.


The risks of swimming

A sign warns hikers on the trail to Hanakapiai Beach.
A sign warns hikers on the trail to Hanakapiai Beach.

Swimming is a healthy activity and enjoys a low risk of injury compared with many other sports. Nevertheless there are some health risks with swimming, including the following: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 297 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (441 × 888 pixels, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Super Crop showing only the sign. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 297 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (441 × 888 pixels, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Super Crop showing only the sign. ... A sign warns hikers on the trail to Hanakapiai Beach. ...

  • Drowning, inhalation of water arising from
  • Adverse effects of immersion
    • Secondary drowning, where inhaled salt water creates a foam in the lungs that restricts breathing.
    • Salt water aspiration syndrome.
    • Thermal shock after jumping into water can cause the heart to stop.
    • Exostosis which is an abnormal growth in the ear canal due to the frequent, long-term splashing of water into the ear canal. (Known as Swimmer's ear.)
  • Exposure to chemicals
    • Disinfectant Chlorine will increase the pH of the water, if uncorrected the raised pH may cause eye or skin irritations. [1]
    • Chlorine inhalation; breathing small quantities of chlorine gas from the water surface whilst swimming for long periods of time may have an adverse effect on the lungs, particularly for asthmatics. This problem may be resolved by using a pool with better ventilation, with an outdoor pool having the best results.
    • Chlorine also has a negative cosmetic effect after repeated long exposure, stripping brown hair of all color, turning it very light blonde. Chlorine damages the structure of hair, turning it "frizzy." Chlorine can dissolve copper which turns blonde hair green. Proper pool maintenance can reduce the amount of copper in the water, while wetting the hair before entering a pool can help reduce the absorption of copper.
    • Chlorine will often remain on skin in an anhydrous form, even after several washings. The chlorine becomes odorous once it is back in an aqueous solution (when salivated on, during a shower, etc.).
  • Infection
    • Water is an excellent environment for many bacteria, parasites, fungi and viruses affecting humans depending on water quality.
    • Skin infections from both swimming and shower rooms can cause athlete's foot (boat bug). The easiest way to avoid this is to dry the space between the toes. [2]
    • Microscopic parasites such as Cryptosporidium can be resistant to chlorine and can cause diarrheal illness when swimmers swallow pool water.
    • Ear infections, otitis media, (otitis externa).
    • When chlorine levels are improperly balanced, severe health problems may result, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma.
  • Swimmer's own actions
    • Overuse injury; competitive butterfly stroke swimmers for example may develop some back pain, including vertebral fractures in rare cases, and shoulder pain after long years of training, breaststroke swimmers may develop knee pain, and hip pain, and freestyle and backstroke swimmers may develop shoulder pain, commonly referred to as swimmer's shoulder (a form of tendinitis).
    • Hyperventilation in a bid to extend underwater breath-hold times lowers blood carbon dioxide resulting in suppression of the urge to breathe and consequent loss of consciousness towards the end of the dive, see shallow water blackout for the mechanism.
  • Adverse water and weather conditions
    • Currents, including tides and rivers can cause exhaustion, can pull swimmers away from safety, or pull swimmers under water.
    • Wind enhances waves and can blow a swimmer off course.
    • Hypothermia, due to cold water, can cause rapid exhaustion and unconsciousness.
    • Sunburn severity can be increased by reflections in the water and the lack of clothing worn during swimming. Long-term exposure to the sun contributes to risk of skin cancer.
  • Objects in the water
    • Propeller damage is a major cause of accidents, either by being run over by a boat or entanglement on climbing into a boat.
    • Collision with another swimmer, the pool walls, rocks or boats.
    • Diving into a submerged object, or the bottom, often in turbid water.
    • Snagging on underwater objects, particularly submerged branches or wrecks.
    • Stepping on sharp objects such as broken glass.

Organizations publish safety guidelines to help swimmers avoid these risks.[9][10][11] A shallow water blackout is a loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoxia towards the end of a breath-hold dive in water typically shallower than five metres (16 feet), when the swimmer does not necessarily experience an urgent need to breathe and has no other obvious medical condition that... Heart attack redirects here. ... Arteries of the neck. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Salt water aspiration syndrome is a rare diving disorder suffered by SCUBA divers who inhale a mist of sea water from a faulty demand valve causing irritation of the lungs. ... An exostosis (plural: exostoses) is the formation of new bone on the surface of a bone. ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... Otitis externa (also called swimmers ear or ear ache) is an inflammation, irritation, or infection of the outer ear and ear canal. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... For other uses, see Asthma (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... This article is about a medical condition. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... Species Cryptosporidium bailey Cryptosporidium meleagridis Cryptosporidium muris Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium serpentis Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen of the Phylum Apicomplexa and causes a diarrheal illness called cryptosporidiosis. ... Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ... The butterfly, (fly for short) is a swimming stroke swum on the breast, with both arms moving simultaneously. ... Back pain (also known dorsalgia) is pain felt in the back that may originate from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. ... Breaststroke by Michael Phelps at 2008 Missouri Grand Prix. ... Tendonitis (also tenonitis or tendinitis) is an inflammation of a tendon. ... In medicine, hyperventilation (or hyperpnea) is the state of breathing faster or deeper (hyper) than necessary, and thereby reducing the carbon dioxide concentration of the blood below normal. ... A shallow water blackout is a loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoxia towards the end of a breath-hold dive in water typically shallower than five metres (16 feet), when the swimmer does not necessarily experience an urgent need to breathe and has no other obvious medical condition that... A current is a movement or flow of fluids, especially water in a river or ocean. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... For the TV movie also known as The Ocean Waves, see I Can Hear the Sea. ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Subclasses Subclass Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Subclass Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Wikispecies has information related to... Binomial name Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771 The Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a bivalve mussel native to freshwater lakes of southeast Russia. ... For other uses, see Stingray (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Electrophorus electricus The electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) is a most unusual species of fish. ...


Swimming lessons

A styrofoam flotation aid can help children learn to swim.
A styrofoam flotation aid can help children learn to swim.

Children are often given swimming lessons, which serve to develop swimming technique and confidence. Children generally do not swim independently until 4 years of age.[12] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4368x2912, 4265 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swimming Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4368x2912, 4265 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swimming Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used...


In Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, the curriculum for the fifth grade states that all children should learn how to swim as well as how to handle emergencies near water. Most commonly, children are expected to be able to swim 200 metres (220 yards) Рof which at least 50 metres (55 yards) on their back Рafter first falling into deep water and getting their head under water. Even though about 95 percent of Swedish school children know how to swim, drowning remains the third most common cause of death among children.[13] For a curriculum vitae, see R̩sum̩. In formal education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the yard. ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the yard. ...


In both the Netherlands and Belgium swimming lessons under school time (schoolzwemmen, school swimming) are supported by the government. Most schools provide swimming lessons. There is a long tradition of swimming lessons in the Netherlands and Belgium, the Dutch translation for the breaststroke swimming style is even schoolslag (schoolstroke). The children learn a variant of the breaststroke which is technically not entirely correct. Breaststroke by Michael Phelps at 2008 Missouri Grand Prix. ...


In many places, swimming lessons are provided by local swimming pools, both those run by the local authority and by private leisure companies. Many schools also include swimming lessons into their Physical Education curricula, provided either in the schools' own pool, or in the nearest public pool. In education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their contents offered by an institution such as a school or university. ...


In the UK, the "Top-ups scheme" calls for school children who cannot swim by the age of 11 to receive intensive daily lessons. These children who have not reached Great Britain's National Curriculum standard of swimming 25 metres by the time they leave primary school will be given a half-hour lesson every day for two weeks during term-time.[14] The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


In Canada and Mexico there has been a call for swimming to be included in the public school curriculum.[15] The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ...


Swimsuits

Main article: swimsuit

Most standard clothing is impractical and unsafe for swimming. In historical cultures, it has been common to swim nude, but in those with taboos against nudity, specialized swimwear has been the norm. Most cultures today expect swimsuits to be worn for public swimming. A swimsuit, bathing suit or swimming costume is an item of clothing designed to be worn for swimming. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general; for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Nude redirects here. ...


Modern men's swimsuits are usually shorts, either skintight (jammers) or loose fitting (swim trunks), covering only the upper legs or not at all. Almost always, the upper body is left uncovered. In some cultures, custom and/or laws have required tops for public swimming. For other uses, see Shorts (disambiguation). ...


Modern women's swimsuits are generally skintight, either two pieces covering only the breasts and pelvic region, or a single piece covering them both plus the torso between them. Skirts are uncommon and short when included, but have been required and sometimes as much as full length in some cultures.


Competitive swimwear seeks to improve upon bare human skin for a speed advantage. For extra speed a swimmer wears a body suit, which has rubber or plastic bumps that break up the water close to the body and provides a small amount of thrust--just barely enough to help a swimmer swim faster. For swimming in cold water, wetsuits provide thermal insulation. Image:Speedo. ... A surfer in a wetsuit. ...


Swim caps keep the body streamlined. A swim cap, or bathing cap, is a silicone, latex or lycra cap worn on the head by recreational and competitive swimmers. ...


See also

Swimming Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... For other uses, see Dive. ... Fina may refer to: Fina is the name of Belgian petroleum company Petrofina. ... FINA World Championships or World Aquatics Championships are held every two years. ... Fish swim by exerting force against the surrounding water. ... Ice swimming is swimming in a body of water with a frozen crust of ice, which requires cutting a hole in the ice. ... For other uses, see Lifeguard (disambiguation). ... This is a List of swimming styles commonly known and swum. ... Swimming is one of the most highly participated-in sports in the world. ... There are a large number of sports that involve water. ... Resistance swimming is a form of swimming exercise undertaken either for athletic or therapeutic purposes. ... Skinny dipping, or skinny-dipping is swimming naked. ... Swimming has been a sport at every modern Summer Olympics. ... A swimming machine is a resistance swimming apparatus, often self-contained, enabling the swimmer to swim in place. ... For the 2003 film, see Swimming Pool (film). ... Total Immersion is a new approach to the hydrodynamics of the human body when swimming. ... United States Masters Swimming (USMS) is a national organization that provides organized workouts, competitions, clinics and workshops for adults aged 18 and over. ...

References

  1. ^ Re: Is it true that gorillas can't swim?
  2. ^ Development of the Modern Stroke. Retrieved on 2008-01-08. “Ancient civilizations left ample evidence of their swimming abilities. Bas-relief artwork in an Egyptian tomb from around 2,000 B.C. shows an overarm stroke like the front crawl.”
  3. ^ Development of the Modern Stroke. Retrieved on 2008-01-08. “By 1837, when modern competitive swimming began in London, several indoor pools already existed.”
  4. ^ Breakthrough Swimming. Retrieved on 2008-01-09.
  5. ^ SWIMMING DOG VIDEOS Swimming Background
  6. ^ The Straight Dope Mailbag: The Straight Dope Mailbag: Is the camel the only animal that can't swim?
  7. ^ News of the Odd - Jimmy Carter Attacked by Killer Rabbit (April 20, 1979)
  8. ^ Harkness, John E. (1995). The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents. Williams & Wilkins, pp. 30–39. ISBN 0-683-03919-9. 
  9. ^ River and Lake Swimming Association's Safety Pages
  10. ^ Insurance Information Institute's Pool Safety Pages
  11. ^ Safe Sea Swimming
  12. ^ Injury Prevention Committee (2003). "Swimming lessons for infants and toddlers". Paediatrics & Child Health 8 (2): 113–114. 
  13. ^ Lindmark, Ulrika. Tillsyn av simkunnighet och förmåga att hantera nödsituationer vid vatten (PDF) (Swedish). Retrieved on 2006-06-28.
  14. ^ "Children unable to swim at 11 will be given top-up lessons", Telegraph Group Limited, 2006-06-14. Retrieved on 2006-07-12. 
  15. ^ "Federal minister calls for school swim lessons", CTV, 2005-07-18. Retrieved on 2006-06-28. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Bender N. & Hirt N., Did Turkish Van cats lose theyr fear of water? Forschungspraktikum Evolutionsökologie, University of Bern, Bern 2002.
  • Bender R., Die evolutionsbiologische Grundlage des menschlichen Schwimmens, Tauchens und Watens: Konvergenzforschung in den Terrestrisierungshypothesen und in der Aquatic Ape Theory. Diploma thesis, Institute of Sport and Sport Sciences, University of Bern, Bern 1999.
  • Cox, Lynne (2005 by Harvest Books). Swimming to Antarctica: Tales of a Long-Distance Swimmer. 2005 by Harvest Books. ISBN 0-15-603130-2. 
  • Maniscalco F., Il nuoto nel mondo greco romano, Naples 1993.
  • Mehl H., Antike Schwimmkunst, Munchen 1927.
  • Schuster G., Smits W. & Ullal J., Thinkers of the Jungle. Tandem Verlag 2008.
  • Sprawson, Charles (2000). Haunts of the Black Masseur - The Swimmer as Hero. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3539-0. svin
  • Tarpinian, Steve (1996). The Essential Swimmer. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-55821-386-4. 
  • Widmer F., Ein erster Vergleich des Verhaltens am Wasser zwischen Hauskatzen und Türkischen Van-Katzen. Diploma thesis, University of Zurich, Zurich 1990.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Swimming
Look up Swimming in
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The Asian Amateur Swimming Federation is the Asian governing body of swimming, which was founded in 1978 in Berlin. ... Ligue Européenne de Natation is the European governing body of swimming. ... European LC Championships are held every two years in late spring/early summer. ... The European Short Course Championships are held every year in winter – usually in December. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Swimming - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2945 words)
Several swimming styles are suitable for recreational swimming; most recreational swimmers prefer a style that keeps their head out of the water and with an underwater arm recovery.
Swimming is also used in marine biology to observe plants and animals in their natural habitat.
Swimming is primarily an aerobic exercise due to the relatively long exercise time, requiring a constant oxygen supply to the muscles, except for short sprints where the muscles work anaerobically.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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