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Encyclopedia > Sweet corn
Husked sweetcorn
Husked sweetcorn

Sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa[1]), also called sweetcorn, sugar corn, or simply corn, is a variety of maize with a high sugar content. Sweet corn is the result of a naturally-occurring recessive mutation in the genes which control conversion of sugar to starch inside the endosperm of the corn kernel. Unlike field corn varieties, which are harvested when the kernels are dry and fully mature, sweet corn is picked when immature and eaten as a vegetable, rather than a grain. Since the process of maturation involves converting sugar into starch, sweet corn stores poorly and must be eaten, canned, or frozen before the kernels become tough and starchy. Corn http://geekphilosopher. ... Corn http://geekphilosopher. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ... Species Zea diploperennis Zea luxurians Zea nicaraguensis Zea perennis References ITIS 42268 2002-09-22 Sorting Zea names This article is about the staple food. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... For other uses, see Canning (disambiguation). ...

Sweetcorn (seeds only)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 90 kcal   360 kJ
Carbohydrates     19 g
- Sugars  3.2 g
- Dietary fiber  2.7 g  
Fat 1.2 g
Protein 3.2 g
Vitamin A equiv.  10 μg  1%
Folate (Vit. B9)  46 μg  12%
Vitamin C  7 mg 12%
Iron  0.5 mg 4%
Magnesium  37 mg 10% 
Potassium  270 mg   6%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Contents

Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ...

History

Young sweetcorn

Sweet corn occurs as a spontaneous mutation in field corn and was grown by several Native American tribes. The Iroquois gave the first recorded sweet corn (called "Papoon") to European settlers in 1779.[2] It soon became a popular vegetable in southern and central regions of the United States. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1963x1526, 530 KB)Young sweetcorn stalks. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1963x1526, 530 KB)Young sweetcorn stalks. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


Commercial production in the 20th century saw the rise of the se (sugary enhanced) mutants, which are more suitable for local fresh sales, and in the 1950s the sh2 (shrunken-2) gene was isolated that minimized production of the enzyme that converts sugar to starch.[3] There are currently hundreds of varieties, with more constantly being developed.


Anatomy

The same rows of corn 41 days later at maturity.
The same rows of corn 41 days later at maturity.

The fruit of the sweet corn plant is the corn kernel, a type of fruit called a caryopsis. The ear is a collection of kernels on the cobb. The ear is covered by tightly wrapped leaves called the husk. Silk is the name for the styles of the pistillate flowers, which emerge from the husk. The husk and silk are removed by hand, before boiling but not before roasting, in a process called husking or shucking. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1255x1695, 371 KB)The same two rows of corn from the Image:YoungSweetCorn. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1255x1695, 371 KB)The same two rows of corn from the Image:YoungSweetCorn. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... In botany, a caryopsis is a type of simple dry fruit — one that is moncarpelate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat. ... The Pistil is the part of the flower made up of one or more carpels. ...


Consumption

The kernels are boiled or steamed, and usually served with butter and salt. In Europe, China, and Japan, they are often used as a pizza topping. Corn on the cob is sweet corn cob that has been boiled, steamed, or grilled whole; the kernels are then bitten off the cob with the teeth or cut off the cob. Creamed corn is sweet corn served in a milk or cream sauce. Sweet corn can also be eaten as baby corn. For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pizza (disambiguation). ... Baby Corn is actually not at all related to maize, or corn in the United States. ...


If left to dry on the plant, kernels may be taken off the cob and cooked in oil where, unlike popcorn, they expand to about double the original kernel size. See Corn nuts. A soup may also be made from the plant, called sweet corn soup. For other uses, see Popcorn (disambiguation). ... Corn nuts (or toasted corn) are a snack food made by roasting or deep frying maize. ...


Varieties

Sweetcorn that has not been husked yet, headed to Market.
Sweetcorn that has not been husked yet, headed to Market.

Shoepeg corn is a particularly small, white variety of sweet corn. Kernels that are allowed to mature to hard grains are used as seed corn or ground into corn flour. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Super sweet corn are varieties of sweet corn which produce higher than normal levels of sugar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2482 KB)[edit] Summary Corn headed to market [edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2482 KB)[edit] Summary Corn headed to market [edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Products made out of cornstarch Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the starch of the maize grain, commonly known as corn. ...


Open pollinated (non-hybrid) corn has largely been replaced in the commercial market by sweeter, earlier hybrids, which also have the advantage of maintaining their sweet flavor longer. Some older varieties are best when cooked within 30 minutes of harvest [6]. Despite their short storage life, many open pollinated varieties such as Golden Bantam remain popular for home gardeners and specialty markets, or are marketed as heirloom seeds. Although less sweet, they are often described as more tender and flavorful than hybrid varieties. // This article is about a biological term. ... Only a few of the many varieties of potato are commercially grown; others are heirlooms. ...


Genetics

There are several different genetic mutations responsible for various types of sweet corn. Early varieties, such as those used by American Indians, were the result of the mutant su ("sugary") allele.[4] They contain about 5-10% sugar by weight. Another form of the same gene, the se or "sugary enhanced" allele, was responsible for so-called "Everlasting Heritage" varieties, such as 'Silver Queen'. Varieties with the se alleles have a much longer storage life and contain 12-20% sugar.[5] Beginning in the 1950s, plant breeders at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign began developing 'supersweet' varieties, which occur due to a mutation at another gene (the sh or "shrunken" gene).[6] For the hard rock band, see Allele (band). ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ...


All of the alleles responsible for sweet corn are recessive, so it must be isolated from any field corn varieties that release pollen at the same time; the endosperm develops from genes from both parents, and heterozygous kernels will be tough and starchy. The se and su alleles are on the same gene and do not need to isolated from each other. However, since sh2 is a recessive allele on a different gene, supersweet varieties must be grown in isolation from other varieties to avoid cross-pollination and resulting starchiness, either in space (various sources quote minimum quarantine distances from 100 to 400 feet / 30.5 to 122 m) or in time (i.e. the supersweet corn does not pollinate at the same time as other corn in nearby fields). In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ... Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ... Heterozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have different alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ...


In colder areas, a fourth type of sweet corn, known as sy (for synergistic), is often grown. This variety of corn mixes se and sh2 kernels on the same cob and does not require isolation.


References

  1. ^ Sweet Corn. Horticulture 233 webpage. Oregon State University.
  2. ^ "Sweet Corn Production." Jonathan R. Schultheis, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University. Revised 12/94. [1]
  3. ^ [2]"Supersweet sweet corn: 50 years in the making." Debra Levey Larson. Inside Illinois Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug. 7, 2003. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign news bureau.
  4. ^ "Sweet Corn Production." Jonathan R. Schultheis, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University. Revised 12/94. [3]
  5. ^ "Sweet Corn." Oregon State University Horticulture 233 webpage. [4]
  6. ^ [5]"Supersweet sweet corn: 50 years in the making." Debra Levey Larson. Inside Illinois Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug. 7, 2003. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign news bureau.

Oregon State University (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon (USA). ... North Carolina State University is a public, coeducational, extensive research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. ... North Carolina State University is a public, coeducational, extensive research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. ... Oregon State University (OSU) is a four-year research and degree-granting public university, located in Corvallis, Oregon (USA). ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sweetcorn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (731 words)
Sweetcorn (or sweet corn, also known as sugar corn), is a hybridized variety of maize (Zea mays), specifically bred to increase the sugar content.
Corn on the cob is a sweetcorn cob that has been boiled, steamed, or grilled whole; the kernels are then bitten off the cob with the teeth, also commonly served with butter.
From open-pollinated corn have been hybridized corn cultivars that are not only sweeter, but which notably hold their sweetness longer, supposedly for a few days.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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