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Encyclopedia > Swedish language
Swedish
svenska
Spoken in: Sweden and Finland 
Region: Northern Europe
Total speakers: 9.3 million 
Ranking: 74
Language family: Indo-European
 Germanic
  North Germanic
   East Scandinavian
    Swedish 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Europe European Union
Flag of Finland Finland
Flag of Sweden Sweden (de facto)
Nordic Council
Regulated by: Swedish Language Council (in Sweden)
Svenska språkbyrån (in Finland)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: sv
ISO 639-2: swe
ISO 639-3: swe 
Map of the major Swedish-speaking areas

Swedish (svenska ) is a North Germanic language, spoken predominantly in Sweden, parts of Finland, especially along the coast, on the Åland islands, by more than nine million people. It is mutually intelligible with two of the other North Germanic languages, Danish and Norwegian. Along with the other North Germanic languages, Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Nordic_Council. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... The Swedish Language Council (Svenska sprÃ¥knämnden) is the primary regulatory body for the advancement and cultivation of the Swedish language. ... The Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Finnish: Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskus, Swedish: Forskningscentralen för de inhemska sprÃ¥ken, Northern Sami: Ruovttueatnan gielaid dutkanguovddáš) is a governmental linguistic research institute of Finland geared at studies of Finnish, Swedish, the Sami languages, Romany language, and the Finnish Sign Language. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 507 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1650 × 1950 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Sv-svenska. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ...


Standard Swedish is the national language that evolved from the Central Swedish dialects in the 19th century and was well-established by the beginning of the 20th century. While distinct regional varieties descended from the older rural dialects still exist, the spoken and written language is uniform and standardized, with a 99% literacy rate among adults. Some dialects differ considerably from the standard language in grammar and vocabulary and are not always mutually intelligible with Standard Swedish. These dialects are confined to rural areas and are spoken primarily by small numbers of people with low social mobility. Though not facing imminent extinction, such dialects have been in decline during the past century, despite the fact that they are well researched and their use is often encouraged by local authorities. Standard Swedish (standardsvenska, rikssvenska or högsvenska) denotes Swedish as a spoken and written standard language in Sweden and Finland. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... Social mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of their life (known as intragenerational mobility), or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system (intergenerational mobility). ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ...


The standard word order is Subject Verb Object, though this can often be changed to stress certain words of phrases. Swedish morphology is similar to English, i.e. that words have comparatively few inflections; there are two genders, no grammatical cases (though older analyses posit two cases, nominative and genitive), and a distinction between plural and singular. Adjectives are compared as in English, and are also inflected according to gender, number and definiteness. The definiteness of nouns is marked primarily through suffixes (endings), complemented with separate definite and indefinite articles. The prosody features both stress and in most dialects tonal qualities. The language has a comparatively large vowel inventory. Swedish is also notable for the voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, a highly variable consonant phoneme. In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word singular may refer to one of several concepts. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In grammatical theory, definiteness is a feature of noun phrases, distinguishing between entities which are specific and identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases). ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The voiceless dorso-palatal fricative (also called voiceless postalveolar and velar fricative, voiceless coarticulated velar and palatoalveolar fricative and voiceless dorsovelar fricative) is a type of consonant sound, used in spoken languages, in certain variants and dialects of Swedish, where it is most often known as the sj-sound. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...

Contents

Classification

Swedish is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages. Together with Danish it belongs to the East Scandinavian languages, separating it from the West Scandinavian languages, consisting of Faroese, Icelandic and Norwegian. More recent analysis divide the North Germanic languages into the Insular Scandinavian and Continental Scandinavian languages, grouping Norwegian with Danish and Swedish based on mutual intelligibility and the fact that Norwegian has been heavily influenced by East Scandinavian (particular Danish) during the last millennium and has diverged considerably from both Faroese and Icelandic. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ...


By many general criteria of mutual intelligibility, the Continental Scandinavian languages could very well be considered to be dialects of a common Scandinavian language. However, due to several hundred years of sometimes quite intense rivalry between Denmark and Sweden, including a long string of wars in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the nationalist ideas that emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the languages have separate orthographies, dictionaries, grammars, and regulatory bodies. Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are thus from a linguistic perspective more accurately described as a dialect continuum of Scandinavian (North Germanic), and some of the dialects, such as those on the border between Norway and Sweden — especially parts of Bohuslän, Dalsland, western Värmland, western Dalarna, Härjedalen and Jämtland — take up a middle ground between the national standard languages.[1] Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... is a Swedish province (landskap) in the south west of Sweden. ... â–¶(?) is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. ... There is also Norwegian region called Dalane. ... â–¶ (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ...


History

Main article: History of Swedish

In the 9th century, Old Norse began to diverge into Old West Norse (Norway and Iceland) and Old East Norse (Sweden and Denmark). In the 12th century, the dialects of Denmark and Sweden began to diverge, becoming Old Danish and Old Swedish in the 13th century. All were heavily influenced by Middle Low German during the medieval period. Though stages of language development are never as sharply delimited as implied here, and should not be taken too literally, the system of subdivisions used in this article is the most commonly used by Swedish linguists and is used for the sake of practicality. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ...


Old Norse

Main article: Old Norse
The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:       Old West Norse dialect       Old East Norse dialect       Old Gutnish dialect       Crimean Gothic       Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility
The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:       Old West Norse dialect       Old East Norse dialect       Old Gutnish dialect       Crimean Gothic       Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility

In the 8th century, the common Germanic language of Scandinavia, Proto-Norse, had undergone some changes and evolved into Old Norse. This language began to undergo new changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, which resulted in the appearance of two similar dialects, Old West Norse (Norway and Iceland) and Old East Norse (Denmark and Sweden). Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Download high resolution version (1235x909, 75 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Old Norse language User:Wiglaf User:Wiglaf/maps ... Download high resolution version (1235x909, 75 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Old Norse language User:Wiglaf User:Wiglaf/maps ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:   Old West Norse dialect   Old East Norse dialect   Old Gutnish dialect   Crimean Gothic   Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken... Crimean Gothic was a dialect of Gothic that was spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in the Crimea (now Ukraine) perhaps until as late as the 18th century. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old...


The subdialect of Old East Norse spoken in Sweden is called Runic Swedish and the one in Denmark Runic Danish (there was also a subdialect spoken in Gotland, Old Gutnish) but until the 12th century, the dialect was the same in the two countries with the main exception of a Runic Danish monophthongization (see below). The dialects are called runic due to the fact that the main body of text appears in the runic alphabet. Unlike Proto-Norse, which was written with the Elder Futhark alphabet, Old Norse was written with the Younger Futhark alphabet, which only had 16 letters. Due to the limited number of runes, some runes were used for a range of phonemes, such as the rune for the vowel u which was also used for the vowels o, ø and y, and the rune for i which was also used for e.   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:   Old West Norse dialect   Old East Norse dialect   Old Gutnish dialect   Crimean Gothic   Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken... Rune redirects here. ... Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


From 1100 and onwards, the dialect of Denmark began to diverge from that of Sweden. The innovations spread unevenly from Denmark which created a series of minor dialectal boundaries, isoglosses, ranging from Zealand in the south to Norrland, Österbotten and southeastern Finland in the north. Isoglosses on the Faroe Islands An isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, e. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ... Norrland is a name for the northernmost part of Sweden, historically one of the four lands of Sweden. ... Österbotten (Pohjanmaa) is the name of a geographical region in Finland which can refer to: Österbotten - a historical Province of Sweden (Historical provinces of Finland) Österbottens län - a former County of Sweden (Counties in Finland) Norra Österbottens landskap - a current Region of Finland Södra Österbottens landskap - a current...


An early change that separated Runic Danish from the other dialects of Old East Norse was the change of the diphthong æi to the monophthong é, as in stæinn to sténn "stone". This is reflected in runic inscriptions where the older read stain and the later stin. There was also a change of au as in dauðr into a long open ø as in døðr "dead". This change is shown in runic inscriptions as a change from tauþr into tuþr. Moreover, the øy diphthong changed into a long close ø, as in the Old Norse word for "island". These innovations had affected most of the Runic Swedish speaking area as well in the end of the period, with the exception of the dialects spoken north and east of Mälardalen where the diphthongs still exist in remote areas.[2] In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... Mälardalen (Swedish, literally the Lake Mälaren Valley) is the easternmost part of Svealand. ...


Old Swedish

A copy of Äldre Västgötalagen - a law code of Västergötland from the 1280s, one of the earliest texts in Swedish written in the Latin alphabet.

Old Swedish is the term used for the medieval Swedish language, starting in 1225. Among the most important documents of the period written in Latin script is the oldest of the provincial law codes, Västgötalagen, of which fragments dated to 1250 have been found. The main influences during this time came with the firm establishment of the Roman Catholic Church and various monastic orders, introducing many Greek and Latin loanwords. With the rise of Hanseatic power in the late 13th and early 14th century, the influence of Low Saxon became ever more present. The Hanseatic league provided Swedish commerce and administration with a large number of German speaking immigrants. Many became quite influential members of Swedish medieval society, and brought terms from their mother tongue into the vocabulary. Besides a great number of loan words for areas like warfare, trade and administration, general grammatical suffixes and even conjunctions were imported. Almost all of the naval terms were also borrowed from Dutch. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... A copy of the Äldre Västgötalagen law from the late 13th century Västgötalagen or the Westrogothic law is the oldest Swedish text written in the Latin script and the oldest law code of the Lands of Sweden. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ...   is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... A copy of the Äldre Västgötalagen law from the late 13th century Västgötalagen or the Westrogothic law is the oldest Swedish text written in the Latin script and the oldest law code of the Lands of Sweden. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Monastery of St. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ...


Early medieval Swedish was markedly different from the modern language in that it had a more complex case structure and had not yet experienced a reduction of the gender system. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns and certain numerals were inflected in four cases; besides the modern nominative, there were also the genitive, dative and accusative. The gender system resembled that of modern German, having the genders masculine, feminine and neuter. Most of the masculine and feminine nouns were later grouped together into a common gender. The verb system was also more complex: it included subjunctive and imperative moods and verbs were conjugated according to person as well as number. By the 16th century, the case and gender systems of the colloquial spoken language and the profane literature had been largely reduced to the two cases and two genders of modern Swedish. The old inflections remained common in high prose style until the 18th century, and in some dialects into the early 20th century. In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: generally, the alteration of a noun to indicate its grammatical role. ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ...


A transitional change of the Latin script in the Nordic countries was to spell the letter combination "ae" as æ – and sometimes as a' – though it varied between individuals and regions. The combination "ao" was similarly rendered ao, and "oe" became oe. These three were later to evolve into the separate letters ä, å and ö.[3] Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... The letter Ã… represents various o sounds in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, North Frisian, Walloon, Chamorro and Istro-Romanian language alphabets. ... Ö, or ö, is a character used in several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter O with umlaut or diaeresis. ...


New Swedish

Main article: New Swedish
Front page of the Gustav Vasa Bible of 1541. The title translated to English reads: "The Bible / That is / The Holy Scripture / in Swedish. Printed in Uppsala. 1541".
Front page of the Gustav Vasa Bible of 1541. The title translated to English reads: "The Bible / That is / The Holy Scripture / in Swedish. Printed in Uppsala. 1541".

New Swedish begins with the advent of the printing press and the European Reformation. After assuming power, the new monarch Gustav Vasa ordered a Swedish translation of the Bible. The New Testament was published in 1526, followed by a full Bible translation in 1541, usually referred to as the Gustav Vasa Bible, a translation deemed so successful and influential that, with revisions incorporated in successive editions, it remained the most common Bible translation until 1917. The main translators were Laurentius Andreæ and the brothers Laurentius and Olaus Petri. New Swedish (Swedish: nysvenska) is the linguistic term used for the Swedish language from the Bible translation of 1526 to the development of a common national language around 1880. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Gustav Vasa, originally Gustav Eriksson Vasa (May 12, 1496–September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... Gustav Vasa Bible is how the Swedish Bible translation published in 1540-41 is referred to. ... Laurentius Andreae (born as Lars Andersson) was a Swedish clergyman and scholar, and one of the main proponents of the Swedish Protestant reformation in the years 1520-1540. ... Laurentius Petri Nericus (Örebro 1499 – October 27, 1573), originally Lars Persson, was a Swedish clergyman and the first Evangelical Lutheran Archbishop of Sweden. ... Petri outside Storkyrkan, Stockholm Olof Persson (sometimes Petersson; born January 6, 1493 in Örebro, died April 19, 1552 in Stockholm), better known under the Latin form of his name, Olavus Petri, was a clergyman, writer and a main character of the Protestant reformation in Sweden. ...


The Vasa Bible is often considered to be a reasonable compromise between old and new; while not adhering to the colloquial spoken language of its day it was not overly conservative in its use of archaic forms.[4] It was a major step towards a more consistent Swedish orthography. It established the use of the vowels "å", "ä", and "ö", and the spelling "ck" in place of "kk", distinguishing it clearly from the Danish Bible, perhaps intentionally due to the ongoing rivalry between the countries. All three translators came from central Sweden which is generally seen as adding specific Central Swedish features to the new Bible. The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ...


Though it might seem as if the Bible translation set a very powerful precedent for orthographic standards, spelling actually became more inconsistent during the remainder of the century. It was not until the 17th century that spelling began to be discussed, around the time when the first grammars were written. The spelling debate raged on until the early 19th century, and it was not until the latter half of the 19th century that the orthography reached generally acknowledged standards.


Capitalization during this time was not standardized. It depended on the authors and their background. Those influenced by German capitalized all nouns, while others capitalized more sparsely. It is also not always apparent which letters are capitalized, due to the Gothic or blackletter font which was used to print the Bible. This font was in use until the mid-18th century, when it was gradually replaced with a Latin font (often antiqua). Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. ... “Black letter” redirects here. ... A facsimile of Nicholas Jensons roman type used in Venice circa 1470. ...


Some important changes in sound during the New Swedish period were the gradual assimilation of several different consonant clusters into the fricative /ʃ/ and later into /ɧ/. There was also the gradual softening of /g/ and /k/ into /j/ and the fricative /ɕ/ before front vowels. The velar fricative /ɣ/ was also transformed into the corresponding plosive /g/.[5] The voiceless alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. ... The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative or laminal postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

August Strindberg, a giant in modern Swedish literature.
August Strindberg, a giant in modern Swedish literature.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...   (January 22, 1849 â€“ May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ...

Modern Swedish

The period that includes Swedish as it is spoken today is termed nusvenska ("Contemporary Swedish", lit. "Now-Swedish") in linguistic terminology. With the industrialization and urbanization of Sweden well under way by the last decades of the 19th century, a new breed of authors made their mark on Swedish literature. Many authors, scholars, politicians and other public figures had a great influence on the new national language that was emerging, the most influential of these being August Strindberg (1849–1912). Swedish literature begins with the Rök runestone and involves such prominent writers as August Strindberg, Esaias Tegnér, Selma Lagerlöf and Astrid Lindgren. ...   (January 22, 1849 â€“ May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ...


It was during the 20th century that a common, standardized national language became available to all Swedes. The orthography was finally stabilized, and was almost completely uniform, with the exception of some minor deviations, by the time of the spelling reform of 1906. With the exception of plural forms of verbs and a slightly different syntax, particularly in the written language, the language was the same as the Swedish spoken today. The plural verb forms remained, in ever decreasing use, in formal (and particularly written) language until the 1950s, when they were finally officially abolished even from all official recommendations.


A very significant change in Swedish occurred in the 1960s, with the so-called du-reformen, "the you-reform". Previously, the proper way to address people of the same or higher social status had been by title and surname. The use of herr ("Mr" or "Sir"), fru ("Mrs" or "Ma'am") or fröken ("Miss") was only considered acceptable in initial conversation with strangers of unknown occupation, academic title or military rank. The fact that the listener should preferably be referred to in the third person tended to further complicate spoken communication between members of society. In the early 20th century, an unsuccessful attempt was made to replace the insistence on titles with ni (the standard second person plural pronoun) — analogous to the French Vous. Ni (plural second person pronoun) wound up being used as a slightly less familiar form of du (singular second person pronoun) used to address people of lower social status. With the liberalization and radicalization of Swedish society in the 1950s and 60s, these previously significant distinctions of class became less important and du became the standard, even in formal and official contexts. Though the reform was not an act of any centralized political decrees, but rather a sweeping change in social attitudes, it was completed in just a few years from the late 60s to early 70s.[6] Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


Former language minorities

Map of the Estonian islands which formerly housed "Coastal Swede" populations
Map of the Estonian islands which formerly housed "Coastal Swede" populations

From 13th to 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia, particularly on the islands (e.g., Hiiumaa, Vormsi, Ruhnu in Swedish: Dagö, Ormsö, Runö, respectively) along the coast of the Baltic. The Swedish-speaking minority was represented in parliament, and entitled to use their native language in parliamentary debates. After the loss of Estonia to the Russian Empire in the early 18th century, around 1,000 Estonian Swedish speakers were forced to march to southern Ukraine, where they founded a village, Gammalsvenskby ("Old Swedish Village"). A few elderly people in the village still speak Swedish and observe the holidays of the Swedish calendar, although the dialect is most likely facing extinction.[7] Map Of Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) from http://www. ... Map Of Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) from http://www. ... The Estonian Swedes, Estonia-Swedes, or Coastal Swedes (Swedish: Estlandssvenskar, or Estonia Swedes, colloquially Aibofolke, or Island People, Estonian: Rannarootslased) are a group of ethnic Swedes residing in the coastal areas and islands of what is now western and northern Estonia. ... Tahkuna peninsula is the most northern part of Hiiumaa, Estonia Hiiumaa is the second largest island (989 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... Estonias fourth biggest island, Vormsi is located between Hiiumaa and mainland with total area 92 sq. ... Ruhnu (Swedish: Runö) is an island situated in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Verbivka (Swedish: Gammalsvenskby, Old Swedish Village) is a part of the village Zmijevka in Khersonska oblast, Ukraine which has a Swedish cultural heritage. ...


In the newly independent Estonia (1918-1940), the small Swedish community was well treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, had Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing. However, most Swedish-speaking people fled to Sweden before the end of World War II prior to the invasion of Estonia by the Soviet army in 1944. Only a handful of older speakers remain today. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Geographic distribution

Swedish is the national language of Sweden and the first language for the overwhelming majority of roughly eight million Swedish born inhabitants and acquired by one million immigrants. In Finland, Swedish is spoken as a first language by about 5.5%. The Finland Swedish minority is concentrated in the coastal areas and archipelagos of southern and western Finland. In some of these areas, Swedish is the dominating language. In three cases, in the municipalities of Korsnäs (97% Swedish speakers), Närpes and Larsmo, Swedish is the only official language. In several more, it is the majority language and it is an official minority language in even more. There is considerable migration between the Nordic countries, but due to the similarity between the languages and cultures (with the exception of Finnish), expatriates generally assimilate quickly and do not stand out as a group. According to the 2004 US census some 67,000 people over age five were reported as Swedish speakers, though without any information on actual language proficiency. There are small numbers of Swedish speakers in other countries, such as Swedish descendants in Argentina and Brazil that have maintained a distinction by language and names.[8] Outside Sweden, there are about 40,000 active learners enrolled in Swedish language courses.[9] Areas where Finland-Swedish populations are found shown in yellow Finland-Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Finland-Swedes as a first language. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... Founded 1887 Province Western Finland Region Ostrobothnia Sub-region Vaasa Area - Of which land - Rank 239. ... Närpes (Närpiö in Finnish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Larsmo (Luoto in Finnish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... In the social sciences, assimilation is the process of integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into a generally larger community. ... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ...


Official status

A Finnish-Swedish street sign.
A Finnish-Swedish street sign.

Swedish in Sweden is considered the "main language" and its use is officially recommended for local and state government, but not actually enforced by law. A recently proposed bill that would make Swedish an official language had a decided majority in the Swedish parliament, but failed to pass by the narrowest possible margin (145–147) due to a pairing-off failure.[10] It is currently expected that the bill will be successfully passed if it is put up for a second vote. Swedish is the sole official language of Åland (an autonomous province under the sovereignty of Finland) where 95% of the 26,000 inhabitants speak Swedish as a first language. In Finland, Swedish is the second national language alongside Finnish, and in the Estonian village Noarootsi, Swedish is the official language together with Estonian. [11] Swedish is also one of the official languages of the European Union and one of the working languages of the Nordic Council. Under the Nordic Language Convention, citizens of the Nordic countries speaking Swedish have the opportunity to use their native language when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable to any interpretation or translation costs.[12][13] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 418 pixelsFull resolution (2015 × 1052 pixel, file size: 541 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bilingual street sign in Helsinki, Finland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 418 pixelsFull resolution (2015 × 1052 pixel, file size: 541 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bilingual street sign in Helsinki, Finland. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... County Lääne County Area 296 km² Population (as of 2005)  - Density 910 3. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ... The Nordic Language Convention (Nordiska sprÃ¥kkonventionen) is an convention of linguistic rights which came into force in March 1, 1987, under the auspices of the Nordic Council. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Interpretation, or interpreting, is an activity that consists of establishing, either simultaneously or consecutively, oral or gestural communications between two or more speakers who are not speaking (or signing) the same language. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Regulatory bodies

The Swedish Language Council (Språkrådet) is the official regulator of Swedish, but does not attempt to enforce control of the language, as for instance the Académie française does. However, many organizations and agencies require the use of the council's publication Svenska skrivregler in official contexts, with it otherwise being regarded as a de facto orthographic standard. Among the many organizations that make up the Swedish Language Council, the Swedish Academy (established 1786) is arguably the most influential. Its primary instruments are the dictionaries Svenska Akademiens Ordlista (SAOL currently in its 13th edition) and Svenska Akademiens Ordbok, in addition to various books on grammar, spelling and manuals of style. Even though the dictionaries are sometimes used as official decrees of the language, their main purpose is to describe current usage. The Swedish Language Council (Svenska sprÃ¥knämnden) is the primary regulatory body for the advancement and cultivation of the Swedish language. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... The Swedish Academy was founded in 1786 on the personal initiative of King Gustav III The Swedish Academy in Stockholm The Swedish Academy or Svenska Akademien, founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... Svenska Akademiens Ordlista, or SAOL for short, is a dictionary published every few years by the Swedish Academy. ... Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (SAOB) is a dictionary published by the Swedish Academy, with the official title Ordbok över svenska sprÃ¥ket utgiven av Svenska Akademien. ... Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ... A manual of style is also called a style guide; see that article for an account of manuals of style generally. ...


In Finland a special branch of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland has official status as the regulatory body for Swedish in Finland. Among its highest priorities is to maintain intelligibility with the language spoken in Sweden. It has published Finlandssvensk ordbok, a dictionary about the differences between Swedish in Finland and in Sweden from their point of view. The Research Institute for the Languages of Finland ( Finnish: Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskus, Swedish: Forskningscentralen för de inhemska språken) is a governmental linguistic research institute of Finland geared at studies of Finnish, Swedish, the Sami languages, Romany language, and the Finnish sign language. ...


Dialects

Main article: Swedish dialects

The traditional definition of a Swedish dialect has been a local variant that has not been heavily influenced by the standard language and that can trace a separate development all the way back to Old Norse. Many of the genuine rural dialects, such as those of Orsa in Dalarna or Närpes in Österbotten, have very distinct phonetic and grammatical features, such as plural forms of verbs or archaic case inflections. These dialects can be near-incomprehensible to a majority of Swedes, and most of their speakers are also fluent in Standard Swedish. The different dialects are often so localized that they are limited to individual parishes and are referred to by Swedish linguists as sockenmål (lit. "parish speech"). They are generally separated into six major groups, with common characteristics of prosody, grammar and vocabulary. One or several examples from each group are given here. Though each example is intended to be also representative of the nearby dialects, the actual number of dialects is several hundred if each individual community is considered separately.[14] Swedish dialects can be categorized into Traditional Dialects (with no Standard Swedish influence) and Modern Dialects (with various degrees of Standard Swedish influence). ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... ORSA is an acronym for Oxacillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. ... There is also Norwegian region called Dalane. ... Närpes (Närpiö in Finnish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Österbotten (Pohjanmaa) is the name of a geographical region in Finland which can refer to: Österbotten - a historical Province of Sweden (Historical provinces of Finland) Österbottens län - a former County of Sweden (Counties in Finland) Norra Österbottens landskap - a current Region of Finland Södra Österbottens landskap - a current... In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: generally, the alteration of a noun to indicate its grammatical role. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


This type of classification, however, is based on a somewhat romanticized nationalist view of ethnicity and language. The idea that only rural variants of Swedish should be considered "genuine" is not generally accepted by modern scholars. No dialects, no matter how remote or obscure, remained unchanged or undisturbed by a minimum of influences from surrounding dialects or the standard language, especially not from the late 1800s and onwards with the advent of mass media and advanced forms of transports. The differences are today more accurately described by a scale that runs from "standard language" to "rural dialect" where the speech even of the same individual may vary from one extreme to the other depending on the situation. All Swedish dialects with the exception of the highly diverging forms of speech in Dalarna, Norrbotten and, to some extent, Gotland can be considered to be part of a common, mutually intelligible dialect continuum. This continuum may also include Norwegian and some Danish dialects.[15] Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... There is also Norwegian region called Dalane. ... Norrbotten is the name of an unofficial Province (landskap) in Sweden, originally a part of Västerbotten, which gradually grow apart from Västerbotten after the creation of Norrbotten County in 1810. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...


The samples linked below have been taken from SweDia, a research project on Swedish modern dialects available for download (though with information in Swedish only), with many more samples from 100 different dialects with recordings from four different speakers; older female, older male, younger female and younger male. The dialect groups are those traditionally used by dialectologists.[16]

Map showing location of the various modern dialect samples.
Map showing location of the various modern dialect samples.
1. Överkalix, Norrbotten; younger female
2. Burträsk, Västerbotten; older female
3. Aspås, Jämtland; younger female
4. Färila, Hälsingland; older male
5. Älvdalen, Dalarna; older female
6. Gräsö, Uppland; older male
7. Sorunda, Södermanland; younger male
8. Köla, Värmland younger female
9. Viby, Närke; older male
10. Sproge, Gotland; younger female
11. Närpes, Ostrobothnia; younger female
12. Dragsfjärd, Åboland; older male
13. Porvoo, Eastern Uusimaa; younger male
14. Orust, Bohuslän; older male
15. Floby, Västergötland; older female
16. Rimforsa, Östergötland; older female
17. Årstad-Heberg, Halland; younger male
18. Stenberga, Småland; younger female
19. Jämshög, Blekinge; older female
20. Bara, Scania; older male

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Överkalix is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden. ... Norrbotten is the name of an unofficial Province (landskap) in Sweden, originally a part of Västerbotten, which gradually grow apart from Västerbotten after the creation of Norrbotten County in 1810. ... Burträsk Court District, or Burträsks tingslag, was a district of Westrobothnia in Sweden. ... Västerbotten is the name of a geographical region in Sweden and Finland which can refer to: Westrobothnia, or Västerbotten - a historical Province of the Swedish Realm Laponia, or Lappland - a historical Province of the Swedish Realm Part of Västerbotten County, or Västerbottens län - a current... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... Färila, is a small town in Ljusdal Municipality, Hälsingland , Gävleborgs län, Sweden. ...   Hälsingland?, is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... Älvdalen can mean: Älvdalen Municipality - a municipality of Dalarna County in Sweden Älvdalen Court District - a district of Dalecarlia in Sweden See also Dalecarlian language - a language spoken in Älvdalen Älvdal Hundred - a district of Wermelandia in Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... There is also Norwegian region called Dalane. ... This article needs translation. ... Uppland ( ) is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden. ... (frequently shortened to Sörmland in Sweden, particularly locally) is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden. ... â–¶(?) is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. ... Viby can refer to more than one article: Viby, SkÃ¥ne, a town in Kristianstad municipality in SkÃ¥ne, Sweden Viby, Östergötland, a congregation of the diocese of Linköping Viby, Närke, a congregation of the diocese of Strängnäs Marguerite Viby a Danish actress viby_j Viby... Närke is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Nericia, or Närke - a historical Province of Sweden Part of Örebro County, or Örebro län - a current County of Sweden Part of Närke and Värmland County, or Närkes och V... Närpes (Närpiö in Finnish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Ostrobothnia is one of Finlands 20 regions (fi: maakunta/sv: landskap). ... Dragsfjärd is a municipality of Finland. ... Ã…boland (Swedish; Turunmaa in Finnish) is an economic district in south-western Finland. ... Founded 1346 Province Southern Finland Region Eastern Uusimaa Sub-region Porvoo Area - Of which land - Rank 663. ... Eastern Uusimaa (Itä-Uusimaa / Östra Nyland) is a region (maakunta / landskap) in Southern Finland. ... Orust is an island in western Sweden, and Swedens third largest island. ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...   is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ... (help· info) is a historical Province (landskap) in the south of Sweden. ... is a historical province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. ... is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden. ... Blekinge is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Blechingia, or Blekinge - a historical Province of Sweden Blekinge County, or Blekinge län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Bara Hundred, or Bara härad, was a hundred of Scania in Sweden. ... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ...

Standard Swedish

Standard Swedish, which is derived from the dialects spoken in the capital region around Stockholm, is the language used by virtually all Swedes and most Swedish-speaking Finns. The Swedish term most often used for the standard language is rikssvenska ("National Swedish") and to a much lesser extent högsvenska ("High Swedish"); the latter term is limited to Swedish spoken in Finland and is seldom used in Sweden. There are many regional varieties of the standard language that are specific to geographical areas of varying size (regions, historical provinces, cities, towns, etc.). While these varieties are often influenced by the genuine dialects, their grammatical and phonological structure adheres closely to those of the Central Swedish dialects. In mass media it is no longer uncommon for journalists to speak with a distinct regional accent, but the most common pronunciation and the one perceived as the most formal is still Central Standard Swedish. Standard Swedish (standardsvenska, rikssvenska or högsvenska) denotes Swedish as a spoken and written standard language in Sweden and Finland. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on... The provinces or landskap were the subdivisions of Sweden until 1634, when they were replaced by the counties of Sweden (län). ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...


Though this terminology and its definitions are long since established among linguists, most Swedes are unaware of the distinction and its historical background, and often refer to the regional varieties as "dialects". In a poll that was conducted in 2005 by the Swedish Retail Institute (Handelns Utredningsinstitut), the attitudes of Swedes to the use of certain dialects by salesmen revealed that 54% believed that rikssvenska was the variety they would prefer to hear when speaking with salesmen over the phone, even though several dialects such as gotländska or skånska were provided as alternatives in the poll.[17]

Areas where Finland Swedish populations are found shown in yellow
Areas where Finland Swedish populations are found shown in yellow

Image File history File links A Gnu licensed map, modified by me to show area where Finland-Swedish is spoken. ... Image File history File links A Gnu licensed map, modified by me to show area where Finland-Swedish is spoken. ... Areas where Finland-Swedish populations are found shown in yellow Finland-Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Finland-Swedes as a first language. ...

Finland Swedish

Main article: Finland Swedish

Finland was a part of Sweden from the mid 12th or 13th century until the loss of the Finnish territories to Russia in 1809. Swedish was the sole administrative language until 1902 as well as the dominant language of culture and education until Finnish independence in 1917. According to official statistics from 2004, 5.53% of the total population speaks Finland Swedish as their first language. Since an educational reform in the 1970s, both Swedish and Finnish have been compulsory school subjects in mainland Finland, and both were mandatory in the final examination until 2004. The mandatory Swedish in schools has been also criticized. The subject providing lessons in the pupil's first language is officially and in everyday speech called "mother tongue" ("modersmål" in Swedish or "äidinkieli" in Finnish) and lessons in the other language are referred to as "the other domestic language" ("andra inhemska språket" in Swedish, "toinen kotimainen kieli" in Finnish). The introduction of mandatory education in Swedish was chiefly intended as a step to avoid further decrease of the number of Swedish speakers and to avoid creating language-barriers between the two spoken languages. Finnish, a Finno-Ugric language, is fundamentally different from Swedish in grammar and vocabulary, and they are not mutually understandable. However, there are a considerable amount of borrowings from Swedish in the Finnish language. One example of the two languages merging in an unofficial sense is the classic Helsinki slang, ("Stadin slangi") which arose in the capital city of Finland in the early and middle 20th century, when both languages were almost equally widely spoken in the city area. Areas where Finland-Swedish populations are found shown in yellow Finland-Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Finland-Swedes as a first language. ... Look up matriculation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Finnish schools, Swedish is a mandatory school subject, amounting at an average of two hours a week in classes 7-9 in the Finnish nine-year compulsory school and at an average two hours a week during three years of secondary education. ... The secondary domestic language (Finnish: toinen kotimainen kieli, Swedish: det andra inhemska språket) is the official term for an unpopular subject in the schools of Finland. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... Helsinki slang or slangi is a local variation of the Finnish language mainly used in the capital Helsinki. ...


Immigrant variants

Rinkeby Swedish (after Rinkeby, a suburb of northern Stockholm with a very large population of immigrants) is a common name for varieties of Swedish spoken by second and third generation immigrants, especially among younger speakers, primarily in the suburbs of Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. There is no consensus among linguists whether Rinkeby Swedish and similar varieties should be denominated as dialects or sociolects. Rinkebysvenska (Rinkeby Swedish) is a common term for varities of Swedish spoken mainly in suburbs with a high proportion of immigrants and immigrant descendants. ... Rinkeby is a part of the city of Stockholm in Sweden. ... In linguistics, a sociolect is the language spoken by a social group, social class or subculture. ...


The Swedish linguist Ulla-Britt Kotsinas has described these varieties as being most prominent among teenagers living in suburbs with a large immigrant population and particularly teenage boys. In this context it can be seen as an expression of a youth culture specific to these suburbs. Rinkeby Swedish is however not limited to the children of immigrants and is often surprisingly similar to variants in geographically distant immigrant-dominated suburbs. In a survey made by Kotsinas, foreign learners of Swedish were asked to identify the native language and time spent in Sweden of several teenage speakers living in Stockholm. The survey showed that the participants had great difficulty in accurately guessing the origins of the speakers and that they generally underestimated the time spent in Sweden. The greatest difficulty proved to be identifying the speech of a boy whose parents were both Swedish; only 1.8% guessed his native language correctly.[18] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Sounds

Main article: Swedish phonology

Swedish is usually noted for having a relatively large vowel inventory consisting of 9 vowels that make up 17 phonemes in most varieties and dialects (short /e/ and /ɛ/ coincide), though this is slightly misleading since the average amount of vowel phonemes when considering all languages tend to be higher than the average in the world's major languages. There are 18 consonant phonemes out of which the voiceless palatal-velar fricative, /ɧ/, and /r/ show considerable variation depending on social and dialectal context. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... The voiceless palatal-velar fricative (also voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, voiceless postalveolar and velar fricative, voiceless coarticulated velar and palatoalveolar fricative) is a term used for a range of similar sounds used in most dialects of Swedish to realize the phoneme . ...


A distinct feature of Swedish is its varied prosody (intonation, stress, tone, etc.) which is often one of the most noticeable differences between the various dialects. Native speakers who adapt their speech when moving to areas with other regional varieties or dialects will often adhere to the sounds of the new variety, but nevertheless maintain the prosody of their native dialect. Often the prosody is the first to be changed, perhaps because it is the element most disruptive to understanding, or simply the easiest to adapt. The prosodic features of Swedish are sometimes summarized as a "melodic accent", though this term is not used by linguists and is used mostly as a descriptive, but still rather vague, term for the prosodic features of Swedish and Norwegian. In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ...

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosives p b t d k g
Approximants v l r j h
Fricatives f s ɕ ɧ
Trills
Nasals m n ŋ

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... In music, a trill is a type of ornament; see trill (music) In phonetics, a trill is a type of consonant; see trill consonant In the fictional Star Trek universe, the Trill are two symbiotic races of aliens; see Trill (Star Trek). ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ...

Vocabulary

The vocabulary of Swedish is mainly Germanic, either through common Germanic heritage or through loans from German, Middle Low German, and to some extent, English. Examples of Germanic words in Swedish are mus ("mouse"), kung ("king"), and gås ("goose"). A significant part of the religious and scientific vocabulary is of Latin or Greek origin, often borrowed through French and, as of late, English. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


A large number of French words were imported into Sweden around the 18th century. These words have been transcribed to the Swedish spelling system and are therefore pronounced quite recognizably to a French-speaker. Most of them are distinguished by a "French accent", characterized by emphasis on the last syllable. For example, nivå (fr. niveau, "level"), fåtölj (fr. fauteuil, "arm chair") and affär ("shop; affair"), etc. Cross-borrowing from other Germanic languages has also been common, at first from Middle Low German, the lingua franca of the Hanseatic league and later from standard German. Some compounds are translations of the elements (calques) of German original compounds into Swedish, like bomull from German Baumwolle ("cotton", literally tree-wool). Finland Swedish has a set of separate terms, often calques of their Finnish counterparts, chiefly terms of law and government. Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Standard German is the prescriptive norm variant of the German language used as a written language, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... Areas where Finland-Swedish populations are found shown in yellow Finland-Swedish is a general term for the closely related cluster of dialects of Swedish spoken in Finland by Finland-Swedes as a first language. ...


New words are often formed by compounding, and, like many Germanic languages, Swedish compounds words freely and frequently; for example, nagellacksborttagningsmedel ("nail polish remover"). However, as in German or Dutch, very long, and quite impractical, examples like produktionsstyrningssystemsprogramvaruuppdatering ("production controller system software update") are possible but seldom this ungainly. Compound nouns take their gender from the head, which in Swedish is always the last morpheme. A very productive method for creating new verbs is the adding of -a to an existing noun, as in bil ("car") and bila ("to drive (recreationally)"). In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, the head is the morpheme that determines the category of a compound or the word that determines the syntactic type of the phrase of which it is a member. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ...

See also list of false friends between Swedish and English.

icw = Bajs Category: ...

Writing system

The Swedish alphabet is a twenty-nine letter alphabet, using the basic twenty-six-letter Latin alphabet plus the three additional letters Å / å, Ä / ä, and Ö / ö constructed in modern time from the habit of writing the later letter of ao, ae and oe on top of the former. These letters are not considered diacritic embellishments of any other characters and are sorted in that order following z. Prior to the release of the 13th edition of Svenska Akademiens Ordlista in April 2006, w was treated as a variant of v used only in names (such as "Wallenberg") and foreign words ("bowling"), sorted and pronounced as a v. Diacritics are unusual in Swedish; é is sometimes used to indicate that the stress falls on a terminal syllable containing e, especially when the stress changes the meaning (ide - idé); occasionally other acute accents and, less often, grave accents can be seen in names and some foreign words. The letter à is used to refer to unit cost, equivalent to the at sign (@) in English. The Swedish alphabet consists of the following 28 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z, Å, Ä, Ö The main feature separating it from the Latin alphabet are the three additional vowels, Å, Ä and Ö. The... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The letter Ã… represents various o sounds in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, North Frisian, Walloon, Chamorro and Istro-Romanian language alphabets. ... Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... Ö, or ö, is a character used in several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter O with umlaut or diaeresis. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... Svenska Akademiens Ordlista, or SAOL for short, is a dictionary published every few years by the Swedish Academy. ... (e-acute) is a letter of Hungarian, Icelandic, Kashubian, Czech, Slovak, and Uyghur language. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese, and other languages. ... “@” redirects here. ...


German ü is considered a variant of y and sometimes retained in foreign names. A diaeresis may very exceptionally be seen in elaborated style (for instance: "Aïda"). The letters ä and ö can be the result of a phonetic transformation called omljud, equivalent to German umlaut, where a or å is softened to ä during conjugation (nattnätter, tångtänger), and o is softened to ö (bokböcker). This is far from the only use of these characters, however. Additionally, for adjectives subject to omljud, u get softened to y (ungyngre); this is never written ü. The German convention of writing ä and ö as ae and oe if the characters are unavailable is an unusual convention for speakers of modern Swedish. Despite the availability of all these characters in the Swedish national top-level Internet domain and other such domains, Swedish sites are frequently labelled using a and o, based on visual similarity. Ãœ, or ü, is a character which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter U with umlaut or diaeresis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


In Swedish orthography, the colon is used in a similar manner as in English with some exceptions. The colon is used with numbers, such as 10:50 kronor for tio kronor och femtio öre (10.50 SEK); for abbreviations such as 1:a for första (first) and S:t for Sankt (Saint); and all types of suffixes that can be added to numbers, letters and abbreviations, such as 53:an for femtitrean (the 53), första a:t for "the first a" and tv:n for televisionen (the television). The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... This article is about colons in punctuation. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ...


Grammar

Main article: Swedish grammar

Swedish nouns and adjectives are declined in two genders as well as number. Swedish nouns belong to one of two genders: common or neuter, which also determine the declensions of adjectives. For example, the word fisk ("fish") is a common noun and can have the following forms: Swedish grammar is the study of the grammar of the Swedish language. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ...

Singular Plural
Indefinite form fisk fiskar
Definite form fisken fiskarna

As in other North Germanic languages there are definite and indefinite articles, but indicating the definite form of a noun is done mainly by a suffix which varies according to gender (-n/-t). The separate articles en/ett and den/det are used to make more subtle variations of meaning and are part of a quite complex system of determining definitiveness. The articles are used to add an extra dimension to this system and the definitive articles also double as demonstrative pronouns, and can be further specified with adverbs such as där; "there" or här; "here". Den fisken and den där fisken would both translate as "that fish", but with the second example adding a level of definitiveness that is not distinguished in English. An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... // Demonstratives are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference) that indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... Adverbs redirects here. ...


Swedish adjectives are inflected in two declensions: indefinite or definite. This depends on the presence or absence of definite articles. In the indefinite declension distinctions are made between the common (en gammal man/kvinna, an old man/woman) and neuter gender (ett gammalt hus, an old house). In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ...


In the definite declension, they have a general form (den/det gamla..., the old...) but can, especially in Southern dialects, also take a particular masculine ending specific for males: den gamle mannen, the old man. The first variant of the definite form is also used for all plurals in all adjectives except liten (little/small), which is declined as follows:

 
Common singular Neuter singular Plural
Indefinite form liten litet små
Definite form lilla lilla små

Swedish pronouns are basically the same as those of English but distinguish two genders and have an additional object form, derived from the old dative form, as well as a distinct genitive case. Hon ("she") has the following forms in nominative, genitive, and object form: In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... In linguistics, a theta role or θ-role is the semantic role a noun phrase plays in a sentence. ... Dative has several meanings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

hon - hennes - henne

Possession is expressed with the enclitic -s, which attaches to the end of a (possibly complex) noun phrase. In formal writing, however, usage guides generally do not recommend the enclitic to attach to anything but the head noun of the phrase; but this is nevertheless common in speech. In linguistics, a clitic is a morpheme that functions syntactically like a word, but does not appear as an independent phonological word; instead it is always attached to a following or preceding word. ...

mannen; "the man"
mannens hatt; "the man's hat"
mannen i grå kavaj; "the man in a grey suit"
mannen i grå kavajs hatt; "the hat of the man in a grey suit", "the man in a grey suit's hat"

Verbs are conjugated according to tense. One group of verbs (the ones ending in -er in present tense) have a special imperative form, though with most verbs this is identical to the infinitive form. Perfect and present participles as adjectivistic verbs are very common: In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... Imperative programming, as opposed to functional programming, is a sort of programming employing side-effect as central execution feature. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... The perfect tenses are verb tenses showing actions completed at or before a specific time. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ...

Perfect participle: en stekt fisk; "a fried fish"
Present participle: en stinkande fisk; "a stinking fish"

In contrast to English and many other languages, Swedish does not use the perfect participle to form the present perfect and past perfect tenses. Rather, the auxiliary verb "har", "hade" ("have"/"has", "had") is followed by a special form, called supine, used solely for this purpose (although sometimes identical to the perfect participle): In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... Supine as an adjective generally refers to any upward-facing position. ...

Perfect participle: målad; "painted" - supine målat, present perfect har målat; "have painted"
Perfect participle: stekt, "fried" - supine stekt, present perfect har stekt; "have fried"

The Past participle is used to build the compound passive voice, instead.


In a subordinate clause, this auxiliary "har", "hade" is optional and often omitted. In grammar, a clause is a word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly. ...

Jag ser att han (har) stekt fisken; "I see that he has fried the fish"

Subjunctive mood is occasionally used for some verbs, but its use is in sharp decline and few speakers perceive the handful of commonly used verbs (as for instance: vore, månne) as separate conjugations, most of them remaining only as set of idiomatic expressions. In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ...


The lack of cases in Swedish is compensated by a wide variety of prepositions, similar to those found in English. As in modern German, prepositions used to determine case in Swedish, but this feature remains only in idiomatic expressions like till sjöss (genitive) or man ur huse (dative singular), though some of these are still quite common. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Swedish being a Germanic language, the syntax shows similarities to both English and German. Like English, Swedish has a Subject Verb Object basic word order, but like German, it utilizes verb-second word order in main clauses, for instance after adverbs, adverbial phrases and dependent clauses. Prepositional phrases are placed in a Place Manner Time order, like in English (and unlike German). Adjectives precede the noun they determine.[19] For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... Verb-second (V2) word order, in syntax, is the effect that in some languages the second constituent of declarative main clauses is always a verb, while this is not necessarily the case in other types of clauses. ... An adverb is a part of speech that normally serves to modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, clauses, and sentences. ... In grammar, a clause is a word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly. ... A prepositional phrase (PP) is a linguistic term for a phrase whose head is a preposition. ... Place Manner Time is a term used in linguistic typology to state the general order of adpositional phrases in a languages sentences: to the store by car yesterday. It would seem that it is common among SVO languages. ...


Sample

An excerpt from Barfotabarn (1933), by Nils Ferlin (1898–1961). Nils Johan Einar Ferlin (December 11, 1898 - October 21, 1961) was a Swedish poet. ...

Original Translation
Du har tappat ditt ord och din papperslapp, You've lost your word and your written note,
du barfotabarn i livet. you barefooted child of life.
Så sitter du åter på handlar'ns trapp Now you're sitting again on the grocer's porch
och gråter så övergivet. and crying, abandoned.
Vad var det för ord – var det långt eller kort, What was it, that word – was it long, was it short,
var det väl eller illa skrivet? was it well or poorly written?
Tänk efter nu – förr'n vi föser dig bort, Think twice now – lest we send you away,
du barfotabarn i livet. you barefooted child of life.

See also

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The two official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish. ... In Finnish schools, Swedish is a mandatory school subject, amounting at an average of two hours a week in classes 7-9 in the Finnish nine-year compulsory school and at an average two hours a week during three years of secondary education. ... In 1999 the Minority Language Committee of Sweden formally declared five minority languages of Sweden: Sami language, Romani, Finnish, Yiddish, and Meänkieli (Tornedal). ... Swinglish (or svengelska in Swedish) is a colloquial term meaning either: English spoken with a heavy Swedish accent or heavily influenced by Swedish vocabulary, grammar, or syntax. ... Swedish as a foreign language is learnt by about 40,000 people worldwide at the university level. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Crystal, Scandinavian
  2. ^ Bergman, pp. 21–23
  3. ^ Pettersson, p.139
  4. ^ Pettersson (1996), pg. 151
  5. ^ Pettersson (1996), pg. 138
  6. ^ Nationalencyklopedin, articles du-tilltal and ni-tilltal
  7. ^ The number of registered Swedes in Zmeyovka (the modern Ukrainian name of Gammalsvenskby) as of 1994 was 116 according to Nationalencyklopedin, article svenskbyborna , but the number of native speakers is closer to 20 according to the association Svenskbyborna
  8. ^ Virtual Finland retrieved on September 10 2006
  9. ^ http://www.sweden.se/templates/cs/CommonPage____4963.aspx
  10. ^ Svenskan blir inte officiellt språk, Sveriges Television, 2005-12-07. Retrieved on July 23 2006. (in Swedish)
  11. ^ http://www.eki.ee/knn/ungegn/un7_gdl.htm
  12. ^ Konvention mellan Sverige, Danmark, Finland, Island och Norge om nordiska medborgares rätt att använda sitt eget språk i annat nordiskt land, Nordic Council website. Retrieved on April 25, 2007.
  13. ^ 20th anniversary of the Nordic Language Convention, Nordic news, February 22, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2007.
  14. ^ Engstrand, pg. 120
  15. ^ Dahl, pg. 117–119
  16. ^ Pettersson, pg. 184
  17. ^ Aronsson, Cecilia. "Norrländska låter bäst", Dagens Industri, 2005-05-03. Retrieved on 2007-08-24. (Swedish) “Norrländska och rikssvenska är de mest förtroendeingivande dialekterna. Men gotländska och värmländska gör svenskarna misstänksamma, enligt en ny riksomfattande undersökning. Handelns utredningsinstitut (HUI) har frågat 800 svenskar om hur de uppfattar olika dialekter som de hör i telefonservicesamtal, exempelvis från försäljare eller upplysningscentraler. Undersökningen visar att 54 procent föredrar att motparten pratar rikssvenska, vilket troligen hänger ihop med dess tydlighet. Men även norrländskan plockar höga poäng - 25 procent tycker att det är den mest förtroendeingivande dialekten. Tilltron till norrländska är ännu större hos personer under 29 år, medan stödet för rikssvenska är störst bland personer över 55 år.” 
  18. ^ Kotsinas (1994) pg. 151
  19. ^ Bolander (2002)

The Nationalencyklopedin is the most comprehensive contemporary Swedish language encyclopedia, initiated by a government grant. ... Sveriges Television (SVT) is a national publicly-funded television broadcaster based in Sweden. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Dagens Industri (often referred to as DI) is a financial newspaper in tabloid format and the most profitable daily newspaper in Sweden. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • (Swedish) Bergman, Gösta (1968, 1970) Kortfattad svensk språkhistoria; printing "in Prisma Magnum" 1984; ISBN 91-518-1747-0
  • (Swedish) Bolander, Maria (2002) Funktionell svensk grammatik ISBN 91-47-05054-3
  • Crystal, David (1999) The Penguin Encyclopedia of Language ISBN 0-14-051416-3
  • Dahl, Östen (2000) Språkets enhet och mångfald ISBN 91-44-01158-X
  • (Swedish) Engstrand, Olle (2004) Fonetikens grunder ISBN 91-44-04238-8
  • (Swedish) Elert, Claes-Christian (2000) Allmän och svensk fonetik ISBN 91-1-300939-7
  • (Swedish) Garlén, Claes (1988) Svenskans fonologi ISBN 91-44-28151-X
  • International Phonetic Association (1999) Handbook of the International Phonetic Association ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • (Swedish) Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt (1994) Ungdomsspråk ISBN 91-7382-790-8
  • (Swedish) Pettersson, Gertrud (1996) Svenska språket under sjuhundra år ISBN 91-44-48221-3
  • (Swedish) Svensson Lars, (1974) Nordisk Paleografi, Studentlitteratur Lund ISSN 3683420;28

Professor David Crystal, OBE (born 1941 in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, UK) is a linguist, academic and author. ... The International Phonetic Association // (abbr. ... Dagens Industri (often referred to as DI) is a financial newspaper in tabloid format and the most profitable daily newspaper in Sweden. ... The Nationalencyklopedin is the most comprehensive contemporary Swedish language encyclopedia, initiated by a government grant. ... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ...

Recommended reading

Language courses

  • Colloquial Swedish - The complete course for beginners Second Edition. Holmes, Philip; Serin, Gunilla (1999). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13718-7
  • Teach Yourself Swedish - A complete course for beginners. Croghan, Vera (1995). London: Hodder & Stoughton. Chicago: NTC/Contemporary Publishing. ISBN 0-340-61860-4
  • Svenska utifrån - Lärobok i svenska. Nyborg, Roger; et al. (2001) ISBN 91-520-0673-5
  • På svenska! 1 Svenska som främmande språk - Lärobok. Göransson, Ulla; et al. (1997) ISBN 91-7434-392-2
  • På svenska! 2 Svenska som främmande språk - Lärobok. Göransson, Ulla; et al. (2002) ISBN 91-7434-462-5

Grammars

  • Swedish Essentials of Grammar Viberg, Åke; et al. (1991) Chicago: Passport Books. ISBN 0-8442-8539-
  • Swedish: An Essential Grammar. Holmes, Philip; Hinchliffe, Ian; (2000). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16048-0.
  • Swedish: A Comprehensive Grammar Second Edition. Holmes, Philip; Hinchliffe, Ian; (2003). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-27884-8.
  • Svenska utifrån Schematic grammar - Swedish structures and everyday phrases Byrman, Gunilla; Holm, Britta; (1998) ISBN 91-520-0519-4.

Dictionaries

  • Prisma's Swedish-English Dictionary Third Edition (1997) ISBN 0-8166-3163-8
  • Prisma's English-Swedish Dictionary Third Edition (1997) ISBN 0-8166-3162-X
  • Norstedts lilla engelska ordbok Petti, Vincent; Petti, Kerstin; (1999) ISBN 91-7227-009-8.
  • Norstedts första svenska ordbok Ernby, Birgitta; et al. (2001) ISBN 91-7227-186-8.

External links

Wikipedia
Swedish language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
  • Swedish course by Björn Engdahl
  • All free Swedish dictionaries
  • Lexin online dictionary from the Swedish Institute for Language and Folklore.
  • Swedish Dictionary from Webster's Dictionary
  • Laryngograph recordings and resynthesis of different dialects of Swedish - Sound files that illustrate the differences between prosody in Scandinavian dialects
  • Digitally remastered Swedish imprints before 1700 from the webpage of the Royal Library in Stockholm
  • Project Runeberg's digital facsimile edition of Nordisk familjebok, the definitive Swedish-language encyclopaedia of the late 19th and early to mid 20th centuries.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Swedish language. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (413 words)
It is the official language of Sweden and one of the official languages of Finland, and it is spoken by about 9 million people: 8,500,000 in Sweden and 500,000 elsewhere, chiefly in Finland, Norway, and Estonia.
In 1786 the Swedish Academy was established to oversee the development of the language.
Swedish absorbed a number of words from Low German in the Middle Ages, from High German in the 16th and 17th cent., from French in the 18th cent., and from English in the 20th cent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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