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Encyclopedia > Sweden
Konungariket Sverige
Kingdom of Sweden
Flag of Sweden Coat of arms of Sweden
Flag Coat of arms
Motto(Royal) "För Sverige - I tiden" 1
"For Sweden – With the Times" 2
AnthemDu gamla, Du fria3
Thou ancient, thou free
Royal anthemKungssången
The Song of the King
Location of Sweden
Location of  Sweden  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [ Legend] Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The flag of Sweden (Swedish: ) is blue with a yellow Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag. ... The greater national coat of arms (stora riksvapnet) and the lesser national coat of arms (lilla riksvapnet) are the official coats of arms of Sweden. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... The Royal mottos or ValsprÃ¥k of the Swedish monarchs has been a tradition since first used by Gustav I of Sweden, in the early 16th century. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Du gamla, Du fria (Thou ancient, Thou free) is the de facto national anthem of Sweden. ... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... KungssÃ¥ngen, literally The Kings Song, is the Swedish royal anthem. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Stockholm
59°21′N, 18°4′E
Official languages Swedish (de facto)4
Demonym Swedish
Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
 -  King Carl XVI Gustaf
 -  Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt
 -  Speaker of
the Riksdag

Per Westerberg
Consolidation Prehistoric 
EU accession 1 January 1995
Area
 -  Total 449,964 km² (55th)
173,732 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 8.7
Population
 -  2008 estimate 9,182,9275 (88th)
 -  1990 census 8,587,353 
 -  Density 20/km² (194th)
52/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $336 billion (35th)
 -  Per capita $34,735 (15th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $384 billion (20th)
 -  Per capita $47,069 (8th)
Gini (2005) 23 (low
HDI (2004) 0.956 (high) (6th)
Currency Swedish krona (SEK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .se6
Calling code +46
1 För Sverige - I tiden has been adopted by Carl XVI Gustaf as his personal motto.
2 See H.M. King Carl XVI Gustaf
3 Du gamla, Du fria has never been officially adopted as national anthem, but is so by convention.
4 The Swedish language is the de facto national language. Five other languages are officially recognized as minority languages.
5 Population in the country, counties and municipalities on 31/12/2007 and Population Change in 2007. Statistiska centralbyrån. Retrieved on 2008-02-19.
6 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. The .nu domain is another commonly used TLD ("nu" means "now" in Swedish).

Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  [ˈko:.nɵ.ŋa.ˌri:.kət ˈsvær:.jə]), is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. It has borders with Norway (west and north) and Finland (northeast). It has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1995. Its capital city is Stockholm. Not to be confused with capitol. ... The demographics of Sweden have changed significantly as a result of immigration since World War II. In addition to the ethnic Swedish majority, Sweden has historically had smaller minorities of Sami people in the northernmost parts of the country and Finnish people in the Mälardalen and in the north... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the current Swedish monarch and head of state of the Kingdom of Sweden. ... The Prime Minister (Swedish: , literally Minister of State) is the head of government in Sweden. ... John Fredrik Reinfeldt (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1965, in Österhaninge) is the current Prime Minister of Sweden and leader of the liberal conservative Moderate Party (Swedish: ). A native of Stockholm County, Reinfeldt joined the Moderate Youth League in 1983, and by 1992 had risen to the rank of chairman, a... The Speaker, or Talman, of the Riksdag is the chairman of the national parliament in Sweden. ... Per Westerberg Per Erik Gunnar Westerberg (born 2 August 1951) is a Swedish Moderate Party politician and as of 2006 the current Speaker of the Riksdag. ... Unlike Norway and Denmark, there is no specific time that is generally agreed on concerning when Sweden can be called unified. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .se is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Sweden. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Country Code: 46 International Call Prefix: 00 In Sweden, the area codes are — excluding the leading 0 — one, two or three digits long, with larger towns and cities having shorter area codes permitting a larger number of telephone numbers in the eight to ten digits used. ... Du gamla, Du fria (Thou ancient, Thou free) is the de facto national anthem of Sweden. ... Swedish ( ) is a North Germanic language, spoken predominantly in Sweden, parts of Finland, especially along the coast, on the Ã…land islands, by more than nine million people. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... .nu is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) assigned to the island state of Niue. ... Image File history File links Sv-Konungariket Sverige. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...


At 449,964 km² (173,720 square miles), Sweden is the third largest country by area in Western Europe and fifth in all of Europe. Sweden has a low population density of 20 people per square kilometre, except in its metropolitan areas; 84% of the population lives in urban areas, which comprise only 1.3% of the country's total land area and are much more dense than the countryside at about 1,300 people per square kilometre (3,400 per square mile).[1] The inhabitants of Sweden enjoy a high standard of living, and the country is generally perceived as modern and liberal,[2] with an organisational and corporate culture that is non-hierarchical and collectivist compared to its Anglo-Saxon counterparts.[3] Nature conservation, environmental protection and energy efficiency are generally prioritized in policy making and embraced by the general public in Sweden.[4][5] A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... Conservation can be confused with conversation and vice versa. ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ... tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ...


Sweden has long been a major exporter of iron, copper and timber. Improved transportation and communication has allowed for the large scale utilization of remote natural assets, most notably timber and iron ore. In the 1890s, universal schooling and industrialization enabled the country to develop a successful manufacturing industry and by the twentieth century, Sweden emerged as a welfare state, consistently achieving high positions among the top-ranking countries in the UN Human Development Index (HDI). Sweden has a rich supply of water power, but lacks significant oil and coal deposits. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Transportation in Sweden. ... Communications in Sweden // Telephones main lines in use: 6,579,200 (2002) mobile cellular: 7. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... The UN Human Development Index (HDI) measures poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other factors. ...


Modern Sweden emerged out of the Kalmar Union formed in 1397, and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century. In the 17th century the country expanded its territories to form the Swedish empire. Most of the conquered territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula, were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries. The historically integrated eastern half of Sweden, Finland, was lost to Russia in 1809. The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Sweden by military means forced Norway into a personal union with Sweden, a union which lasted until 1905. Since 1814, Sweden has been at peace, adopting a non-aligned foreign policy in peacetime and neutrality in wartime.[6] The Kalmar Union flag. ... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ...

Contents

Etymology

This rune stone from Aspa, Södermanland is the oldest native source mentioning Sweden, suiþiuþu, from the 11th century.
This rune stone from Aspa, Södermanland is the oldest native source mentioning Sweden, suiþiuþu, from the 11th century.
Main article: Etymology of Sweden

The modern name Sweden is derived through "back-formation" from Old English Sweoðeod, which meant "people of the Swedes" (Old Norse Svíþjóð, Latin Suetidi). This word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas (Old Norse Sviar, Latin Suiones). The Swedish name Sverige literally means "Realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. (frequently shortened to Sörmland in Sweden, particularly locally) is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden. ... Sweden was originally a plural form of Swede and is a so-called back-formation, from Old English Sweoðeod, which meant people of the Swedes (Old Norse Svíþjóð, Latin Suetidi). ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... Götaland Unofficial Nordic cross flag of western Götaland. ...


The etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but suggestively deriving from Proto-Germanic *Swihoniz meaning "one's own"[7], referring to one's own Germanic tribe. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


History

Main article: History of Sweden

Modern Sweden emerged out of the Kalmar Union formed in 1397 and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century. ...

Prehistory

Main article: Prehistoric Sweden

Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød warm period c. 12,000 BCE with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province. This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. // The pre-history of Sweden begins at the end of the Pleistocene epoch at the beginning of Holocene epoch, following the last ice age, the Weichsel glaciation. ... The Allerød period is a part of a temperature oscillation towards the end of the last Ice Age in Europe, where temperatures in the Northern Atlantic region rose from glacial to almost present day level in the Bølling and Allerød periods and returned to glacial levels in... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... The Bromme culture is a late Upper Paleolithic culture dated to the Allerød Oscillation, ca 9700 BC-9000 BC, a warmer spell between the Elder Dryas and the Younger Dryas, the last cold periods of the late Weichsel Glaciation. ...

Rock carvings from Tanum, Bohuslän. Rock carvings (petroglyphs) are common all over Scandinavia and several thousands have been found in Sweden alone.
Rock carvings from Tanum, Bohuslän. Rock carvings (petroglyphs) are common all over Scandinavia and several thousands have been found in Sweden alone.

Farming and animal husbandry, along with monumental burial, polished flint axes and decorated pottery, arrived from the Continent with the Funnel-beaker Culture in c. 4,000 BCE. Sweden's southern third was part of the stock-keeping and agricultural Nordic Bronze Age Culture's area, most of it being peripheral to the culture's Danish centre. The period began in c. 1700 with the start of bronze imports from Europe. Copper mining was never tried locally during this period, and Scandinavia has no tin deposits, so all metal had to be imported though it was largely cast into local designs on arrival. Tanum is a Municipality in Västra Götaland County, in western Sweden. ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ... The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... This article is about the metal alloy. ...


The Nordic Bronze Age was entirely pre-urban, with people living in hamlets and on farmsteads with single-story wooden long-houses.


In the absence of any Roman occupation, Sweden's Iron Age is reckoned up to the introduction of stone architecture and monastic orders about 1100 CE. Much of the period is proto-historical, that is, there are written sources but most hold a very low source-critical quality. The scraps of written matter are either much later than the period in question, written in areas far away, or local and coeval but extremely brief. Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ... BCE redirects here. ...

A rock painted moose from Jämtland. Rock paintings (pictographs) have been fairly limited to northern Scandinavia.
A rock painted moose from Jämtland. Rock paintings (pictographs) have been fairly limited to northern Scandinavia.

The climate took a turn for the worse, forcing farmers to keep cattle indoors over the winters, leading to an annual build-up of manure that could now for the first time be used systematically for soil improvement. (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ...


A Roman attempt to move the Imperial border forward from the Rhine to the Elbe was aborted in 9[citation needed] when Germans under Roman-trained leadership defeated the legions of Varus by ambush in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. About this time, a major shift in the material culture of Scandinavia occurred, reflecting increased contact with the Romans. Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength 10,000 to 18,000 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000 The Battle...


Starting in the 2nd century CE, much of southern Sweden's agricultural land was parcelled up with low stone walls. They divided the land into permanent infields and meadows for winter fodder on one side of the wall, and wooded outland where the cattle was grazed on the other side. This principle of landscape organisation survived into the 19th century. The Roman Period also saw the first large-scale expansion of agricultural settlement up the Baltic coast of the country's northern two thirds.


Sweden enters proto-history with the Germania of Tacitus in 98 CE. Whether any of the brief information he reports about this distant barbaric area was well-founded is uncertain, but he does mention tribal names that correspond to the Swedes (Suiones) and the Sami (Fenni) of later centuries. As for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was invented among the south Scandinavian elite in the 2nd century, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts, mainly of male names, demonstrating that the people of south Scandinavia spoke Proto-Norse at the time, a language ancestral to Swedish and other North Germanic languages. Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Fenni was the name of an Iron Age tribe somewhere in Northern Europe. ... Rune redirects here. ... Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ...

Panoramic view of Ale's Stones in Scania, southern Sweden. This ship setting is a Vendel Period burial monument, most likely dating from the 7th century CE.
Panoramic view of Ale's Stones in Scania, southern Sweden. This ship setting is a Vendel Period burial monument, most likely dating from the 7th century CE.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 312 pixelsFull resolution (1260 × 492 pixel, file size: 357 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Swedish Wikipedia, same name Skeppssättningen sv:Ales stenar vid sv:KÃ¥seberga. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 312 pixelsFull resolution (1260 × 492 pixel, file size: 357 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Swedish Wikipedia, same name Skeppssättningen sv:Ales stenar vid sv:KÃ¥seberga. ... Ales Stones Ales Stones (Ales Stennar in Swedish) is a megalithic monument in Scania in southern Sweden, from circa 500 BC, that is, the end of the Nordic Bronze Age and the beginning of the Pre-Roman Iron Age. ... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ...

Viking and Middle ages

See also: Early Swedish history and Foundation of Modern Sweden

The Swedish Viking Age lasted roughly between the eighth and eleventh centuries CE. During this period, it is believed that the Swedes expanded from eastern Sweden and incorporated the Geats to the south.[8] While Vikings from what is today Norway, Denmark and the west coast and south of Sweden travelled south and west, Swedish vikings and Gutar travelled east and south, going to Finland, the Baltic countries, Russia, the Mediterranean and further as far as Baghdad. Their routes passed the rivers of Russia down south to Constantinople (Byzantine Empire) (present-day Istanbul, Turkey) on which they did numerous raids. The Byzantine Emperor Theophilos noticed their great skills in war, and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, these were called the varangian guard. The Swedish vikings are believed to have taken great part in the creation of Russia. The adventures of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many rune stones in Sweden, such as the Greece Runestones and the Varangian Runestones. There was also considerable participation in expeditions westwards, which are commorated on stones such as the England Runestones. The last major Swedish Viking expedition appears to have been the ill-fated expedition of Ingvar the Far-Travelled to Serkland, the region south-east of the Caspian Sea. Its members are commemorated on the Ingvar Runestones, none of which mentions any survivor. This article will cover the time following the pre-historic era and partly the Viking Age, and spans from circa 800 AD, when the process of Christianization began, up to 1523, when the king Gustav Vasa was crowned. ... // Gustav Vasa Main article: Gustav I of Sweden Gusav Vasa Gustav I of Sweden (Vasa) had political and religious difficulties in his kingdom established in 1523. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... Swede (turnip /neep in Scotland) is also the British name for what the Americans call rutabaga. ... Geats (Gautar Old Norse or Götar in Swedish) is the Old English spelling of the name of a Scandinavian people living in Götaland, land of the Geats, currently within the borders of modern Sweden. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» in Russian) was a trade route, which connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus and the Byzantine Empire. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Tetradrachm of Theophilos, Attic standard. ... The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. ... A rune stone in Lund Rune stones are stones with runic inscriptions dating from the early Middle Ages but are found to have been used most prominently during the Viking Age. ... The purple path shows the Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks and it was probably used by many of those mentioned in the Greece Runestones. ... The geographic distribution of the runestones. ... Ingvar the Far-Travelled (Norse: Ingvar Vittfarne) was the leader of an unsuccessful Viking attack against Persia, in 1036-1042. ... This runestone, raised circa 1040 at Gripsholm, commemorates a Viking lost during an ill-fated raid in Serkland. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The Gripsholm Runestone is the most famous one of the Ingvar Runestones. ...


It is not known when and how the kingdom of Sweden was born, but the list of Swedish monarchs is drawn from the first kings who ruled Svealand (Sweden) and Götaland (Gothia) as one with Erik the Victorious. Sweden and Gothia were two separate nations long before that. It is unknown how long they have existed, Beowulf described semi-legendary Swedish-Geatish wars in the sixth century CE. This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... Svealand Swedens historical four lands. ... Götaland Unofficial Nordic cross flag of western Götaland. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... The Swedish-Geatish wars refer to semi-legendary 6th century[1] battles between Swedes and Geats that are described in the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

Visby, a medieval city on Gotland.
Visby, a medieval city on Gotland.

During the early stages of the Scandinavian Viking Age, Ystad in Scania and Paviken on Gotland, in present-day Sweden, were flourishing trade centers. Remains of what is believed to have been a large market have been found in Ystad dating from 600–700 CE.[9] In Paviken, an important center of trade in the Baltic region during the ninth and tenth century, remains have been found of a large Viking Age harbour with shipbuilding yards and handicraft industries. Between 800 and 1000, trade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland and according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of this era hoarded more silver than the rest of the population of Scandinavia combined.[9] Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Visby ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Visby ... Coordinates: , Country Municipality County Gotland County Province Gotland Charter 1645 Area [1]  - Total 12. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... Ystad is a municipality and city in Scania in southernmost Sweden. ... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ...


St. Ansgar introduced Christianity around 829, but the new religion did not begin to fully replace paganism until the twelfth century and onward. During the 11th century, Christianity became the most prevalent religion, and from the year 1050 Sweden is counted as a Christian nation. The period between 1100 and 1400 was characterized by internal power struggles and competition among the Nordic kingdoms, including struggles for territory and comparative power. Swedish kings also began to expand the Swedish-controlled territory in Finland, creating conflicts with the Rus.[10] Ansgar, etching by Hugo Hamilton (1830) Ansgar, Anskar or Oscar, (September 8?, 801 - February 3, 865) was an Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ...


In the 14th century, Sweden was struck by the Black Death (the Plague). During this period the Swedish cities also began to acquire greater rights and were strongly influenced by German merchants of the Hanseatic League, active especially at Visby. In 1319, Sweden and Norway were united under King Magnus Eriksson and in 1397 Queen Margaret I of Denmark effected the personal union of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark through the Kalmar Union. However, Margaret’s successors, whose rule was also centred in Denmark, were unable to control the Swedish nobility. Real power was held for long periods by regents (notably those of the Sture family) chosen by the Swedish parliament. King Christian II of Denmark, who asserted his claim to Sweden by force of arms, ordered a massacre in 1520 of Swedish nobles at Stockholm. This came to be known as the “Stockholm blood bath” and stirred the Swedish nobility to new resistance and, on 6 June (now Sweden's national holiday) in 1523, they made Gustav Vasa their king. This is sometimes considered as the foundation of modern Sweden. Shortly afterwards he rejected Catholicism and led Sweden into the Protestant Reformation. Gustav Vasa is considered to be Sweden's "Father of the Nation". This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Coordinates: , Country Municipality County Gotland County Province Gotland Charter 1645 Area [1]  - Total 12. ... Sigillum ad causas for Magnus II of Sweden Magnus Ericson, Magnus VII of Norway, the fourth Magnus to have been proclaimed king of Sweden (1316 – December 1, 1377), King of Sweden, Norway, and Terra Scania, son of Duke Eric Magnusson of Sweden and Ingeborg, daughter of Haakon V of Norway. ... Queen Margaret I for Queens Margaret of Denmark, see Queen Margaret of Denmark, and for a namesake queen consort of Scotland, see Margaret of Denmark Margaret Valdemarsdotter (1353 – October 28, 1412) was Queen of Norway, Regent of Denmark and of Sweden, and founder of the so-called Kalmar Union which... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Sture was the name an influential family in Sweden from the late 15th century to the early 16th century. ... Christian II (July 2, 1481 – January 25, 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 – 1523) and Sweden (1520 – 1521), under the Kalmar Union. ... Stockholm Bloodbath The Stockholm Bloodbath, or the Stockholm Massacre, took place as the result of a successful invasion of Sweden by Danish forces under the command of Christian II of Denmark (in Swedish history known as Christian the Tyrant). The bloodbath itself is a series of events taking place between... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gustav Vasa, originally Gustav Eriksson Vasa (May 12, 1496–September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... // Gustav Vasa Main article: Gustav I of Sweden Gusav Vasa Gustav I of Sweden (Vasa) had political and religious difficulties in his kingdom established in 1523. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Reformation redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Swedish Empire

The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. Dominions in Prussia, held from 1629 to 1635, do not appear on this map.      Sweden proper      Kexholm County      Swedish Ingria      Swedish Estonia      Livonia      Swedish Pomerania, Abp Bremen and Bp Verden      Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Gotland and Bohuslän      Trøndelag and Møre og Romsdal      Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna
The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. Dominions in Prussia, held from 1629 to 1635, do not appear on this map.
     Sweden proper      Kexholm County      Swedish Ingria      Swedish Estonia      Livonia      Swedish Pomerania, Abp Bremen and Bp Verden      Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Gotland and Bohuslän      Trøndelag and Møre og Romsdal      Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna
See also: Rise of Sweden as a Great Power, Swedish Empire, Swedish overseas colonies, Sweden and the Great Northern War, Absolute Monarchy in Sweden, Sweden-Finland, and Union between Sweden and Norway

The 17th century saw the rise of Sweden as one of the Great Powers in Europe. Sweden also had colonial possessions as a minor colonial Empire that existed from 1638—1663 and later 1785—1878. Image File history File links Sweden_in_1658. ... Image File history File links Sweden_in_1658. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Sweden proper, or Egentliga Sverige, is a term used to distinguish those territories that were fully integrated into the Kingdom of Sweden, as opposed to the dominions and possessions of, or states in union with, the Realm of Sweden. ... Kexholm County, Kexholms län or Käkisalmen lääni, was a county of Sweden from 1634 to 1721 when it was ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Nystad. ... Ingria, or Ingermanland, was a dominion of Sweden from 1580 to 1595 and then again from 1617 to 1719, when it was ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad. ... Estonia was a dominion of Sweden from 1561 until 1719, when it was ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad, following the outcome in the Great Northern War. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Swedish Pomerania (Swedish: Svenska Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from the 17th to the 19th century, situated on the German Baltic Sea coast. ... The Archbishopric of Bremen was an ecclesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. ... Verden (Aller), or Verden (IPA: ), is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, on the River Aller. ... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ... Blekinge is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Blechingia, or Blekinge - a historical Province of Sweden Blekinge County, or Blekinge län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... is a historical province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... Trøndelag is the name of a geographical region in the middle of Norway, consisting of the two counties Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag. ...   is a county in the northernmost part of the Vestlandet region of Norway, and borders the counties of Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Sogn og Fjordane. ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... â–¶ (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... // Charles IX Main article: Charles IX of Sweden Not till March 6, 1604, after Duke John son of John III of Sweden, had formally renounced his hereditary right to the throne, did Charles IX of Sweden begin to style himself king. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... Sweden possessed overseas colonies from 1638 to 1663 and from 1784 to 1878. ... // The Great Northern War See also: Great Northern War The victory at Narva Charles XI of Sweden had carefully provided against the contingency of his successors minority; and the five regents appointed by him, if not great statesmen, were at least practical politicians who had not been trained in... The Enlightened Despot See also: Gustav III of Sweden Adolf Frederick of Sweden died on February 12, 1771. ... The traditional lands of Sweden. ... Sweden and Norway 1888 The Union between Sweden and Norway refers to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of November 4. ... // Charles IX Main article: Charles IX of Sweden Not till March 6, 1604, after Duke John son of John III of Sweden, had formally renounced his hereditary right to the throne, did Charles IX of Sweden begin to style himself king. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... The Swedish colonial empire existed from 1638 to 1663 and from 1785 to 1878. ...


Sweden was during Imperial times the most powerful country of northern Europe and the Baltic Sea. Sweden's Imperial status took its start with Gustav II Adolph as king, and his successful participation in the Thirty Years' War, which made Sweden the recognized leader of continental Protestantism in Europe until 1721, when the Empire collapsed.[11] Sweden's Imperial status during this period is largely credited to Gustav I's major changes on the Swedish economy in the mid-1500s, and his introduction of Protestantism (Lutheran).[12] For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... Gustav I of Sweden, Gustav Vasa or Gustav Eriksson Vasa (1496 - 1560), became king of Sweden in 1523 and was the first monarch of the house of Vasa. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


The mid 1600s and the early 1700s were Sweden's most successful years as a great power. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent as an empire during the rule of Charles X (1622–1660) after the treaty of Roskilde in 1658. However, Sweden's largest territorial extent lasted from 1319 to 1343 with Magnus Eriksson ruling all of the traditional lands of Sweden and Norway. After more than a half century of almost constant warfare the Swedish economy had deteriorated. It would become the lifetime task of Charles' son, Charles XI (1655-1697), to rebuild the economy and refit the army. His legacy to his son, the coming ruler of Sweden Charles XII, was one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet. Sweden's largest threat at this time, Russia, had a larger army but was far behind in both equipment and training. The Swedish army crushed the Russians at the Battle of Narva in 1700, one of the first battles of the Great Northern War. This led to an overambitious campaign against Russia in 1707, however, ending in a decisive Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava in 1709. The campaign had a successful opening for Sweden, which came to occupy half of Poland and making Charles able to claim the Polish throne. But after a long march exposed by cossack raids, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great's scorched-earth techniques and the cold Russian climate, the Swedes stood weakened with a shattered confidence, and enormously outnumbered against the Russian army at Poltava. The defeat meant the beginning of the end for Sweden as Empire. Charles X or Karl X Gustav (1622 – 1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, Margrave of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at the Castle of Nyköping on November 8, 1622. ... The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city Roskilde, whereby the king of Denmark-Norway sacrificed nearly half his territory to save the rest. ... Sigillum ad causas for Magnus II of Sweden Magnus II Ericson, Magnus VII of Norway, (1316–1377), King of Sweden, Norway and Terra Scania, son of Duke Eric and Ingeborg, daughter of Hakon V of Norway. ... Norrland Svealand Götaland Historical map: Lands of Sweden Sweden is divided into the tre lands: Götaland, Svealand, Norrland. ... Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. ... Charles XII redirects here. ... Three famous battles took place around Narva. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Combatants Swedish Empire Russian Empire Commanders Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld # Peter the Great Strength 17,000 troops attacking, 7,000 besieging Poltava, 45,000 troops, 130 cannons (about 100 participated in the battle) 3,000 Kalmyks arrived at the end of battle Casualties 6,900 killed, wounded or missing 2760... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ...


Even though Sweden had lost almost half of its army during these times of intense war, Charles XII still attempted to invade Norway 1716. Soundly defeated in the war, the Swedish head of state signed the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. Forced to cede large areas of land, Sweden also lost its place as an empire and as the dominant state on the Baltic Sea. With Sweden's lost influence, Russia began to emerge as an empire, and become one of Europe's dominant nations. The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


In the 18th century, Sweden did not have enough resources to maintain its territories outside Scandinavia and most of them were lost, culminating with the 1809 loss of the eastern part to Russia: forming the semi-autonomous (Duchy) of Finland of Imperial Russia. The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


After Denmark-Norway was defeated in the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to the king of Sweden on 14 January 1814, at the Treaty of Kiel. The Norwegian attempts to keep their status as a sovereign state were rejected by the Swedish king, Charles XIII. He launched a military campaign against Norway on July 27, 1814, ending in the Convention of Moss, which forced Norway into a personal union with Sweden, which was not dissolved until 1905. The 1814 campaign was also the last war in which Sweden participated as a combatant. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Kiel, was a settlement between Sweden and Denmark-Norway on January 14, 1814, whereby the Danish king, a loser in the Napoleonic wars, ceded Norway to the king of Sweden, in return for the Swedish holdings in Pomerania. ... Charles XIII, Karl XIII, or Carl II, (1748-1818), king of Norway, the second son of king Adolf Frederick of Sweden, and Louisa Ulrica of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great, was born at Stockholm on October 7, 1748. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Moss Ironworks main office - where the Convention of Moss was negotiated and signed The Convention of Moss was a cease fire agreement, signed August 14, 1814, between the Swedish King and the Norwegian Storting. ... Sweden and Norway 1888 The Union between Sweden and Norway refers to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of November 4. ...


Modern history

See also: Modernization of Sweden and Swedish emigration to North America

The 18th and 19th centuries saw a significant population increase, which the writer Esaias Tegnér in 1833 famously attributed to "the peace, the (smallpox) vaccine, and the potatoes".[13] Between 1750 and 1850, the population in Sweden doubled. According to some scholars, mass emigration to America became the only way to prevent famine and rebellion; over 1 percent of the population emigrated annually during the 1880s.[14] Nevertheless, Sweden remained poor, retaining a nearly entirely agricultural economy even as Denmark and Western European countries began to industrialize.[15][14] Many looked towards America for a better life during this time. It is believed that between 1850 and 1910 more than one million Swedes moved to the United States.[16] In the early 20th century, more Swedes lived in Chicago than in Gothenburg (Sweden's second largest city). Most Swedish immigrants moved to the Midwestern United States, with a large population in Minnesota. Some Swedes moved to Delaware. Some also moved to Canada and others in smaller numbers to Argentina. Politics in the New Riksdag See also: Riksdag The economic condition of Sweden, owing to the progress in material prosperity which had taken place in the country as the result of the Franco-German War, was at the accession of Oscar II to the throne on September 18, 1872 fairly... The Swedish emigration to North America took place between 1840-1910. ... Esaias Tegnér Esaias Tegnér (November 13, 1782 - November 2, 1846), Swedish writer, was born at Kyrkerud in Wermelandia. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gothenburg (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ...

A map of Sweden with largest cities and lakes and most important roads and railroads, from a printed CIA World Factbook. (See also: Atlas of Sweden)
A map of Sweden with largest cities and lakes and most important roads and railroads, from a printed CIA World Factbook. (See also: Atlas of Sweden)

Despite the slow rate of industrialization into the 19th century, many important changes were taking place in the agrarian economy due to innovations and the large population growth.[17] These innovations included government-sponsored programs of enclosure, aggressive exploitation of agricultural lands, and the introduction of new crops such as the potato.[17] Due also to the fact that the Swedish peasantry had never been enserfed as elsewhere in Europe,[18] the Swedish farming culture began to take on a critical role in the Swedish political process, which has continued through modern times with modern Agrarian party (now called the Centre Party).[19] Between 1870 and 1914, Sweden began developing the industrialized economy that exists today.[20] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (524x1192, 363 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sweden ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (524x1192, 363 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sweden ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... For other uses, see Enclosure (disambiguation). ...


Strong grassroots movements sprung up in Sweden during the latter half of the nineteenth century (trade unions, temperance groups, and independent religious groups), creating a strong foundation of democratic principles. These movements precipitated Sweden's migration into a modern parliamentary democracy, achieved by the time of World War I. As the Industrial Revolution progressed during the twentieth century, people gradually began moving into cities to work in factories, and became involved in socialist unions. A socialist revolution was avoided in 1917, following the re-introduction of parliamentarism, and the country was democratized. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This is a list of cities, towns, and market towns (köpings) in Sweden, that held their town privileges (Stadsprivilegium) by Royal Charter or by being established since ancient times. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ...


Recent history

See also: Sweden during World War II, Cold War Sweden, and Sweden after the Cold War.

Sweden remained officially neutral during World War I and World War II, although its neutrality during World War II has been vigorously debated.[21][22] Sweden was under German influence for most of the war, as ties to the rest of the world were cut off through blockades.[21] The Swedish government felt that it was in no position to openly contest Germany,[23] and therefore collaborated with Hitler.[24] Swedish volunteers in Nazi SS units were among the first to invade the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. Sweden also supplied steel and machined parts to Germany throughout the war. Toward the end of the war however, when the defeat of Germany seemed imminent, Sweden began to play a role in humanitarian efforts and many refugees, among them many Jews from Nazi-occupied Europe, were saved partly because of the Swedish involvement in rescue missions at the internment camps and partly because Sweden served as a haven for refugees, primarily from Norden and the Baltic states.[23] Nevertheless, internal and external critics have argued that Sweden could have done more to resist the Nazi war effort, even if risking occupation.[23] The policy of Sweden during World War II was to remain neutral. ... No democratic head of government has held office longer than Tage Erlander. ... This article describes the history of Sweden from 1989 until present day. ... Swedish neutrality refers to Swedens policy of neutrality in armed conflicts, which has been in effect since the early 19th century. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...


Following the war, Sweden took advantage of an intact industrial base, social stability and its natural resources to expand its industry to supply the rebuilding of Europe.[25] By the 1960s, Sweden, like the other Nordic countries, had become an affluent consumer society and welfare state.[25] Sweden was part of the Marshall Plan and participated in the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),[25] many of the policies aiming to improve the quality of life for the general population, in particular Sweden's working class, were successfully implemented. Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Sweden, like countries around the globe, entered a period of economic decline and upheaval, following the oil embargoes of 1973-74 and 1978-79.[26] In the 1980s pillars of Swedish industry were massively restructured. Shipbuilding was discontinued, wood pulp was integrated into modernized paper production, the steel industry was concentrated and specialized, and mechanical engineering was digitalized.[27]


A bursting real estate bubble caused by inadequate controls on lending combined with an international recession and a policy switch from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies resulted in a fiscal crisis in the early 1990s.[28] The response of the government was to cut spending and institute a multitude of reforms to improve Sweden's competitiveness, among them reducing the welfare state and privatizing public services and goods. Much of the political establishment promoted EU membership, and the Swedish referendum passed by 52-48% in favour of joining the EU on 14 August 1994. Sweden joined the EU on 1 January 1995. Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Sweden joined the European Union in 1995, after the collapse of the Soviet Union. During the Cold War, Europe's non-aligned Western countries, except Ireland, had considered membership unwise, as the EU predecessor, the European Community, had been strongly associated with NATO countries. Following the end of the Cold War, however, Sweden, Austria and Finland joined, though in Sweden's case without adopting the Euro. Sweden remains non-aligned militarily, although it participates in some joint military exercises with NATO and some other countries, in addition to extensive cooperation with other European countries in the area of defence technology and defence industry. Among others, Swedish companies export weapons that are used by the American military in Iraq.[29] Sweden also has a long history of participating in international military operations, including most recently, Afghanistan, where Swedish troops are under NATO command, and in EU sponsored peacekeeping operations in Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Cyprus. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


A country known for very low crime rates compared to other developed countries, Sweden has nevertheless seen two prominent politicians assassinated in recent history: Prime Minister Olof Palme in 1986, and foreign minister Anna Lindh in 2003. Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ) (30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Geography and climate

The delta of Rapadalen in Laponia. Laponia is the largest tract of unspoiled natural land in Europe.
The delta of Rapadalen in Laponia. Laponia is the largest tract of unspoiled natural land in Europe.
Main article: Geography of Sweden

Situated in Northern Europe, Sweden lies west of the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia, providing a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. To the west is the Scandinavian mountain chain (Skanderna), a range that separates Sweden from Norway. Image File history File links Sarek_Skierffe_Rapadelta. ... Image File history File links Sarek_Skierffe_Rapadelta. ... The Laponian area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the province of Laponia in northern Sweden. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Continent Europe Subregion Scandinavia Geographic coordinates Area  - Total  - Water Ranked 55th 449,964 km² 39,03- km² (8. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ... The Scandinavian Mountains, or Skanderna, Kölen or Fjällen, are a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. ...


Sweden is surrounded by Norway (west), Finland (northeast), the Skagerrak, Kattegat and Öresund straits (southwest) and the Baltic Sea (east). It has maritime borders with Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, and it is also linked to Denmark (southwest) by the Öresund Bridge. The Skagerrak strait runs between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat strait, which leads to the Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Sea The Kattegat (Danish), or Kattegatt (Swedish), is a bay of the North Sea and a continuation of the Skagerrak, bounded by Denmark and Sweden. ... Northern Öresund Oresund (Öresund in Swedish or Øresund in Danish) or The Sound, is the strait that separates Zealand from Scania, and thereby Denmark from Sweden. ... Over-Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The Oresund Bridge The Oresund Bridge (joint Danish/Swedish hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined two-track rail and four-lane road bridge across the Oresund strait. ...

The 25 provinces of Sweden
The 25 provinces of Sweden

At 449,964 km² (173,732 sq mi), Sweden is the 55th largest country in the world. It is the 5th largest in Europe, and the largest in Northern Europe. The country is slightly larger than the U.S. state of California, with a population in 2006 of 9.1 million people. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x875, 12 KB) Provinces of Sweden (landskap), colors and text inserted by me. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x875, 12 KB) Provinces of Sweden (landskap), colors and text inserted by me. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The lowest elevation in Sweden is in the bay of Lake Hammarsjön, near Kristianstad at -2.41 m (-7.91 ft) below sea level. The highest point is Kebnekaise at 2,111 m (6,926 ft) above sea level. Kristianstad is a municipality and city in Scania in southernmost Sweden. ... Kebnekaise (from Sami Giebmegáisi or Giebnegáisi), Cauldron Crest) is the highest mountain in Sweden. ...


Sweden has 25 provinces or landskap (landscapes), based on culture, geography and history; Bohuslän, Blekinge, Dalarna, Dalsland, Gotland, Gästrikland, Halland, Hälsingland, Härjedalen, Jämtland, Lapland, Medelpad, Norrbotten, Närke, Skåne, Småland, Södermanland, Uppland, Värmland, Västmanland, Västerbotten, Västergötland, Ångermanland, Öland and Östergötland. While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they are common in everyday language. The provinces are usually grouped together in three large lands, parts, Norrland, Svealand and Götaland. The provinces or landskap were the subdivisions of Sweden until 1634, when they were replaced by the counties of Sweden (län). ... Landskap can refer to: Landskap - the historical provinces of Sweden (including Finland) Landskap - the subset of historical provinces in current day Finland Landskap - the current regions of Finland (Maakunta) Landskapet Åland - an autonomous and unilingually Swedish province of Finland See also: Län, Lands of Sweden This is a disambiguation page... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... Blekinge is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Blechingia, or Blekinge - a historical Province of Sweden Blekinge County, or Blekinge län - a current County of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... There is also Norwegian region called Dalane. ... is a Swedish province (landskap) in the south west of Sweden. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... Gästrikland, is a historical Province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden. ... is a historical province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. ...   Hälsingland?, is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... â–¶ (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the center of Sweden. ... Laponia, or Lappland, was a historical Province or landskap in the extreme north of Sweden. ...   is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... Norrbotten is the name of an unofficial Province (landskap) in Sweden, originally a part of Västerbotten, which gradually grow apart from Västerbotten after the creation of Norrbotten County in 1810. ... Närke is the name of a geographical region in Sweden which can refer to: Nericia, or Närke - a historical Province of Sweden Part of Örebro County, or Örebro län - a current County of Sweden Part of Närke and Värmland County, or Närkes och V... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ... is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden. ... (frequently shortened to Sörmland in Sweden, particularly locally) is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden. ... Uppland ( ) is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden. ... â–¶(?) is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. ...  Västmanland? is a historical Province or landskap in middle Sweden. ... Västerbotten is the name of a geographical region in Sweden and Finland which can refer to: Westrobothnia, or Västerbotten - a historical Province of the Swedish Realm Laponia, or Lappland - a historical Province of the Swedish Realm Part of Västerbotten County, or Västerbottens län - a current...   is one of the historical provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the southwest of Sweden. ... (help· info), is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. ... For the Finnish island, see Ã…land. ... (help· info) is a historical Province (landskap) in the south of Sweden. ... Norrland Svealand Götaland Historical map: Lands of Sweden Sweden is divided into the tre lands: Götaland, Svealand, Norrland. ... Norrland is a name for the northernmost part of Sweden, historically one of the four lands of Sweden. ... Svealand Swedens historical four lands. ... Götaland Unofficial Nordic cross flag of western Götaland. ...


About 15% of Sweden lies north of the Arctic Circle. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward. The highest population density is in the Öresund region in southern Sweden, and in the valley of lake Mälaren in central Sweden. Gotland and Öland are Sweden's largest islands; Vänern and Vättern are Sweden's largest lakes. For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... Northern Öresund Oresund (Öresund in Swedish or Øresund in Danish) or The Sound, is the strait that separates Zealand from Scania, and thereby Denmark from Sweden. ... Location map Mälaren details, with Stockholm urban area to the right in pink. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ... For the Finnish island, see Ã…land. ... This is a list of the largest islands of Sweden. ... Map of Sweden; Vänern in the middle south. ... On the country map, the slit-shaped lake Vättern is easily identified in the south Lake Vättern Vättern is the second largest lake (by surface area) in Sweden, after lake Vänern. ...


Sweden has a temperate climate despite its northern latitude, mainly because of the Gulf Stream. In the mountains of northern Sweden a sub-Arctic climate predominates. North of the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets for part of each summer, and in the winter, night is similarly unending. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the extreme north of Heilongjiang. ... For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ...


Common temperatures in the seasons (°C):[30]

  • Winter: -1° in the most southern parts, -5 to -15° in south and middle, and down to -20° in the north (locally down to -40°).
  • Spring: about 10 °C in the south and middle and a bit colder in the north.
  • Summer: 18° to 25° in south, 16° to 22° in middle and around 15° in the north.
  • Autumn: a bit under 10° in the south and middle and often under 5° in the north.

Average precipitation is between 500 and 800 mm/year. In some parts though the average is between 1000 and 1700 mm/year.[31]


Politics

Main article: Politics of Sweden

Sweden is a constitutional monarchy, in which King Carl XVI Gustaf is head of state, but royal power has long been limited to official and ceremonial functions.[32] The Economist Intelligence Unit, while admitting that democracy is difficult to measure, lists Sweden in first place in its index of democracy assessing 167 countries.[33] The nation's modern legislative body is the Riksdag (Swedish Parliament), with 349 members, which chooses the Prime Minister. Parliamentary elections are held every four years, on the third Sunday of September. Politics of Sweden takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Sweden is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the current Swedish monarch and head of state of the Kingdom of Sweden. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... King Carl XVI Gustaf (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus) (born April 30, 1946, at Haga Palace, Solna, Uppland), is the King of Sweden. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... The parliament building from outside. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Counties

Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into twenty-one counties (län). Each county has a County Administrative Board or länsstyrelse, which is appointed by the government (the first Swedish County Administrative Board was made up by the Swedish Prime Minister Axel Oxenstierna in 1634). In each county there is also a separate County Council or landsting, which is elected directly by the people. Each county further divides into a number of municipalities or kommuner, with a total of 290 municipalities in 2004. There are also older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance. The Swedish government is investigating the possibilities of merging the current 21 counties into circa 9 larger regions along the lines of the current riksområden used for statistical purposes. If approved, these would come into effect around 2015.[34] A county, or län, is an administrative and political subdivision of Sweden. ... The Municipalities or Kommuner represent the local level of self government in Sweden. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... A county, or län, is an administrative and political subdivision of Sweden. ... Län and lääni are the Swedish and Finnish terms for the administrative divisions used in Sweden and Finland, and sometimes in other countries, especially as a translation of the Russian word oblast. The word literally means fief. ... A County Administrative Board is a Government appointed board of a County in Sweden. ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... Count Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna   listen? or Oxenstjerna (June 16, 1583 - August 28, 1654), Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, was born at FÃ¥nö in Uplandia, and received his education with his brothers at the universities of Rostock, Jena and Wittenberg. ... A County Council, or Landsting, is an elected assembly of a County in Sweden. ... The Municipalities or Kommuner represent the local level of self government in Sweden. ... The provinces or landskap were the subdivisions of Sweden until 1634, when they were replaced by the counties of Sweden (län). ... Norrland Svealand Götaland Historical map: Lands of Sweden Sweden is divided into the tre lands: Götaland, Svealand, Norrland. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics of Sweden are used for statistical purposes in a European Union context. ...

Further information: Subdivisions of Sweden

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Political history

Kingdoms of Svear (Swedish) and Götar (Geats) in the twelfth century.
Kingdoms of Svear (Swedish) and Götar (Geats) in the twelfth century.

The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown.[35] It depends mostly on whether Sweden should be considered a nation when the Svear (Swedes) ruled Svealand or if the emergence of the nation started with the Svear and the Götar (Geats) of Götaland being united under one ruler. In the first case, Sweden was first mentioned to have one single ruler in the year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way. However, historians usually start the line of Swedish monarchs from when Svealand and Götaland were ruled under the same king, namely Erik the Victorious and his son Olof Skötkonung in the 10th century. These events are often described as the consolidation of Sweden, although substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1650x1950, 478 KB) Map of Scandinavia in 12th century, showing modern borders in grey. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1650x1950, 478 KB) Map of Scandinavia in 12th century, showing modern borders in grey. ... Geatas (Gautar in Old Norse, Götar in Swedish) is the Old English spelling of the name of the Geats, a North Germanic tribe historically associated with Götaland (land of the Geats) in modern Sweden. ... Svealand Swedens historical four lands. ... Geatas (Gautar in Old Norse, Götar in Swedish) is the Old English spelling of the name of the Geats, a North Germanic tribe historically associated with Götaland (land of the Geats) in modern Sweden. ... Geats (Gautar Old Norse or Götar in Swedish) is the Old English spelling of the name of a Scandinavian people living in Götaland, land of the Geats, currently within the borders of modern Sweden. ... Götaland Unofficial Nordic cross flag of western Götaland. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... Eric the Victorious (VI), Old Norse: Eiríkr inn sigrsæli, Modern Swedish: Erik Segersäll, (970?- 995), was king of the Swedes during the second half of the 10th century. ... Coin minted for Olof Skötkonung in Sigtuna Olof of Sweden or Olof Skötkonung/Skottkonung (the meaning of the cognomen is disputed) was the son of Eric the Victorious and Sigrid the Haughty. ... Unlike Norway and Denmark, there is no specific time that is generally agreed on concerning when Sweden can be called unified. ...


Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden, many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology. In sources such as Heimskringla and Ynglinga saga there appear early Swedish kings who belong in the domain of mythology, but it is often suggested that they have a historical basis. ... The semi-legendary kings of Sweden are the long line of Swedish kings who preceded Eric the Victorious, according to sources such as the Norse Sagas, Beowulf, Rimbert, Adam of Bremen and Saxo Grammaticus, but who are of disputed historicity, due to the fact that many of them appear in... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ...


The title Sveriges och Götes Konung was last used for Gustaf I of Sweden, after which the title became "King of Sweden, of the Goths and of the Wends" (Sveriges, Götes och Vendes Konung) in official documentation. Up until the beginning of the 1920s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends". This title was used up until 1973.[36] The present King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf was the first monarch officially proclaimed "King of Sweden" (Sveriges Konung) with no additional peoples mentioned in his title. Gustav Vasa (Gustav I), whose real name was Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496–September 29, 1560) of the royal house of Vasa, was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... The title of King of the Goths was for many centuries borne by both the Kings of Sweden and the Kings of Denmark, denoting sovereignty or claimed sovereignty over the antique people of the Goths, which is sort of poetic explanation. ... The title of King of the Wends denoted sovereignty or claims over Slavic lands of southern coasts of the Baltic Sea, those otherwise called Mecklenburg, Holstein and Pomerania, and was from 12th century used by Kings of Denmark and from 16th century by Kings of Sweden. ... His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus), styled HM The King (born April 30, 1946), King of Sweden, is the son of Prince Gustaf Adolf (1906-1947) and Sibylla of Saxe_Coburg_Gotha (1908-1972), and the grandson of King Gustav VI Adolf. ...


The term Riksdag was used for the first time in the 1540s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early as 1435, in the town of Arboga.[37] During the assemblies of 1527 and 1544, under King Gustav Vasa, representatives of all four estates of the realm (clergy, nobility, townsmen and peasants) were called on to participate for the first time.[37] The monarchy became hereditary in 1544. Arboga is a Municipality in Västmanland County, in central Sweden. ... Gustav Vasa, originally Gustav Eriksson Vasa (May 12, 1496–September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... Cleric, Knight, and Workman: the three estates in medieval illumination The estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners recognized in the Middle Ages, and also later, in some parts of Europe. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Swedish nobility (Adeln) was historically a privileged class in Sweden. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ...


Executive power was historically shared between the King and a noble Privy Council until 1680, followed by the King's autocratic rule initiated by the common estates of the Parliament. As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced in 1719, followed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy in 1772, 1789 and 1809, the latter granting several civil liberties. The monarch remains as the formal, but merely symbolic head of state with ceremonial duties. A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... The Swedish Constitution consists of four fundamental laws (Swedish: grundlagar): The Instrument of Government (1974) The Act of Succession (1810) The Freedom of the Press Act (1766) The Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression (1991) There is also a law on the working order of the Parliament with a special... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ...


The Riksdag of the Estates consisted of two chambers. In 1866 Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every four years. In 1971 the Riksdag became unicameral. Legislative power was (symbolically) shared between king and parliament until 1975. Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag (parliament). The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a state, or to functional equivalents of a state, including tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements. ... The parliament building from outside. ...


Modern political system

The Riksdag building, Stockholm.
The Riksdag building, Stockholm.

Constitutionally, the 349-member Riksdag (Parliament) holds supreme authority in modern Sweden. This Riksdag is responsible for choosing the prime minister, who then appoints the government (the ministers). The legislative power is then shared between the parliament and the Prime Minister led government. The executive power is exercised by the government, while the judiciary is independent. Sweden lacks compulsory judicial review, although the non-compulsory review carried out by lagrådet (Law Council) is mostly respected in technical matters but less so in controversial political matters. Acts of the parliament and government decrees can be made inapplicable at every level if they are manifestly against constitutional laws. However, due to the restrictions in this form of judicial review and a weak judiciary, this has had little practical consequence. Image File history File links Riksdagen-fran-vattnet-2004-05-09. ... Image File history File links Riksdagen-fran-vattnet-2004-05-09. ... The parliament building from outside. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ...


Legislation may be initiated by the cabinet or by members of Parliament. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation for a four-year term. The Constitution of Sweden can be altered by the Riksdag, which requires a simple but absolute majority and two decisions with general elections in between. Sweden has three other constitutional laws: the Act of Royal Succession, the Freedom of Press Act and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The Swedish Constitution consists of four fundamental laws (Swedish: grundlagar): The Instrument of Government (Regeringsformen, 1974) The Act of Succession (Successionsordningen 1810) The Freedom of the Press Act (Tryckfrihetsförordningen 1766) The Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression (Yttrandefrihetsgrundlagen 1991) There is also a law on the working order of...


The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917, after Reformists had confirmed their strength and the revolutionaries left the party. After 1932, the cabinets have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only four general elections (1976, 1979, 1991 and 2006) have given the centre-right bloc enough seats in Parliament to form a government. However, poor economic performance since the beginning of the 1970s, and especially the crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, have forced Sweden to reform its political system to become more like other European countries. In the 2006 general election the Moderate Party, allied with the Centre Party, Liberal People's Party, and the Christian Democrats, with a common political platform, won a majority of the votes. Together they have formed a majority government under the leadership of the Moderate party's leader Fredrik Reinfeldt. The next elections will be held in September 2010[38] The Swedish Social Democratic Party, (Swedish: , Social Democratic Workers Party of Sweden), contests elections as Workers Party - Social Democrats (Arbetarepartiet-Socialdemokraterna), commonly referred to just as the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterna); is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... The Left Party (Vänsterpartiet) is a socialist and feminist political party in Sweden, from 1967 to 1990 known as the Left Party - Communists (Vänsterpartiet kommunisterna; (vpk)). On welfare issues, the party opposes privatizations. ... A general election will be held in Sweden on September 17, 2006 to elect members to the Riksdag. ... The Moderate Party (Swedish: : the Moderate Coalition Party, commonly referred to in Swedish as Moderaterna: the Moderates) is a liberal conservative political party in Sweden. ... The Centre Party (Centerpartiet) is a political party in Sweden. ... The Liberal Party of Sweden (in Swedish: Folkpartiet liberalerna, abbreviated fp, meaning Peoples Party the Liberals) is a political party in Sweden. ... The Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) is a political party in Sweden. ... John Fredrik Reinfeldt (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1965, in Österhaninge) is the current Prime Minister of Sweden and leader of the liberal conservative Moderate Party (Swedish: ). A native of Stockholm County, Reinfeldt joined the Moderate Youth League in 1983, and by 1992 had risen to the rank of chairman, a... The Swedish Riksdag The next general election to the Swedish Riksdag will be held on Sunday, September 19, 2010. ...

The Riksdag following its 2006 renovation (picture of assembly hall).
The Riksdag following its 2006 renovation (picture of assembly hall).

Election turnout in Sweden has always been high in international comparisons, although it has declined in recent decades, and is currently around 80% (80.11 in general election of 2002, 81.99 in general election of 2006). Swedish politicians enjoyed a high degree of confidence from the citizens in the 1960s but it has since declined steadily and has a markedly lower level of trust than its Scandinavian neighbours.[39] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 818 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Riksdag Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 818 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Riksdag Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Results of the general election to the Riksdag, the parliament of Sweden, held Sunday September 15, 2002. ... A general election will be held in Sweden on September 17, 2006 to elect members to the Riksdag. ...


Some Swedish political figures that have become known worldwide include Raoul Wallenberg, Folke Bernadotte, former Secretary General of the United Nations Dag Hammarskjöld, former Prime Minister Olof Palme, former Prime Minister and Foreign minister Carl Bildt, former President of the General Assembly of the United Nations Jan Eliasson, and former International Atomic Energy Agency Iraq inspector Hans Blix. Raoul Gustav Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 16, 1947?)[1][2][3] was a Swedish humanitarian sent to Budapest, Hungary under diplomatic cover to rescue Jews from the Holocaust. ... Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg (January 2, 1895 - September 17, 1948), or simply Count Bernadotte, was a Swedish diplomat noted for his negotiation of the release of 15,000 mostly Scandinavian prisoners [1] from the German concentration camps in World War II and for his assassination by members of a... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( ) (July 29, 1905 – September 18, 1961) was a Swedish diplomat and the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ) (30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ...   (born July 15, 1949) is a Swedish politician and diplomat, currently serving as Minister for Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... Jan Eliasson Photo: Pawel Flato Jan Kenneth Eliasson (born 17 September 1940) is a Swedish diplomat with connections to the Social Democratic party. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...   (born 28 June 1928 in Uppsala, Sweden) is a Swedish diplomat and politician. ...


Sweden can be considered to be a present day example of a Social Democracy, a moderate form of socialism that seeks to reform capitalism through greater government regulation and to implement a mixed economy. Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... A mixed economy is an economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system. ...


Popular movements and equality politics

Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements" (Folkrörelser), the most notable being trade unions, the independent Christian movement, the temperance movement, the women's movement and—more recently—the sports movement. A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The Feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, discrimination and sexual violence. ...


Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education system.[40] Gudrun Schyman founded the first Swedish feminist party, the Feminist Initiative party, commonly referred to simply as F!, in 2005. Ms. magazine quoted Schyman's view of Sweden's reputation for progressive initiatives: "In Sweden there’s a gap between words and reality.... Internationally a lot of people look upon Sweden as equality paradise, but that is not the truth – and now things are actually going backwards."[41] In fact the pay gap between men and women in Sweden is 16%, higher than the EU average of 15%. Sweden compares unfavourably with the EU average when it comes to providing full-time jobs for women, with a high fraction of employed women working part-time.[40] EQUAL is a popular artificial sweetener Equal (sweetener) Equality can mean several things: Mathematical equality Social equality Racial equality Sexual equality Equality of outcome Equality, a town in Illinois See also Equity Egalitarianism Equals sign This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Gudrun Schyman Gudrun Schyman (born June 9, 1948) is a Swedish politician. ... Feminist Initiative (Swedish: Feministiskt initiativ, abbreviated Fi or F!) is a political party in Sweden. ... magazine Ms. ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ...


Energy politics

See also: Nordic energy market, Nuclear power phase-out in Sweden, and Oil phase-out in Sweden

Nordic energy market is one of the first liberalized energy markets in Europe and it's traded in Nord Pool. Nuclear power plants in Sweden (view)  Active plants  Closed plants Swedens energy policy focused on hydroelectricity, which was supplemented by nuclear power starting in 1965. ... Crude oil prices, 1994-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) In 2005 the government of Sweden announced their intention to make Sweden the first country to break its dependence on petroleum, natural gas and other ‘fossil raw materials’ by 2020. ... Nord Pool ASA, the Nordic Power Exchange, is the worlds only multinational exchange for trading electric power. ...


The 1973 oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power. The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. Among other things, the accident of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (USA) prompted the Swedish parliament to hold a referendum on nuclear power. The referendum led to a decision that no further nuclear power plants should be built and that a nuclear power phase-out should be completed by 2010.[citation needed] The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. ... Three Mile Island redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Riksdag or Sveriges Riksdag is the Parliament of Sweden. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


In 2006, out of a total electricity production of 139 TWh, electricity from hydropower accounted for 61 TWh (44%), and nuclear power delivered 65 TWh (47%). At the same time, the use of biofuels, peat etc. produced 13 TWh (9%) of electricity, while wind power produced 1 TWh (1%). Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh.[42] Biomass is mainly used to produce heat for district heating and central heating and industry processes. The terawatt hour (TW·h) is a unit for measuring energy. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... District heating pipe in Tübingen, Germany District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements. ... For the Grand Central Records albums, see Central Heating (Grand Central album) and Central Heating 2. ...


In March 2005, an opinion poll showed that 83% supported maintaining or increasing nuclear power.[43] Since then however, reports about radioactive leakages at a nuclear waste store in Forsmark, Sweden, have been published,[44] although this does not seem to have changed the public support of continued use of nuclear power. Sweden decided to phase out nuclear fission before 2020,[45] although it is very unlikely that this will happen.[citation needed] Forsmark is a small town on the coast of Uplandia, Sweden, and the location of the Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ...


In an effort to phase out the dependency on nuclear power and fossil fuels, the Swedish government has launched a multi-billion dollar program to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency.[46][47] The country has for many years pursued a strategy of indirect taxation as an instrument of environmental policy, including energy taxes in general and carbon dioxide taxes in particular.[46] Also in 2005, Sweden garnered international attention by announcing its intention to break its dependence on foreign oil within 15 years, with the goal of becoming the world's first oil-free economy.[47] Crude oil prices, 1994-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) In 2005 the government of Sweden announced their intention to make Sweden the first country to break its dependence on petroleum, natural gas and other ‘fossil raw materials’ by 2020. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Environmental policy is any (course of) action delibaretely taken (or not taken) to manage human activities with a view to prevent, reduce or mitigate harmful effects on nature and natural resources, and ensuring that man-made changes to the environment do not have harmful effects on humans [1]. // It is... An energy tax is a tax on various forms of energy production, typically levied on the burning of fossil fuels. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Foreign policy

Throughout the twentieth century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime.[25] "Sweden's government was left to pursue an independent course based on a foreign policy defined as nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war." The foreign policy of Sweden is based on the premise that national security is best served by staying free of alliances in peacetime in order to remain a neutral country in the event of war. ... The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ...


Sweden's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as it has not participated in any war since the end of the Swedish campaign against Norway in 1814. During World War II Sweden joined neither the allied nor axis powers. This has been disputed by many since in effect Sweden allowed the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods,[21][23] especially iron ore from the rich mines in northern Sweden, of vital need to the German war machine.[48][23] Combatants Norway Sweden Commanders  ? Crown Prince Jean Baptiste Bernadotte The Campaign against Norway, or The Norwegian-Swedish War of 1814 was fought between Sweden and Norway in the summer of 1814. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II consisted of those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ...


During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment with a low profile in international affairs, although it also pursued a security policy based on strong national defence to deter attack.[49] At the same time, the country maintained relatively close informal connections with the Western bloc, especially in the realm of intelligence exchange. In 1952, a Swedish DC-3 was shot down over the Baltic Sea by a Soviet MiG-15 jet fighter. Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO.[50] Another plane, a Catalina search and rescue plane, was sent out a few days later and shot down by the Soviets as well. Olof Palme the former prime minister of Sweden visited Cuba during the 1970s and showed his support for Cuba in his speech which was in Spanish.[citation needed] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A security policy is a plan of action for tackling security issues, or a set of regulations for maintaining a certain level of security. ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory; usually via fortifications. ... Douglas DC-3 VH-AES at Avalon in 2003. ... On June 13, 1952 a Swedish military DC-3 flying over the Baltic Sea, clandestinely carrying out signals intelligence operations for the USA, disappeared east of Gotland. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (Russian: ) (NATO reporting name Fagot) was a jet fighter developed for the USSR by Artem Mikoyan and Mikhail Gurevich. ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... PBY Catalina was the United States Navy designation for an American and Canadian-built flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s. ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea...


Beginning in the late 1960s, Sweden for a period attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations. This involved significant activity in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World. Since the murder of Olof Palme in 1986 and the end of the Cold War, this has been significantly toned down, although Sweden remains comparatively active in peace keeping missions and maintains a generous foreign aid budget. UN redirects here. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ) (30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician. ...


In 1981 a Soviet Whiskey class submarine ran aground close to the Swedish naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country. It has never been clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if it was a matter of espionage against Swedish military potential. The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. Whiskey class submarines (locally known as project 613, 644, and 665) are a class of military submarines that the Soviet Union built in the cold war period. ... Karlskrona is a city in south-eastern Sweden. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


Since 1995 Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation as well.


Military

Main article: Swedish Armed Forces

The Försvarsmakten (Swedish Armed Forces) is a government agency reporting to the Swedish Ministry of Defence and responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war. The armed forces are divided into Army, Air Force and Navy. The head of the armed forces is the Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces (Överbefälhavaren, ÖB), and after the sovereign is the most senior officer in the country. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x1960, 696 KB) Description See caption Date 1 Sep 2003 Source http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x1960, 696 KB) Description See caption Date 1 Sep 2003 Source http://www. ... Coat of arms of the Swedish Air Force. ... The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (Griffin or Gryphon) is a fighter aircraft manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab. ... The Swedish Armed Forces, or Försvarsmakten, is a Government agency responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden. ... The Swedish Armed Forces, or Försvarsmakten, is a Government agency responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden. ... The Ministry of Defence (Swedish: ) is a Swedish government ministry responsible for the national defence policy. ... Peacetime is the eighth studio album by Eddi Reader released in the UK on January 29, 2007. ... The Supreme Commander (Swedish: , ÖB) is the highest military officer in Sweden and the Commander-in-Chief of the Swedish Armed Forces in both peace-time and war-time. ...


Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has reduced dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly. Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service. All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In 1975 the total number of conscripts was 45,000. By 2003 it was down to 15,000. After the Defence Proposition 2004, the number of troops in training will decrease even more to between 5,000 and 10,000 each year, while emphasizing the need to recruit only the soldiers later prepared to volunteer for international service. The total forces gathered would consist of about 60,000 men. This could be compared with the 80s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,000,000 men. For military service in the meaning of an army as a military defense organization, see armed forces. ...


Swedish units have taken part in peacekeeping operations, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cyprus, Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan. The Democratic Republic of the Congo, called Zaïre between 1971 and 1997, is a nation in central Africa. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


Currently, one of the most important tasks for the Swedish Armed Forces is to form a Swedish-led EU Battle Group to which Norway, Finland, Ireland and Estonia will also contribute.[51] The Nordic Battle Group (NBG) is to have a 10-day deployment readiness during the first half of 2008 and, although Swedish led, will have its Operational Headquarters (OHQ) in Northwood, outside London. European Union battlegroups (EU BGs) are military forces of 1500 combat soldiers under the control of the European Union. ... The Nordic Battle Group (NBG) is one of eighteen European Union Battlegroups. ... Northwood is a suburb of London in the London Borough of Hillingdon. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Sweden
Gross Regional Product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2004).
Gross Regional Product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2004).

Sweden is an export-oriented market economy featuring a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labour force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Sweden's engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Telecommunications, the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Agriculture accounts for 2 percent of GDP and employment. The Economy of Sweden is modern and highly industrialised. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A metropolitan areas gross domestic product, i. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... The term communications is used in a number of disciplines: Communications, also known as communication studies is the academic discipline which studies communication, generally seen as a mixture between media studies and linguistics. ... labor may refer to: Work of any kind Wage labor, in which a worker sells their labor and the employer buys it Manual labor, physical work done by people Childbirth, especially from the start of uterine contractions to delivery Labor (economics), one of the three main factors of production Labor... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries (an exporter and an importer). ... GDP redirects here. ...


Sweden's industry is overwhelmingly in private control; unlike some other industrialized Western countries, such as Austria and Italy, publicly owned enterprises were always of minor importance. Eighty percent of the workforce is organized through the trade-unions which have the right to elect two representatives to the board in all Swedish companies with more than 25 employees.[52] The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ...


Sweden is known for its high taxes and large public sector. Sweden has the second highest total tax revenue behind Denmark, as a share of the country's income. As of 2007, total tax revenue was 47.8% of GDP, down from 49.1% 2006.[53] “Taxes” redirects here. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial...


The Swedish Riksbank—founded in 1668 and thus making it the oldest central bank in the world—is currently focusing on price stability with its inflation target of 2%. Growth is expected to reach 3.3% in 2006. High taxes have however ensured a higher degree of government influence on household consumption decisions than in most other Western nations. Public sector spending amounts to 53% of the GDP; the high figure primarily reflects the large transfer payments of the Swedish welfare state. Sveriges Riksbank (Swedish National Bank) is the central bank of Sweden, sometimes called just the Bank of Sweden. ...


Swedish unemployment figures are highly contested, with the Social-Democrats defending the official figure of 5.4% (as of 2006) and the centre-right Alliance for Sweden claiming a much higher figure. These numbers do not, however, include people in government unemployment programmes (about 2% of the workforce), people on extended sick-leave, those in early retirement or those outside the unemployment system. Unemployment is higher amongst younger people. Many Swedes work abroad in Denmark, Norway and the UK, where they are desired and viewed as a skilled workforce.[citation needed] Because of the contradiction—unemployment despite a growing commercial enterprise economy—politicians and analysts often speak of the "jobless growth". According to Eurostat the unemployment rate in February 2007 was at 6.7% down from 7.4% from February 2006.[54] Alliance for Sweden (Swedish: ) is a political alliance in Sweden. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


Sweden also still bears scars from an economic crisis in the 1990s, which resulted in thousands of people becoming unemployed and a great national debt. Two remnants are an increase in socioeconomic segregation[55] and a national debt of approximately 1 167 billion Swedish Kronor (approx. €124 billion, December 2007), 39% of the GDP.[56] Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... Geographical segregation exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space. ... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ...


According to the book, The Flight of the Creative Class, by the U.S. economist, Professor Richard Florida of George Mason University, Sweden is ranked as having the best creativity in Europe for business and is predicted to become a talent magnet for the world’s most purposeful workers. The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business — talent, technology and tolerance.[57] Richard Florida (1957, Newark NJ) is an American sociologist and economist. ... George Mason University, also known as GMU or simply Mason, is a public university in the United States. ... For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ...


Education

Main article: Education in Sweden

As part of its social welfare system, Sweden provides an extensive childcare system that guarantees a place for all young children from 1-5 years old in a public day-care facility (förskola or dagis). Between ages 6-16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school, divided in three stages. After completing the ninth grade, 90% continue with a three-year upper secondary school (gymnasium) leading sometimes to a vocational diploma and (depending on which program you've chosen) to qualifications for further studies at a university or university college (högskola). Both upper secondary school and university studies are financed by taxes. Some Swedes go straight to work after secondary school. Along with several other European countries, the government also subsidizes tuition of international students pursuing a degree at Swedish institutions, although there has been talk of this being changed.[58] The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Swedish education as the 22nd best in the world, being neither significantly higher nor lower than the OECD average.[3] Education in Sweden is mandatory for all children aged 7-16. ... Childcare (also written child care[1] and babycare) is the act of caring for and supervising minor children. ... This article is contains a list of Swedish universities and university colleges is based on the Higher Education Ordinance of 1993 (as amended until January 2006). ... The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Welfare state

Main article: Swedish welfare
Hjalmar Branting, the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Sweden.
Hjalmar Branting, the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Sweden.

In recent years, economic liberalization has ensured that Sweden is now more similar to other European countries with comparatively high tax rates. However, some still claim that the Scandinavian model is mid-way between socialism and capitalism, i.e. a mixed economy.[who?] The Swedish "welfare state" model of the 20th century is an example (some economists and socialists have said) of effective use of national taxes, although others disagree about its continuing effectiveness. The Swedish welfare system remains extensive, but a recession in the 1990s forced an introduction of a number of reforms, such as education vouchers in 1992 and decentralization of some types of healthcare services to municipal control.[59] The Swedish welfare is usually categorized as a middle way between a capitalist economy and a socialist economy. ... Image File history File links Hjalmar_Brantings_porträtt_av_Richard_Bergh. ... Image File history File links Hjalmar_Brantings_porträtt_av_Richard_Bergh. ... Hjalmar Branting (November 23, 1860 – February 24, 1925) was a Swedish statesman and the countrys chief Social Democratic leader. ... Economic liberalization ... The Scandinavian welfare model is often used as a general term for the way in which Denmark, Sweden and Norway have chosen to organise and finance their social security systems, health services and education. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... A mixed economy is an economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system. ... In macroeconomics, a recession is a decline in a countrys real gross domestic product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... An education voucher, commonly called a school voucher, is a certificate by which parents are given the ability to pay for the education of their children at a school of their choice, rather than the public school to which they were assigned. ...


While similar in form to other governments in Western Europe, the Swedish state is among the most active in the scope of government services provided. These include tax-funded childcare, parental leave, a ceiling on health care costs, tax-funded education (all levels up to, and including university), retirement pensions, tax-funded dental care up to 20 years of age and sick leave (partly paid by the employer). Parents are entitled to a total of 480 days partly paid leave between birth and the child's eighth birthday, with 60 days reserved specifically for each parent, in effect providing the father with two so-called "daddy-months". The ceiling on health care costs makes it easier, relative to other nations, for Swedish workers to take time off for medical reasons. Sick leave (or sickness pay or sick pay) is an employee benefit in the form of paid leave which can be taken during periods of sickness. ...


Since the late 1960s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota (as percentage of GDP) in the industrialized world, although today the difference between other high-tax countries such as France, Belgium and Denmark has narrowed. Sweden has a two step progressive tax scale with a municipal income tax of about 30% and an additional high-income state tax of 20–25% when a salary exceeds roughly 300,000 SEK per year. The employing company pays an additional 32% of an "employer's fee". In addition, a national VAT of 25% or 18% is added to many things bought by private citizens, with the exception of food (12% VAT), transportation, and books (6% VAT). Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e.g. electricity, petrol/diesel and alcoholic beverages. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A progressive tax is a tax imposed so that the effective... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Gold standard Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Policy-mix Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Regulation Banking Fractional-reserve Full-reserve   Free banking Islamic...


Demographics

Halsö Island in Gothenburg's archipelago.
Halsö Island in Gothenburg's archipelago.

As of April 2007, the total population of Sweden was estimated to be 9,131,425.[60] The population exceeded 9,000,000 for the first time as of approximately 12 August 2004 according to the Statistics Sweden. Of the 2004 population, 1.1 million, or 12%, were foreign-born[61] and approximately 16.7% (1.53 million) had at least one parent born abroad or were themselves born abroad.[62] This reflects the inter-Nordic migrations, earlier periods of labour immigration, and later decades of refugee and family immigration. Sweden has been transformed from a nation of emigration ending after World War I to a nation of immigration from World War II onwards. In 2006, immigration to Sweden reached its highest level since records began.[63] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Riddarholmen, literally The Knights Islet, is an small island in the center of Stockholm, Sweden. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Description: Landscape on Hälsö island, Öckerö Municipality, Sweden. ... Image File history File links Description: Landscape on Hälsö island, Öckerö Municipality, Sweden. ... For other uses, see Gothenburg (disambiguation). ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... The demographics of Sweden have changed significantly as a result of immigration since World War II. In addition to the ethnic Swedish majority, Sweden has historically had smaller minorities of Sami people in the northernmost parts of the country and Finnish people in the Mälardalen and in the north... This article is about the Swedes as an ethnic group. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Sweden, or Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB), is a Government agency responsible of producing the official statistics on Sweden. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ...


The largest immigrant group living in Sweden as of 2005 consists of people born in Finland, followed by people born in Turkey, Germany, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Russia, Iran, Iraq and Former Yugoslavia.[61] The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...


Immigration from the other Nordic countries reached a peak of more than 40,000 per year in 1969-70 when the new immigration rules introduced in 1967 had made it more difficult for immigrants from outside the Nordic region to settle in Sweden for labour market policy reasons.[61] Immigration by refugees and immigrating relatives of refugees from outside the Nordic region increased drastically during the late 1980s, with many of the immigrants arriving from Asia and Latin America, especially from Iran and Chile. During the 1990s and onwards another large immigrant group came from former Yugoslavia and the Middle East.[64]


Language

Distribution of the Swedish language.
Distribution of the Swedish language.
See also: Swedish dialects

The primary language of Sweden is Swedish, a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian, but differing in pronunciation and orthography. Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than the Norwegians.[65] The dominant language is Swedish, though it is not an official language. However, with the recognition of five minority languages of Sweden (Finnish, Meänkieli, Sami, Romani and Yiddish) the issue of whether Swedish should be declared the official language was raised. The parliament voted in 2005 but the proposal narrowly failed.[66] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 507 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1650 × 1950 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 507 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1650 × 1950 pixel, file size: 490 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Swedish ( ) is a North Germanic language, spoken predominantly in Sweden, parts of Finland, especially along the coast, on the Ã…land islands, by more than nine million people. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Swedish dialects can be categorized into Traditional Dialects (with no Standard Swedish influence) and Modern Dialects (with various degrees of Standard Swedish influence). ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... In 1999 the Minority Language Committee of Sweden formally declared five minority languages of Sweden: Sami language, Romani, Finnish, Yiddish, and Meänkieli (Tornedal). ... Meänkieli (lit. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ...


In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English thanks to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films. English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as 1849, and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late 1940s.[67] Depending on the local school authorities, English is currently a compulsory subject between first grade and ninth grade, with all students continuing in secondary school studying English for at least another year. Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include (but are not limited to) German, French and Spanish.[65] Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of the Swedish course for native speakers. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Subtitle. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... First grade is a year of education in the United States and other countries immediately following kindergarten. ... Ninth grade (called Grade 9 or Year 9 in some regions, also known as freshman year in the U.S.) is the ninth school year after kindergarten. ...


In neighboring Finland, Swedish is first language for about 5.5 percent (2007) of the population, the so called Swedish-speaking Finns.[68] Swedish-speakers are found in rural and coastal municipalities. Swedish is an official language in these municipalities and holds the status of an official language of the state. There are mandatory Swedish courses in the secondary school.  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on... In Finnish schools, Swedish is a mandatory school subject, amounting at an average of two hours a week in classes 7-9 in the Finnish nine-year compulsory school and at an average two hours a week during three years of secondary education. ...


Religion

Before the eleventh century, Swedes adhered to Norse paganism, worshiping Æsir gods, with its centre at the Temple in Uppsala. With Christianization in the 11th century, the laws of the country were changed, forbidding worship of other deities into the late nineteenth century. Norse paganism is a term used to describe the religious traditions which were common amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries prior to and during the process of the Christianization in Northern Europe. ... In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss, ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse paganism. ... The Temple at Uppsala was a temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, that was created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...


After the Protestant Reformation in the 1530s, a change significantly affected by Martin Luther's Swedish associate Olaus Petri, the Church and state were separated and the authority of Roman Catholic bishops abolished, allowing Lutheranism to prevail. This process was completed by the Uppsala Synod of 1593. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran Orthodoxy, small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen, the Moravian Church and Walloons or French Huguenots from Belgium, played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile. The Sami originally had their own shamanistic religion, but they were converted to Lutheranism by Swedish missionaries in the 17th and 18th centuries. Reformation redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Petri outside Storkyrkan, Stockholm Olof Persson (sometimes Petersson; born January 6, 1493 in Örebro, died April 19, 1552 in Stockholm), better known under the Latin form of his name, Olavus Petri, was a clergyman, writer and a main character of the Protestant reformation in Sweden. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... The Uppsala Synod in 1593 was the most important synod of the Lutheran Church of Sweden. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Lutheran orthodoxy was era in history of Lutheranism, which began 1580 from Book of Concord and ended to Age of Enlightenment. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong. ... The term Walloon may refer to either the Walloon language, or to the ethnic people of the same name. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, or historically as the French Calvinists. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ...


Not until liberalization in the late 18th century, however, were believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism, allowed to openly live and work in Sweden, and it remained illegal until 1860 for Lutheran Swedes to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches, and, towards the end of the century secularism, leading many to distance themselves from Church rituals. Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of 1860, but only under the provision of entering another denomination. The right to stand outside any religious denomination was established in the Law on Freedom of Religion in 1951. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Look up illegal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... A free church is a Christian church or denomination that is intrinsically separated from any government (as opposed to a theocracy or the state church). ... This article is about secularism. ... Bishop Lennart Koskinen with some young people. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ...


Today about 75% of Swedes belong to the Church of Sweden (Lutheran), but the number is decreasing by about 1% every year, and Church of Sweden services are sparsely attended (hovering in the single digit percentages of the population).[69] The reason for the large number of inactive members is partly that until 1996, children became members automatically at birth if at least one of the parents was a member. Since 1996, all children that are christened become members. Some 275,000 Swedes are today members of various free churches (where congregation attendance is much higher), and, in addition, immigration has meant that there are now some 92,000 Roman Catholics and 100,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians living in Sweden.[70] Because of immigration, Sweden also has a significant Muslim population. Almost 500,000 are Muslims by tradition, but approximately 5% (25,000) of these are practising Islam (in the sense of attending Friday prayer and praying five times a day).[71] (See Islam in Sweden.) The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Mosque in Stockholm Mosque in Uppsala Islam is the second biggest religion in Sweden after Christianity. ...


According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[72] 23% of Swedish citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 53% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 23% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973. ...


Sweden ranks aside with France and Russia on having a large minority of its citizens who have no religion. Independent of these statistics, it is generally known that Swedish society, collectively, is in some ways comparatively secular and non-religious.[73] This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Irreligion or irreligiousness is the absence of religious belief. ...


Health

See also: Healthcare in Sweden and Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare

Healthcare in Sweden is developed. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality. It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. World-class hospitals in Sweden include Lund University, Karolinska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Linköping University Hospital and Uppsala University Hospital. The Swedish health care system is a socialized, public health care system. ... The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) is a Swedish government agency. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Tap water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested through drinking by humans. ... Lund University (Swedish: ), located in Lund in southernmost Sweden, is one of Swedens most prestigious universities[2] and Scandinavias largest institution for education and research[3], frequently ranked among the worlds top 100 universities[4][5]. The university was founded in 1666 and is the second oldest... The Karolinska University Hospital or Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset is a university hospital in Solna, Sweden. ... The Sahlgrenska University Hospital or Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset is a university hospital system in Gothenburg, Sweden with a staff of 17 000 people. ... Uppsala University Hospital (Swedish: , often referred to colloquially as Akademiska or Ackis) in Uppsala, Sweden is as a teaching hospital for the Uppsala University Faculty of Medicine and the Nursing School. ...


Culture

Traditional Swedish rural house, painted in the traditional Swedish Falu red.
Traditional Swedish rural house, painted in the traditional Swedish Falu red.
Main article: Culture of Sweden

Sweden has many authors of worldwide recognition including August Strindberg, Astrid Lindgren, and Nobel Prize winners Selma Lagerlöf and Harry Martinson. In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes. The nation's most well-known artists are painters such as Carl Larsson and Anders Zorn, and the sculptors Tobias Sergel and Carl Milles. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (988x730, 170 KB) Summary Typical traditional red Swedish houses. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (988x730, 170 KB) Summary Typical traditional red Swedish houses. ... House at Cúcuta, Colombia A house is a building typically lived in by one or more people. ... Traditional Swedish houses in the countryside, painted with Falu red paint. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...   (January 22, 1849 â€“ May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ... Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren ( , née Ericsson, November 14, 1907 – January 28, 2002) was a Swedish childrens book author and screenwriter, whose many titles were translated into 85 languages and published in more than 100 countries. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Selma Lagerlöf, painted by Carl Larsson, 1908 Selma Lagerlöf receives the Nobel Prize in Literature The Swedish 20-krona bill, with Selma Lagerlöf   (November 20, 1858 – March 16, 1940) was a Swedish author and the first woman writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Harry Martinson (May 6, 1904 – February 11, 1978) was an author and poet. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Carl Larsson (May 28, 1853 – January 22, 1919) was a Swedish painter and interior designer. ... Anders Zorn: Self-portrait in red 1915 Anders Zorn (February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920) was a Swedish painter who painted a portrait of, among others, the former American President Grover Cleveland in 1899. ... Johan Tobias Sergel (September 8, 1740 - February 26, 1814), Swedish sculptor, was born in Stockholm. ... Triton Blowing a Shell, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Carl Milles, born Carl Emil Wilhelm Andersson son of lieutenant Emil Mille Andersson and his wife Walborg Tisell, (June 23, 1875–September 19, 1955) was a Swedish sculptor, best known for his fountains. ...


Swedish twentieth-century culture is noted by pioneering works in the early days of cinema, with Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström. In the 1920s–1980s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema. More recently, the films of Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström have received international recognition. Greta Garbo & Maurice Stiller on board the S/S Drottningholm in 1925 en route to the United States Mauritz Stiller (July 17, 1883 – November 18, 1928) was an actor, screenwriter and an influential silent film director. ... Victor Sjöström   (in the United States sometimes known as Victor Seastrom) (September 20, 1879 – January 3, 1960) was a Swedish actor, screenwriter, and film director. ...   (IPA: in Swedish; usually IPA: in English) (July 14, 1918 – July 30, 2007) was a Swedish film, stage, and opera director. ... Greta Garbo (September 18, 1905 – April 15, 1990) was a Swedish-born actress during Hollywoods silent film period and part of its Golden Age. ...   (pronounced in Swedish, but usually IPA: in English) (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was a three-time Academy Award, two-time Emmy Award, one-time BAFTA, honorary César Award, four-time Golden Globe, two-time David di Donatello, two-time Silver Ribbon, one-time NSFC, two-time NBR... Karl Frederik Lukas Moodysson (born January 17, 1969) is a Swedish film writer and director. ... Lars Sven (Lasse) Hallström (born 2 June 1946 in Stockholm) is a Swedish film director. ...


Throughout the 1960s and 1970s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the "sexual revolution", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.[74] At the present time, the number of single people is one of the highest in the world. The early Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow) (1967) reflected a liberal view of sexuality, including scenes of love making that caught international attention, and introduced the concept of the "Swedish sin". Sweden has also become, in recent decades, fairly liberal regarding homosexuality, as is reflected in the popular acceptance of films such as Show Me Love, which is about two young lesbians in the small Swedish town of Åmål. In the absence of legislation on same-sex marriages, Sweden offers both registered partnerships and domestic partnerships for same-sex couples. Cohabitation (sammanboende) by heterosexual couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread although in recent years it has become administratively problematical with regard to proof in claims of "spousal" social security. About half the children in the country are born out of wedlock. Presence of already obtained common-law offspring in newspaper photographs of marrying couples is commonplace. For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... I Am Curious (Yellow) is a Swedish film (Jag är nyfiken - en film i gult) of 1967, directed by Vilgot Sjöman and starring Lena Nyman as herself. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Fucking Ã…mÃ¥l is a Swedish film that was distributed in most English speaking countries as Show Me Love (and in other countries under similarly toned-down titles such as Raus Aus Ã…mÃ¥l, Descubriendo el Amor, Amigas de Colégio etc. ... This article is about homosexual women, not inhabitants of the Greek island of Lesbos A lesbian (lowercase L) is a homosexual woman. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... Registered partnership was granted in Sweden in 1995. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ...


Music

Midsummer's Eve by Anders Zorn.
Midsummer's Eve by Anders Zorn.
Main article: Music of Sweden

Sweden has a rich musical tradition, ranging from medieval folk ballads to hip hop music. The music of the pre-Christian Norse has been lost to history, although historical re-creations have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. Instruments used were the lur (a sort of trumpet), simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums. It is possible that the Viking musical legacy lives on in some of the old Swedish folk music. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anders Zorn: Self-portrait in red 1915 Anders Zorn (February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920) was a Swedish painter who painted a portrait of, among others, the former American President Grover Cleveland in 1899. ... Sweden shares the tradition of Nordic folk dance music with its neighbouring countries, including polka, schottische, waltz, polska and mazurka. ... Emerging in the first half of the 1980s, Swedish hip hop was first heard from the cities of Stockholm and Malmö. In the early days, most rappers in Sweden rapped in English. ... See Lurs for other uses Lur is a name given to two distinct types of wind musical instrument. ...


Sweden has a significant folk-music scene, both in the traditional style as well as more modern interpretations which often mix in elements of rock and jazz. Väsen is more of a traditionalist group, using a unique traditional Swedish instrument called the nyckelharpa while Garmarna, Nordman, and Hedningarna have more modern elements. There is also Saami music, called the joik, which is actually a type of chant which is part of the traditional Saami animistic spirituality but has gained recognition in the international world of folk music as well. Sweden has a major market for new age and ecologically or environmentally aware music, as well a large portion of pop and rock music have liberal and left-wing political messages. Sweden shares the tradition of Nordic folk dance music with its neighbouring countries, including polka, schottische, waltz, polska and mazurka. ... Väsen is a Swedish folk music band originally consisting of Olov Johansson (nyckelharpa), Mikael Marin (viola) and Roger Tallroth (guitar). ... A nyckelharpa The nyckelharpa (Swedish for key harp) is traditional in Sweden. ... Garmarna in 2002. ... Nordman on stage. ... Hedningarna are a Swedish and, for some years partly Finnish neofolk music band that mixes electronics and rock with elements from old Scandinavian folk music. ... Saami or SAAMI can stand for: Sami peoples Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Yoik or juoiggus is a traditional Sami form of song. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition, deriving in part from the cultural importance of Swedish folk songs. In fact, out of a population of 8.9 million, it is estimated that five to six hundred thousand people sing in choirs.[75]


ABBA was one of the first internationally well-known popular music bands from Sweden, and still ranks among the most prominent bands in the world, with about 370 million records sold. With ABBA, Sweden entered into a new era, in which Swedish pop music gained international prominence. Sweden is sometimes referred to as the third largest exporter of pop and rock music in the world, after the US and the UK, but this is disputable and difficult to verify.[76] There have been many other internationally successful bands since, and recently there has been a surge of Swedish Indie pop bands. Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal (mostly death metal and melodic death metal) as well as progressive- and power metal bands. Abba redirects here. ... Indie rock is a subgenre of rock music often used to refer to bands that are on small independent record labels or that arent on labels at all. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... Melodic death metal, (also referred to as Gothenburg metal, melodeath, and post-death) is a subgenre of death metal. ... Progressive metal is a sub-genre of heavy metal music which blends the powerful, guitar-driven sound of metal with the complex compositional structures, odd time signatures, and intricate instrumental playing of progressive rock. ... This article is about the sub-genre of heavy metal music. ...


Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences. The Centre for Swedish Folk Music and Jazz Research has published an overview of jazz in Sweden by Lars Westin.[77]


Sweden is the third most successful country in the Eurovision Song Contest. That includes four victories, one made by ABBA. Eurovision redirects here. ...


The Hives are a relatively well known rock act in the US and the UK, but are originally from Fagersta, Sweden. This article is about the Swedish band. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Fagersta is a municipality in Västmanland County in central Sweden. ...


Media

The 190 m tall Turning Torso skyscraper in Malmö is the second tallest residential skyscraper in Europe.
The 190 m tall Turning Torso skyscraper in Malmö is the second tallest residential skyscraper in Europe.
Main article: Media in Sweden

Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. The country's main quality morning papers are Dagens Nyheter (liberal), Göteborgs-Posten (liberal), Svenska Dagbladet (liberal conservative) and Sydsvenska Dagbladet (liberal). The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet (social democratic) and Expressen (liberal). The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International, was originally founded in Stockholm, Sweden. The country's news is reported in English by, among others, The Local (liberal). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 632 KB) Turning Torso in Malmö. Date: September 2001 Author: Väsk File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turning Torso Sweden Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 632 KB) Turning Torso in Malmö. Date: September 2001 Author: Väsk File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turning Torso Sweden Metadata This file contains additional... HSB Turning Torso is a skyscraper in Malmö, Sweden on the Swedish side of the Oresund strait. ... Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ... // The Swedish Press is self-regulated through the Public Press Ombudsman, or Allmänhetens Pressombudsman and the Swedish Press Council, or Pressens Opinionsnämnd. ... â–¶(?) (DN) (Swedish: lit. ... Göteborgs-Posten (GP) is a major daily newspaper in Sweden. ... Svenska Dagbladet (SvD) is a daily newspaper in Sweden. ... The main headquarters in Malmö. Sydsvenska Dagbladet Snällposten (also known as Sydsvenskan) is a daily newspaper in Sweden. ... This article is about the newspaper size. ... The first page of the first issue of Aftonbladet Aftonbladet (Swedish for The Evening Sheet) is a Swedish tabloid founded by Lars Johan Hierta in 1830 during the modernisation of Sweden. ... Expressen is a Swedish right leaning newspaper founded in 1944. ... For other newspapers with the same name, see Metro (newspaper). ... The Local is an English-language online newspaper published in Sweden. ...


The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for long time in Sweden. Licence funded radio broadcasts started in 1925. A second radio network was started in 1954 and a third opened 1962 in response to pirate radio stations. Non-profit community radio was allowed in 1979 and in 1993 commercial local radio started.


The licence funded television service was officially launched in 1956. A second channel, TV2, was launched in 1969. These two channels (operated by Sveriges Television since the late '70s) held a monopoly until the 1980s when cable and satellite television became available. The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in 1987. It was followed by Kanal 5 in 1989 (then known as Nordic Channel) and TV4 in 1990. SVT2 is one of two television channels broadcast by Sveriges Television in Sweden. ... Sveriges Television (SVT) is a national publicly-funded television broadcaster based in Sweden. ... TV3 is a television channel targeted at a Swedish language audience owned by Modern Times Group (MTG). ... Kanal 5 is a Swedish commercial television channel. ... TV4 is the largest commercial television channel in Sweden. ...


In 1991 the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network. TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in 1992, becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country. Terrestrial television (also known as over-the-air, OTA or broadcast television) was the traditional method of television broadcast signal delivery prior to the advent of cable and satellite television. ...


Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in 1999 and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in 2007. Digital terrestrial television was launched in Sweden in 1999. ...


Literature

Main article: Swedish literature

The first literary text from Sweden is the Rök Runestone, carved during the Viking Age circa 800 AD. With the conversion of the land to Christianity around 1100 AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages, during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin. Therefore there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardized in the 16th century, a standardization largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in 1541. This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible. Swedish literature begins with the Rök runestone and involves such prominent writers as August Strindberg, Esaias Tegnér, Selma Lagerlöf and Astrid Lindgren. ... A black-and-white rendition of the text on one side of the Rök Stone. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Swedish ( ) is a North Germanic language, spoken predominantly in Sweden, parts of Finland, especially along the coast, on the Ã…land islands, by more than nine million people. ... Gustav Vasa Bible is how the Swedish Bible translation published in 1540-41 is referred to. ...


With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation, the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further. Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm (17th century), who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren (18th century), the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman (late 18th century), the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg (late 19th century), a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame. The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf (Nobel laureate 1909) and Pär Lagerkvist (Nobel laureate 1951). This article concerns secularism, the exclusion of religion and supernatural beliefs. ... Georg Stiernhielm (August 7, 1598 - April 22, 1672) was a Swedish civil servant, linguist and poet. ... Johan Henrik Kellgren Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751-1795), Swedish poet and critic, was born at Floby in West Gothland. ... Carl Michael Bellman (February 4, 1740 - February 11, 1795) was a Swedish poet and composer. ... For other uses, see Burlesque (disambiguation). ...   (January 22, 1849 â€“ May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ... Selma Lagerlöf, painted by Carl Larsson, 1908 Selma Lagerlöf receives the Nobel Prize in Literature The Swedish 20-krona bill, with Selma Lagerlöf   (November 20, 1858 – March 16, 1940) was a Swedish author and the first woman writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Pär Lagerkvist. ...


In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou. But the only Swedish writer to have made a significant mark on world literature is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about Pippi Longstocking, Emil of Maple Hills, and others. Henning Mankell at the Gothenburg Book Fair 2005 Henning Mankell (born February 3, 1948) is an internationally known Swedish author of crime fiction, childrens books as well as plays. ... Jan Guillou at the Swedish Book- and Library Convention in Gothenburg, Sweden Jan Oscar Sverre Lucien Henri Guillou (pron. ... Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren ( , née Ericsson, November 14, 1907 – January 28, 2002) was a Swedish childrens book author and screenwriter, whose many titles were translated into 85 languages and published in more than 100 countries. ... Pippi Longstocking (Swedish Pippi LÃ¥ngstrump) is a fictional character in a series of childrens books created by author Astrid Lindgren. ... Emil of Maple Hills (Swedish: Emil i Lönneberga) is a series of childrens stories by Astrid Lindgren, covering 12 books written from 1963 to 1997. ...


Inventions

In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from professionals who had immigrated from mainland Europe. In 1739, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded, with people such as Carolus Linnaeus and Anders Celsius as early members. From the 1870s, engineering companies were created at an unmatched rate and engineers became heroes of the age. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers are still internationally familiar. Gustaf Dalén founded AGA, and received the Nobel Prize for his sun valve. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes. Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world. Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.[78] This article is about the period or event in history. ... Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Anders Celsius The observatory of Anders Celsius, from a contemporary engraving. ... Nils Gustaf Dalén (November 30, 1869 – December 9, 1937) was a Swedish Nobel Laureate and industrialist, the founder of AGA, the company and inventor of the AGA cooker and the Dalén light. ... AGA is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: American Gastroenterological Association[1] American Gas Association[2] American Genetic Association[3] Association of Government Accountants[4] Accredited Gem Appraisers[5] American Go Association[6] Nile Agricultural Ind. ... A Sun valve, (aka Solventil, solar valve) is a form of flow control valve, notable because it earned its inventor, Gustaf Dalén the Nobel prize in physics. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... This article is about a high explosive. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Lars Magnus Ericsson (May 5, 1846 - December 17, 1926) was a Swedish inventor and founder of telephone equipment manufacturer Ericsson (incorporated as Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson). ... Ericsson () NASDAQ: ERIC. Founded in 1876, Ericsson is a leading provider of communications networks, related services and handset technology platforms. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: ) (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer. ...


The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. Tetra Pak is an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Håkan Lans invented the Automatic Identification System, a worldwide standard for shipping and civil aviation navigation. Losec, an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the 1990s and was developed by AstraZeneca. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.[78] Tetrapak logo Tetra Pak is a multinational food packaging company of Swedish origin. ... HÃ¥kan Lans (born 1947) is an inventor from Sweden. ... A United States Coast Guard Operations Specialist using AIS and RADAR to manage vessel traffic. ... Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), GORD and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. ... AstraZeneca PLC (LSE: AZN, OMX: AZN), is a large Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical company formed on 6 April 1999 by the merger of Swedish Astra AB and British Zeneca Group PLC. Zeneca was part of Imperial Chemical Industries prior to a demerger in 1993. ...


Holidays

Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays, Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition. They include Midsummer celebrating the summer solstice; Walpurgis Night (Valborgsmässoafton) on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations. The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia, 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season. 6 June is the National Day of Sweden and, as of 2005, a public holiday. Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. In August many Swedes have kräftskivor (crayfish dinner parties). Martin of Tours Eve is celebrated in Scania in November with Mårten Gås parties, where roast goose and svartsoppa ('black soup', made of goose stock, fruit, spices, spirits and goose blood) are served. The Sami, one of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on February 6 and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July. All official holidays (Swedish: ) in Sweden are established by acts of Parliament. ... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... Midsummer may refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice and the diverse celebrations of it around the world, but more often refers to European celebrations that accompany the summer solstice, or to Western festivals that take place in June and are usually related to Saint John... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... Walpurgis Night in Sweden. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Labour Day Parade in Toronto in the early 1900s A Labour Day is an annual holiday celebrated all over the world that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Flag of Sweden The National Day of Sweden and the Swedish Flag Day (Swedish: ) is observed in Sweden on June 6 every year. ... By Swedish law a number of days of the calendar year are designated as official flag days. ... Namesdays or name days are a Swedish tradition of attaching personal names to each day of the year, and celebrating the association of particular days with those having this name. ... Saint Martin of Tours (Latin: Martinus), (316/317 – November 11, 397 in Candes) was a bishop of Tours whose shrine became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela. ... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ... Svartsoppa (Black soup) is a soup consumed in SkÃ¥ne with goose blood (or sometimes pig blood) as the main ingredient. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cuisine

Swedish knäckebröd, or crisp bread.
Swedish knäckebröd, or crisp bread.
Main article: Swedish cuisine

Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries (Denmark and Norway), was traditionally simple. Fish (particularly herring), meat and potatoes played prominent roles. Spices were sparse. Famous dishes include Swedish meatballs, traditionally served with gravy, boiled potatoes and lingonberry jam; pancakes, lutfisk, and Smörgåsbord, or lavish buffet. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage, and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance. The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Regionally important foods are the surströmming (a fermented fish) in Northern Sweden and eel in Scania in Southern Sweden. However, Swedes have traditionally also been very open to foreign influences, ranging from the French cuisine during the eighteenth century, to the sushi and cafe latte of today. Image File history File links Knaeckebroed. ... Image File history File links Knaeckebroed. ... Some slices of crisp bread Surface of crispbread (magnified 60x) Crisp bread (Swedish: knäckebröd, spisbröd, hÃ¥rdbröd, or hÃ¥rt bröd, Danish: knækbrød, Norwegian: knekkebrød, Finnish: näkkileipä) is a very flat and dry Nordic type of bread or cracker, containing mostly... Swedish cuisine is similar to the cuisine of Denmark and cuisine of Norway, in that it is traditionally simple. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small, oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Atlantic... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Lingonberry jam is a staple of Scandinavian cuisine. ... Lutefisk (on the upper left side of the plate) as served in a Norwegian restaurant, with potatoes, mashed peas, and bacon. ... Look up smörgÃ¥sbord in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bottle and glass of Linie brand akvavit. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Snaps is a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal, very much like the German schnapps. ... Some slices of crisp bread Surface of crispbread (magnified 60x) Crisp bread (Swedish: knäckebröd, spisbröd, hÃ¥rdbröd, or hÃ¥rt bröd, Danish: knækbrød, Norwegian: knekkebrød, Finnish: näkkileipä) is a very flat and dry Nordic type of bread or cracker, containing mostly... Opened can of surströmming in brine. ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ... Scania (SkÃ¥ne in Swedish  ) is a geographical region of Sweden on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a historical province (landskap)[1] of the Kingdom of Sweden, since 1997 a county (Län) of Sweden, before 1658 part of the Kingdom of Denmark. ... A pot of coq au vin, a well-known French dish French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. ... This article is about Japanese cuisine. ... A latte For the type of pillar found in the Marianas Islands, see Latte stone. ...


Film

Main article: Cinema of Sweden

Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years, to several successful Swedish Hollywood actors can be mentioned: Ingrid Bergman, Greta Garbo, Max von Sydow, Dolph Lundgren, Lena Olin, Stellan Skarsgård, Peter Stormare, Izabella Scorupco, Pernilla August, Ann Margaret, Anita Ekberg, Alexander Skarsgård, Harriet Andersson, Bibi Andersson, Ingrid Thulin and Gunnar Björnstrand. Amongst several directors who have made internationally successful films can be mentioned: Ingmar Bergman and Lasse Hallström. Swedish cinema is one of the most widely-known national cinemas in the world, and certainly the most prominent of Scandinavia. ...   (pronounced in Swedish, but usually IPA: in English) (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was a three-time Academy Award, two-time Emmy Award, one-time BAFTA, honorary César Award, four-time Golden Globe, two-time David di Donatello, two-time Silver Ribbon, one-time NSFC, two-time NBR... Greta Garbo (September 18, 1905 – April 15, 1990) was a Swedish-born actress during Hollywoods silent film period and part of its Golden Age. ...  , (born April 10, 1929) is an Academy-Award nominated Swedish actor, known in particular for his collaboration with filmmaker Ingmar Bergman. ... Dolph Lundgren (born Hans Lundgren, November 3, 1957[1]) is a Swedish actor, director and karateka. ... Lena Maria Jonna Olin (born March 22, 1955 in Stockholm, Sweden) is an internationally acclaimed Academy Award-nominated Swedish actress. ... Stellan SkarsgÃ¥rd (help· info) (born June 13, 1951, Gothenburg, Sweden) is a Swedish actor. ...   (born August 27, 1953) is a Swedish film, stage, voice and television actor as well as a theatrical director and playwright. ... Izabella Dorota Scorupco (born June 4, 1970 in BiaÅ‚ystok, Poland, original last name was Skorupko) is a Polish actress who is most famous for appearing as Bond girl Natalya Simonova in the 1995 James Bond film GoldenEye. ... Pernilla August as Shmi Skywalker in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ... Ann-Margret & Elvis in Viva Las Vegas Ann-Margret (born April 28, 1941), a Swedish-born actress and singer, was born Ann-Margret Olsson in Valsjöbyn, Jämtland, Sweden. ... Anita Ekberg in the Fontana di Trevi. ... Alexander SkarsgÃ¥rd (born August 25, 1976, Stockholm, Sweden), son of Stellan SkarsgÃ¥rd and brother of Gustaf SkarsgÃ¥rd, is a Swedish actor and director. ... Harriet Andersson (born 14 January 1932 in Stockholm) is a Swedish actress, best known for being one of Ingmar Bergmans regular actresses. ... Bibi Andersson (born 11 November 1935 in Stockholm) is a Swedish actress. ... Ingrid Thulin (27 January 1926 – 7 January 2004) was a Swedish actress. ... Gunnar Björnstrand, (13 November 1909 - 26 May 1986) was a Swedish character actor known for his frequent work with writer/director Ingmar Bergman. ...   (IPA: in Swedish; usually IPA: in English) (July 14, 1918 – July 30, 2007) was a Swedish film, stage, and opera director. ... Lars Sven (Lasse) Hallström (born 2 June 1946 in Stockholm) is a Swedish film director. ...


Fashion

Sweden has in late years taken an interest in the fashion industry, through headquartering famous brands like Hennes & Mauritz (operating as H&M), J. Lindeberg (operating as JL), Gina Tricot, Tiger of Sweden and Filippa K within its borders. These companies, however, are comprised largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and the Americas, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours. For the former railroad, see Hudson and Manhattan Railroad. ... J. Lindeberg (operating as JL), is a Swedish clothing company. ... Tiger of Sweden was founded 1903 in the Swedish town Uddevalla, by the tailors Markus Schwarmann and Hjalmar Nordström. ... Filippa K, is a Swedish clothing company. ...


Sports

Main article: Sport in Sweden

Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating, much thanks to the heavy government subsidies of sport associations (föreningsstöd). The two main spectator sports are association football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners, mostly women. Thereafter follow golf, athletics, and the team sports of handball, floorball, basketball and bandy. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 791 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1952 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 791 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1952 pixel, file size: 1. ... Stockholms Olympiastadion as seen at the opening of the 1912 Summer Olympics. ... Sport is considered a national pastime in Sweden, and about half of the population actively takes part in sports activities. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... This article is about the sport. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... Womens Australian rules football is a team sport. ... Handball is the name of several different sports: Team handball, or Olympic/European Handball is a game somewhat similar to association football, but the ball is played with the hand, not the foot. ... A floorball match between Sweden (yellow) and Finland (white) Floorball is a gay indoor team sport played using composite or carbon sticks with a plastic vented blade where the aim is to put a light plastic ball into the opponents goal. ... This article is about the sport. ... Look up bandy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Swedish ice hockey team Tre Kronor is regarded as one of the best in the world and has won the World Championships seven times, and Olympic gold medals in 1994 and 2006. In 2006, as the first nation in history, they won both the Olympic and world championships in the same year. The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in 1958, and third twice, in 1950 and 1994. Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years. The Swedish national mens ice hockey team or Tre kronor (Three crowns in Swedish), as it is called in Sweden, is one of the most successful ice hockey teams in the world. ... The Ice Hockey World Championship is an annual event organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation. ... First international Sweden 11 - 3 Norway (Gothenburg, Sweden; 12 July 1908) Biggest win Sweden 12 - 0 Latvia (Stockholm, Sweden; 29 May 1927) Biggest defeat England Amateur 12 - 1 Sweden (London, England; 20 October 1908) World Cup Appearances 11 (First in 1934) Best result Runners-up, 1958 European Championship Appearances 3... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ...


In schools, on meadows and in parks, the game brännboll, a sport similar to baseball, is commonly played for fun. Other leisure sports are the historical game of kubb, and boules among the older generation. Brännboll (pronounced ) is a game similar to Rounders, baseball and pesäpallo played on amateur level throughout Sweden, Norway and Denmark, mostly on meadows and in public parks, but it is also part of the PE curriculum in some areas. ... This article is about the sport. ... Kubb is a lawn game where the object is to knock over wooden blocks by throwing wooden sticks at them. ... Boules /bul/ is a collective name for games played with metal balls. ...


Sweden hosted the 1912 Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup in 1958. Other big sports events held here include 1992 UEFA European Football Championship, FIFA Women's World Cup 1995, and several championships of ice hockey, athletics, skiing, bandy, figure skating and swimming. The 1912 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were held in 1912 in Stockholm, Sweden. ... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football (soccer) competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA... Qualifying countries The 1958 FIFA World Cup, the sixth staging of the World Cup, was hosted by Sweden from June 8 to June 28. ... The 1992 UEFA European Football Championship (Euro 92) final tournament was hosted by Sweden. ... The FIFA Womens World Cup 1995 was held in the Sweden and won by Norway womens national football team. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ... Look up bandy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Figure skating is an ice skating sporting event where individuals, mixed couples, or groups perform spins, jumps, and other moves on the ice, often to music. ... Swimmer redirects here. ...


International rankings

Rankings
Name Year Place Out of # Reference
Environmental Performance Index 2008 3rd 149 [4]
CIA World Factbook – GDP – PPP per capita 2008 25th 230 [5]
Save the Children - Mother's Index Rank 2007 1st 141 [6]
Save the Children - Women's Index Rank 2007 1st 141 [7]
Save the Children - Children's Index Rank 2007 4th 141 [8]
Save the Children - Child mortality rate 2007 2nd 141 [9]
Economic freedom 2007 21st 157 [10]
Global Peace Index 2007 7th 121 [11]
Environmental Performance Index 2006 2nd 133 [12]
Doing Business 2006 13th 175 [13]
International Monetary Fund – GDP (nominal) per capita 2007 8th 179 [14]
UN Human Development Index 2007 6th 177
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007 3rd 125 [15]
Reporters Without Borders world-wide press freedom index 2006 6th 168 [16]
The Economist Intelligence Unit's democracy index 2006 1st 167 [17]
Nation Master's list by economic importance 19th 25 [18]
Nation Master's list by Technological Achievement 4th 68 [19]
Privacy International's European rankings on protection of civil liberties 2006 24th 25 [20]
CIA World Factbook – GDP – PPP per capita 2005 18th 194 [21]
The Economist Intelligence Unit's worldwide quality of life index 2005 5th 111 [22]
Save the Children - % seats in the national government held by women 2004 1st (47%) 141 [23]

Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically scaling the environmental performance of a set of companies or countries. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... World map of the Global Peace Index The Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. ... Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically scaling the environmental performance of a set of companies or countries. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Privacy International (PI) has been instrumental in establishing the modern international privacy movement. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ...

See also

Sweden Portal

Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Sweden Sweden, a country in Europe History of Sweden Politics of Sweden Counties of Sweden Municipalities of Sweden Economy of Sweden Geography of Sweden Demographics of Sweden Culture of Sweden Swedish language Swedes, the inhabitants of Sweden Finland The Åland Islands, an autonomous and unilingually Swedish province of Finland The... The Government agencies in Sweden are state controlled organizations who act independently to carry out the policies of the Swedish Government. ... Business & Industry Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Näringsliv) Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations (SACO) Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees (TCO) Swedish Union of Clerical and Technical Employees in Industry (SIF) Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) Defense Society and Defense (Folk och Försvar) Think Tanks Timbro Foundations Nobel Foundation... Communications in Sweden // Telephones main lines in use: 6,579,200 (2002) mobile cellular: 7. ... Sweden is visited most by tourists from its neighbouring countries Denmark, Norway and Finland. ... Registered partnership was granted in Sweden in 1995. ... This article is about the Swedes as an ethnic group. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Statistics Sweden. Yearbook of Housing and Building Statistics 2007. Statistics Sweden, Energy, Rents and Real Estate Statistics Unit, 2007. ISBN 9789161813612. Available online in pdf format.
  2. ^ CIA World Factbook: Economy - Sweden
  3. ^ De Geer, Hans, Tommy Borglund and Magnus Frostenson (2003). An Anglo-Swedish affair – Changing relations in an international acquisition. The 17th Nordic Conference on Business Studies in Reykjavík, 14-16 August 2003. Working paper within the project "Scandinavian Heritage", p. 9. Available online in pdf-format through the University of Iceland.
  4. ^ Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket) (2006). Sweden's Environmental Objectives – Buying into a better future. A progress report from the Swedish Environmental Objectives Council. De Facto, 2006, p. 9: "Swedes in general feel that environmental issues and action to reduce impacts on the environment are important". See also Legislation & guidelines and Greenhouse gas emissions: "Swedish greenhouse gas emissions per head of population are among the lowest in the member states of the OECD."
  5. ^ Kristrom, Bengt and Soren Wibe (1997). Environmental Policy in Sweden. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences – Department of Forest Economics, Working paper 246, 27 August 1997.
  6. ^ U.S. State Department Background Notes: Sweden
  7. ^ Hellquist, Elof (1922). Svensk etymologisk ordbok. Stockholm: Gleerups förlag, 915. 
  8. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 [1]
  9. ^ a b Sawyer, Birgit and Peter Sawyer (1993). Medieval Scandinavia: from Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800–1500. University of Minnesota Press, 1993. ISBN 0816617392, pp. 150-153.
  10. ^ Bagge, Sverre (2005). "The Scandinavian Kingdoms". In The New Cambridge Medieval History. Eds. Rosamond McKitterick et al. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 052136289X, p. 724: "Swedish expansion in Finland led to conflicts with Rus', which were temporarily brought to an end by a peace treaty in 1323, dividing the Karelian peninsula and the northern areas between the two countries."
  11. ^ "A Political and Social History of Modern Europe V.1./Hayes..." Hayes, Carlton J. H. (1882-1964), Title: A Political and Social History of Modern Europe V.1., 2002-12-08, Project Gutenberg, webpage: Infomot-7hsr110.
  12. ^ "Gustav I Vasa - Britannica Concise" (biography), Britannica Concise, 2007, webpage: EBConcise-Gustav-I-Vasa.
  13. ^ (1998) Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Minnesota Press, 1220. ISBN 0-8020-2938-8. 
  14. ^ a b Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989). Modern Welfare States: Politics and Policies in Social Democratic Scandinavia. Praeger Publishers, p.9: "Though Denmark, where industrialization had begun in the 1850s, was reasonably prosperous by the end of the nineteenth century, both Sweden and Norway were terribly poor. Only the safety valve of mass emigration to America prevented famine and rebellion. At the peak of emigration in the 1880s, over 1% of the total population of both countries emigrated annually."
  15. ^ Koblik, Steven (1975). Sweden's Development from Poverty to Affluence 1750-1970, University of Minnesota Press, p.8-9, "In economic and social terms the eighteenth century was more a transitional than a revolutionary period. Sweden was, in light of contemporary Western European standards, a relatively poor but stable country. [...] It has been estimated that 75-80% of the population was involved in agricultural pursuits during the late eighteenth century. One hundred years later, the corresponding figure was still 72%."
  16. ^ Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989), p.8.
  17. ^ a b Koblik, Steven (1975). Sweden's Development from Poverty to Affluence 1750-1970 University of Minnesota Press, pp. 9-10.
  18. ^ Sweden: Social and economic conditions (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 19 February 2007.
  19. ^ Koblik, Steven (1975). Sweden's Development from Poverty to Affluence 1750-1970 University of Minnesota Press, p. 11: "The agrarian revolution in Sweden is of fundamental importance for Sweden's modern development. Throughout Swedish history the countryside has taken an unusually important role in comparison with other European states."
  20. ^ Koblik, Steven (1975). Sweden's Development from Poverty to Affluence 1750-1970 University of Minnesota Press, p. 90. "It is usually suggested that between 1870 and 1914 Sweden emerged from its primarily agrarian economic system into a modern industrial economy."
  21. ^ a b c Koblik, pp. 303-313.
  22. ^ Nordstrom, p. 315: "Sweden's government attempted to maintain at least a semblance of neutrality while it bent to the demands of the prevailing side in the struggle. Although effective in preserving the country's sovereignty, this approach generated criticism at home from many who believed the threat to Sweden was less serious than the government claimed, problems with the warring powers, ill feelings among its neighbours, and frequent criticism in the postwar period."
  23. ^ a b c d e Nordstrom, pp. 313-319.
  24. ^ Zubicky, Sioma (1997). Med förintelsen i bagaget (in Swedish). Stockholm: Bonnier Carlsen, 122. ISBN 91-638-3436-7. 
  25. ^ a b c d Nordstrom, pp. 335-339.
  26. ^ Nordstrom, p. 344: "During the last twenty-five years of the century a host of problems plagued the economies of Norden and the West. Although many were present before, the 1973 and 1980 global oil crises acted as catalysts in bringing them to the fore."
  27. ^ Krantz, Olle and Lennart Schön. 2007. Swedish Historical National Accounts, 1800-2000. Lund: Almqvist and Wiksell International.
  28. ^ Englund, P. 1990. "Financial deregulation in Sweden." European Economic Review 34 (2-3): 385-393. Korpi TBD. Meidner, R. 1997. "The Swedish model in an era of mass unemployment." Economic and Industrial Democracy 18 (1): 87-97. Olsen, Gregg M. 1999. "Half empty or half full? The Swedish welfare state in transition." Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology, 36 (2): 241-268.
  29. ^ The Local. New Swedish weapon in Iraq. Retrieved on 2007-06-23.
  30. ^ SMHI - Klimatkartor - Temperatur. Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut. Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  31. ^ SMHI - Sveriges klimat. Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut. Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  32. ^ "Sweden in Brief/A Political Society", Sweden.se. Retrieved on 2007-02-14. 
  33. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit democracy index 2006 (PDF) (English). Economist Intelligence Unit (2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  34. ^ Förord
  35. ^ Hadenius, Stig; Nilsson, Torbjörn; Åselius, Gunnar (1996) Sveriges historia: vad varje svensk bör veta. Bonnier Alba, Borås. ISBN 91-34-51857-6 (in Swedish) (1996:13):
      Hur och när det svenska riket uppstod vet vi inte. Först under 1100-talet börjar skriftliga dokument produceras i Sverige i någon större omfattning [...]   How and when the Swedish kingdom appeared is not known. It is not until the 12th century that written document begin to be produced in Sweden in any larger extent [...]
  36. ^ Kungl. Maj:ts kungörelse med anledning av konung Gustaf VI Adolfs frånfälle. SFS 1973:702. Justitiedepartementet L6, 19 September 1973.
  37. ^ a b The Swedish Parliament. The history of the Riksdag. Retrieved 13 February 2007.
  38. ^ The Official Website of the Swedish Election Authority. Val till riksdagen.
  39. ^ Sören Holmberg (1999). in Pippa Norris: Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Government. Oxford University Press, 103-123. ISBN 0198295685. 
  40. ^ a b European Commission Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs And Equal Opportunities, Report On The Equality Between Men And Women,http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/publications/2006/keaj06001_en.pdf February 2006
  41. ^ Mosey, Chris. "Vote F! for Feminism." Ms. magazine. Fall 2006.
  42. ^ Kraftläget i Sverige, Vattensituationen
  43. ^ "Nuclear Power in Sweden" - Uranium Information Centre, Australia
  44. ^ "Swedish nuclear power station leaks high levels of radioactive waste into Baltic" - Forbes June 29, 2005
  45. ^ "NUCLEAR ENERGY IN SWEDEN", 2006, PDF wepage: Energy-SE-NucEnergy-Sweden.
  46. ^ a b Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sweden. Agenda 21 - Natural Resource Aspects - Sweden. 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997.
  47. ^ a b Vidal, John. Sweden plans to be world's first oil-free economy. The Guardian, 2/8/06. Retrieved 2/13/07.
  48. ^ Nordstrom p. 302: "In fact, the plans were mostly a ruse to establish control of the crucial Norwegian port of Narvik and the iron mines of northern Sweden, which were vitally important to the German war efforts."
  49. ^ Nordstrom, p 336: "As a corollary, a security policy based on strong national defenses designed to discourage, but not prevent, attack was pursued. For the next several decades, the Swedish poured an annual average of about 5% of GDP into making their defenses credible."
  50. ^ National Geographical News, web article, Cold War Spy Plane Found in Baltic Sea[2] 10 November 2003.
  51. ^ Swedish Ministry of Defence (2008-01-08). The EU Battlegroup Concept and the Nordic Battlegroup. Government Offices of Sweden. Retrieved on 2008-01-19.
  52. ^ The Swedish Parliament
  53. ^ Westerlund, Kenneth. "Danmark har högsta skattetrycket", DN, 2008-03-11. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. 
  54. ^ Eurostat February 2007 – Euro area unemployment down to 7.3%, March 30, 2007
  55. ^ IngentaConnect: "Markets versus planning: an assessment of the Swedish housing model in the post-war period", Nesslein T.S., Source: Urban Studies, Volume 40, Number 7, June 2003, pp. 1259-1282(24), Publisher: Routledge, webpage: Ingenta-2003-art00005.
  56. ^ Swedish National Debt Office(2006).
  57. ^ ""Sweden most creative country in Europe & top talent hotspot", Invest in Sweden Agency, 25 June 2005. The top ten countries, in descending order, are: Sweden, Japan, Finland, the US, Switzerland, Denmark, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway and Germany.
  58. ^ Fees and costs - SWEDEN.SE. Retrieved on 2007-06-18.
  59. ^ "Law of the Labour Back Benches" - New Statesman September 6, 2004
  60. ^ Statistics Sweden.Preliminary Population Statistics, by month, 2004 - 2006. Population statistics, 1 January 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
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  62. ^ SCB. Sveriges befolkning, kommunala jämförelsetal, 31/12/2006 31 December 2006. (In Swedish). Retrieved 3 April 2007.
  63. ^ Record immigration to Sweden in 2006
  64. ^ Nordstrom, p. 353. (Lists Former Yugoslavia and Iran as top two countries in terms of immigration beside "Other Nordic Countries," based on Nordic Council of Ministers Yearbook of Nordic Statistics, 1996, 46-47)
  65. ^ a b "Karlstad University" (on languages taught/spoken), Karlstad University, 2006, webpage: Kau-SE-Languages.
  66. ^ Svenskan blir inte officiellt språk, Sveriges Television, 2005-12-07. Retrieved on July 23 2006. (in Swedish)
  67. ^ English spoken - fast ibland hellre än bra (Swedish). Lund University newsletter 7/1999.
  68. ^ Population structure. Statistics Finland (2007-03-29). Retrieved on 2008-01-06.
  69. ^ Church of Sweden, Members 1972-2006, Excel document in Swedish
  70. ^ Statistics about free churches and immigration churches from Swedish Wikipedia - in Swedish
  71. ^ Sydsvenskan (a Swedish newspaper) - in Swedish
  72. ^ Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 - page 11. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  73. ^ Celsing, Charlotte. Are Swedes losing their religion?. The Swedish Institute, 1 September 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2007.
  74. ^ "The Swedish Myths: True, False, or Somewhere In Between?", Sweden.se. Retrieved on 2007-02-14. 
  75. ^ Durant, Colin (2003). Choral Conducting: philosophy and practice, Routledge, pp. 46-47. ISBN 0415943566: "Sweden has a strong and enviable choral singing tradition. [..] All those interviewed placed great emphasis on the social identification through singing and also referred to the importance of Swedish folk song in the maintenance of the choral singing tradition and national identity."
  76. ^ Music in Sweden at Swedish Institute website, accessed Feb. 2007.
  77. ^ Lars Westin: Jazz in Sweden - an overview
  78. ^ a b Swedish inventions and discoveries. Fact Sheet FS 91 e. Swedish Institute (January 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-28.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... SMHI is an abbreviation for Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, which is Swedish for Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... SMHI is an abbreviation for Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, which is Swedish for Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sveriges Television (SVT) is a national publicly-funded television broadcaster based in Sweden. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Swedish Institute (Svenska Institutet, SI) is a Swedish government agency with the responsibility to spread information about Sweden abroad, to promote Swedish interests, and to organise exchanges with other countries in different areas of public life, in particular in the spheres of culture, education, and research. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bagge, Sverre (2005). "The Scandinavian Kingdoms". In The New Cambridge Medieval History. Eds. Rosamond McKitterick et al. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 052136289X.
  • CIA World FactbookSweden
  • Council for Official Statistics. "Preliminär befolkningsstatistik 2006"Statistics Sweden.
  • Durant, Colin (2003). Choral Conducting: philosophy and practice, Routledge, pp. 46-47. ISBN 0415943566.
  • Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989). Modern Welfare States: Politics and Policies in Social Democratic Scandinavia. Praeger Publishers, 1989. ISBN 0275931889.
  • Invest in Sweden Agency (ISA) (2005). Sweden most creative country in Europe and top talent hotspot. Press release, 25 June 2005.
  • Koblik, Steven (1975). Sweden's Development from Poverty to Affluence 1750-1970. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816607575.
  • Magocsi, Paul Robert (1998). Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Minnesota Press, 1998. ISBN 0802029388.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sweden. Agenda 21 – Natural Resource Aspects - Sweden. 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997.
  • Nordstrom, Byron J. (2000). Scandinavia since 1500. University of Minnesota Press, 2000. ISBN 0816620989.
  • Sawyer, Birgit and Peter Sawyer (1993). Medieval Scandinavia: from Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800–1500. University of Minnesota Press, 1993. ISBN 0816617392.
  • Ståhl, Solveig. (1999). "English spoken – fast ibland hellre än bra". LUM, Lunds universitet meddelar, 7:1999, 3 September 1999. In Swedish.
  • Statistics Sweden. 2006 census.
  • Statistics Sweden. Preliminary Population Statistics, by month, 2004–2006. Population statistics, 1 January 2007.
  • Statistics Sweden. Yearbook of Housing and Building Statistics 2007. Statistics Sweden, Energy, Rents and Real Estate Statistics Unit, 2007. ISBN 9789161813612. Available online in pdf format.
  • "Sweden". In The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05.
  • Sweden. In Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911.
  • Sweden: Social and economic conditions (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  • Swedish National Debt Office
  • The Swedish Parliament: Laws
  • United States Department of State – Sweden
  • World History Database – Sweden
  • Uddhammar, Emil (1993). Partierna och den stora staten: en analys av statsteorier och svensk politik under 1900-talet. Stockholm, City University Press.
  • RADICAL PRINCIPLES AND THE LEGAL INSTITUTION OF MARRIAGE: DOMESTIC RELATIONS LAW AND SOCIAL DEMOCRACY IN SWEDEN -- BRADLEY 4 (2): 154 -- International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.

World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  • Wikimedia Atlas of Sweden
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  • Study in Sweden – Official guide to studying in Sweden
  • Statistiska Centralbyrån – Statistics Sweden (governmental)
  • Invest in Sweden Agency – Government agency
  • Swedish Trade Council
  • Sweden – Economic Growth and Structural Change, 1800-2000 — EH.Net Encyclopedia

Republic of China (ROC) has a dynamiccapitalist economy with gradually decreasing guidance of investment and foreign trade by the government. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... [--168. ... An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by a someone who is elected by a group. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Alo, also known unofficially as Tu`a, is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna, which encompasses the eastern two thirds (53 km² out of 83 km²) of Futuna Island, and mostly uninhabited Alofi Island (32 km², pop. ... Ankole, originally known as Nkore, is one of the four traditional kingdoms of Uganda. ... For other uses, see Ashanti (disambiguation). ... The flag of Buganda Buganda is the kingdom of the 52 clans of the Baganda people, the largest of the traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda. ... Bunyoro flag The current Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara and its districts Bunyoro is a region of Uganda, and from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century one of the most powerful kingdoms of East Africa. ... The flag of Busoga Kingdom of Busoga and its districts Busoga is the kingdom of the 11 principalities of the Basoga people, one of the five traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Sigave is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna, which is located on the western part of Futuna Island. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Original Kingdom of Toro and its districts Kingdom of Toro since 1993 Toro is one of the four traditional kingdoms located within the borders of Uganda. ... For the Pacific island, see Wallis Island. ... Yogyakarta Sultanate or Kesultanan Yogyakarta is a monarchy in the province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. ... Zululand was the Zulu-dominated area of what is now northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sweden - MSN Encarta (1087 words)
Sweden shares a hilly land boundary with Norway to the west, and it touches Finland to the northeast.
To the south and southwest lie the waterways separating Sweden from Denmark: the Skagerrak, Kattegat, and Öresund straits.
Sweden is famous for its mixed economy, a system in which the government plays an active role in guiding economic life.
Sweden - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6728 words)
Sweden was first mentioned in the 1st century, by Roman historian Tacitus, who wrote that the Suiones tribe lived out in the sea and were powerful in both arms and ships.
In the south of Sweden leaf-bearing trees are prolific, in the north pines, spruces and hardy birches dominate the landscape.
Sweden is known for having an even distribution of income, with a Gini coefficient at 0.21 in 2001 (one of the most even income distributions in the industrialized world).
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