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Encyclopedia > Swastika
The swastika in a decorative Hindu form. The swastika in a decorative Hindu form.
The swastika in a decorative Hindu form.
The hindu swastika was copied and used as an official emblem of the Nazi Party, a use sometimes continued by modern Neo-Nazis.

The swastika (from Sanskrit: svástika स्वस्तिक ) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing () form or its mirrored left-facing () form. The swastika can also be drawn as a traditional swastika, but with a second 90° bend in each arm. Lucky Cross Mill in Swastika, Ontario (1918) Swastika is a small community founded in 1908 around a mining site in northern Ontario, Canada, and today within the municipal boundaries of Kirkland Lake, Ontario. ... Image File history File links HinduSwastika. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... In geometry, an equilateral polygon has all sides of the same length. ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... This article is about angles in geometry. ...


Archaeological evidence of swastika-shaped ornaments dates from the Neolithic period. An ancient symbol, it occurs mainly in the cultures that are in modern day India and the surrounding area, sometimes as a geometrical motif (as in the Roman Republic and Empire) and sometimes as a religious symbol. It was long widely used in major world religions such as shamanism


Though once commonly used all over much of the world without stigma, because of its iconic usage in Nazi Germany, the symbol has become controversial, especially in the Western world. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Occident redirects here. ...

Contents

Etymology and alternative names

Seals from the Indus Valley Civilization (from around 3000–1500 BC). The first one appears to show a swastika.
Seals from the Indus Valley Civilization (from around 3000–1500 BC). The first one appears to show a swastika.

The word swastika is derived from the Sanskrit svastika (in Devanagari, स्वस्तिक), meaning any lucky or auspicious object, and in particular a mark made on persons and things to denote good luck. It is composed of su- (cognate with Greek ευ-, eu-), meaning "good, well" and asti, a verbal abstract to the root as "to be" (cognate with the Romance copula, coming ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European root *h1es-); svasti thus means "well-being." The suffix -ka intensifies the verbal meaning or confers the sense of 'beneficial', and svastika might thus be translated literally as "that which is associated with well-being," corresponding to "lucky charm" or "thing that is auspicious."[1] The word first appears in the Classical Sanskrit (in the Ramayana and Mahabharata epics). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Eu- (Greek εὖ-, the combining form of the adjective ευς good) is a prefix meaning good, well. From PIE *hsu-, it is cognate to Sanskrit su-, Avestan hu-, with the same meaning. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The copula or copulae (the verb or verbs meaning to be) in all Romance languages derive from the Latin verbs SVM and STO. The former was the copular verb to be (ultimately from the Indo-European copula *h1es-), and the latter mainly meant to stand (ultimately from the Indo-European... Proto-Indo-European (PIE) may refer to: Proto-Indo-European language the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European roots, A list of reconstructed Proto-Indo-European roots Categories: | ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


The hindu Sanskrit term has been in use in English since 1871, replacing gammadion (from Greek γαμμάδιον). This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The swastika is a cross with its arms 90° to either right or left. ...


Alternative historical English spellings of the Sanskrit word include suastika, swastica and svastica. Alternative names for the shape are: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

  • crooked cross
  • cross cramponned, ~nnée, or ~nny (in heraldry), as each arm resembles a crampon or angle-iron (German: Winkelmaßkreuz)
  • ugunskrusts (fire cross), also pērkonkrusts (thundercross), kāškrusts (hook-cross), Laimas krusts (Laima's cross), fylfot, is a central element in jewelry, national clothes in Latvian, Lithuanian, Old-Prussian culture, symbolizing as a element of life. It is used in a Latvian Seven-Day Ring. The ring is with 7 symbols, each representing a day of the week, where fire-cross being as a symbol for Thursday, and it's motto being: "Domā un rīkojies krietni" (Think and do honorable actions.)
  • double cross, by Bishop Fulton J. Sheen, on the April 6, 1941 edition of his radio program The Catholic Hour, not only comparing the Cross of Christ with the swastika, but also implying that siding with fascism was a "double-crossing" of Christianity
  • fylfot, possibly meaning "four feet", chiefly in heraldry and architecture (See fylfot for a discussion of the etymology)
  • gammadion, tetragammadion (Greek: τέτραγαμμάδιον), or cross gammadion (Latin: crux gammata; Old French: croix gammée), as each arm resembles the Greek letter Γ (gamma)
  • hook cross (German: Hakenkreuz);
  • sun wheel, a name also used as a synonym for the sun cross
  • tetraskelion (Greek: τετρασκέλιον), "four legged", especially when composed of four conjoined legs (compare triskelion (Greek: τρισκέλιον))
  • Thor's hammer, from its supposed association with Thor, the Norse god of the weather, but this may be a misappropriation of a name that properly belongs to a Y-shaped or T-shaped symbol[2]. The swastika shape appears in Icelandic grimoires wherein it is named Þórshamar.
  • The Tibetan swastika is known as nor bu bzhi -khyil, or quadruple body symbol, defined in Unicode at codepoint U+0FCC .

Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Crampons with buckled straps Crampons are a framework of spikes that are attached to boots to provide traction on snow and ice. ... In Latvian mythology and Lithuanian mythology, Laima (luck; also Laime, Laimas māte) was the personification of fate and of luck, both good and bad. ... The god Thor, after whom Thursday is named. ... Fulton John Sheen (born Peter John Sheen May 8, 1895—December 9, 1979) was an American archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Double Cross is the first produced, but the second aired, episode for the third season of the science fiction television show Sliders. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Notional arms – Argent a fylfot azure (a blue fylfot on a white shield) – exemplifying the design of the fylfot commonly shown in modern heraldry texts. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... This page contains special characters. ... Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... The Sun Wheel at night as seen from across Paradise Bay. ... A Caddo solar cross, to Southeastern Native Americans a symbol of both the sun and fire. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Amulets representing Mjolnir were used as pendants This article is about the use of models of Thors hammer Mjolnir. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This design for an amulet comes from the Black Pullet grimoire. ...

History

Greek helmet with swastika marks on the top part (details), 350-325 BC from Taranto, found at Herculanum. Cabinet des Médailles, Paris.
Greek helmet with swastika marks on the top part (details), 350-325 BC from Taranto, found at Herculanum. Cabinet des Médailles, Paris.

The motif seems to have first been used in Neolithic India. The symbol has an ancient history in Europe, appearing on artifacts from pre-Christian European cultures. In antiquity, the swastika was used extensively by the Indo-Aryans, Persians, Hittites, Celts and Greeks, among others. In particular, the swastika is a sacred symbol in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Mithraism, religions with a total of more than a billion adherents worldwide, making the swastika ubiquitous in both historical and contemporary society. The symbol was introduced to Southeast Asia by Hindu kings and remains an integral part of Balinese Hinduism to this day, and it is a common sight in Indonesia. It is also used by several Native American cultures. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1720x1065, 1885 KB) Summary Greek helmet with swastika marks, 350-325 BCE, found at Herculanum, Tarente. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1720x1065, 1885 KB) Summary Greek helmet with swastika marks, 350-325 BCE, found at Herculanum, Tarente. ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... For the Italian commune, see Ercolano Herculaneum (in modern Italian formerly Resina, but since 1969 Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano, in the Italian region of Campania. ... Gold 20-stater of Eucratides I (175-150 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... This article is about the European people. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Hinduism in Indonesia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...


In the Western world, the symbol experienced a resurgence following the archaeological work in the late 19th century of Heinrich Schliemann, who discovered the symbol in the site of ancient Troy and associated it with the ancient migrations of Proto-Indo-Europeans. He connected it with similar shapes found on ancient pots in Germany, and theorized that the swastika was a "significant religious symbol of our remote ancestors", linking Germanic, Greek and Indo-Iranian cultures.[3][4] By the early 20th century, it was widely used worldwide and was regarded as a symbol of good luck and success. Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ...


The work of Schliemann soon became intertwined with the völkisch movements, for which the swastika was a symbol of "Aryan" identity, a concept that came to be equated by theorists such as Alfred Rosenberg with a Nordic master race originating in northern Europe. Since its adoption by the Nazi Party of Adolf Hitler, the swastika has been associated with Nazism, fascism, racism (white supremacy), the Axis powers in World War II, and the Holocaust in much of the West. The swastika remains a core symbol of Neo-Nazi groups, and is used regularly by activist groups to signify their opinion of supposed Nazi-like behavior of organizations and individuals they oppose. The hard-to-translate word völkisch has connotations of folksy, folkloric, and populist. ... Alfred Rosenberg around 1935   (January 12, 1893 Reval (today Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Herrenvolk redirects here. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ...


Origin hypotheses

Main article: Swastika origin theories

Although the Swastika seems to have first been used in Neolithic India, the ubiquity of the swastika symbol is easily explained by its being a very simple shape that will arise independently in any basket-weaving society. The swastika is a repeating design, created by the edges of the reeds in a square basket-weave. Other theories attempt to establish a connection via cultural diffusion or an explanation along the lines of Carl Jung's collective unconscious. The swastika shape is attested in the archaeological record since the neolithic (5th millennium BC), as variants of arrangements of fourfold rotation symmetry (besides other orders, especially threefold), of spirals, and in the Bronze Age notably of animal shapes, the so-called Tierwirbel. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... A woman weaves a basket in Cameroon. ... In anthropology, cultural diffusion refers to the spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies (Wintrop 1991:82) Since cultures have never been completely isolated from each other, diffusion has happened throughout history, and continues on today. ... Jung redirects here. ... Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology originally coined by Carl Jung. ...


The swastika may have been transferred to North America by an early seafaring civilization in Eurasia, but it is considered more likely that its use in the Americas arose independently[citation needed].


The genesis of the swastika symbol is often treated in conjunction with cross symbols in general, such as the "sun wheel" of Bronze Age religion. Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... The Sun Wheel at night as seen from across Paradise Bay. ... Prehistoric religion is a general term for the hypothetical religious belief system of prehistoric peoples. ...


Another explanation is suggested by Carl Sagan in his book Comet. Sagan reproduces an ancient Chinese manuscript (the Book of Silk) that shows comet tail varieties: most are variations on simple comet tails, but the last shows the comet nucleus with four bent arms extending from it, recalling a swastika. Sagan suggests that in antiquity a comet could have approached so close to Earth that the jets of gas streaming from it, bent by the comet's rotation, became visible, leading to the adoption of the swastika as a symbol across the world.[5] Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrochemist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... A page from the Book of Silk The Book of Silk is an ancient astronomy book made by Chinese astronomers around 400 BCE and found in a tomb in China in 1973. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ...


Still another explanation may be visible spiral galaxies before industrial light pollution, according to Sean O'Hara.


Archaeological record

This Iranian necklace was excavated from Kaluraz, Guilan, first millennium BC, National Museum of Iran.
This Iranian necklace was excavated from Kaluraz, Guilan, first millennium BC, National Museum of Iran.

The earliest consistent use of swastika motifs in the archaeological record date to the Neolithic, though an isolated late Paleolithic artefact containing the shape exists. The symbol was found on a number of shards in the Khuzestan province of Iran and as part of the "Vinca script" of Neolithic Europe of the 5th millennium BC. In the Early Bronze Age, it appears on pottery found in Sintashta, Russia. Image File history File links Photo provided by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Photo provided by Zereshk. ... Guilan or Gilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, known during ancient times as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... A clay vessel unearthed in Vinča, found at depth of 8. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Sintashta fortified settlement in the southern Urals is dated to ca. ...


Swastika-like symbols also appear in Bronze and Iron Age designs of the northern Caucasus (Koban culture), and Azerbaijan, as well as of Scythians and Sarmatians [6]. In all these cultures, the swastika symbol does not appear to occupy any marked position or significance, but appears as just one form of a series of similar symbols of varying complexity. While this sign has been found in many cultures it is referred to as Swastika only in Sanskrit and related languages. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Koban culture (ca. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ...


Historical use

The symbol rose to importance in Buddhism in the Mauryan Empire and in Hinduism with the Decline of Buddhism in India in the Gupta period India. Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Decline of Buddhism in India, in the land of its birth occurred for a variety of reasons, and happened even as it continued to flourish beyond the frontiers of India. ... Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455). ...


With the spread of Buddhism, the Buddhist swastika reached Tibet and China. The use of the swastika by the indigenous Bön faith of Tibet, as well as syncretic religions, such as Cao Dai of Vietnam and Falun Gong of China, is thought to be borrowed from Buddhism as well. Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For the linguistic term, see syncretism (linguistics). ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; lit. ...


Reintroduction of the swastika in the West

The aviator Matilde Moisant (1878–1964) wearing a swastika medallion in 1912. The symbol was popular as a good luck charm with early aviators.
The aviator Matilde Moisant (1878–1964) wearing a swastika medallion in 1912. The symbol was popular as a good luck charm with early aviators.

The discovery of the Indo-European language group in the 1790s led to a great effort by archaeologists to link the pre-history of European people to the ancient "Aryans" (variously referring to the Indo-Iranians or the Proto-Indo-Europeans). Following his discovery of objects bearing the swastika in the ruins of Troy, Heinrich Schliemann consulted two leading Sanskrit scholars of the day, Emile Burnouf and Max Müller. Schliemann concluded that the Swastika was a specifically Indo-European symbol. Later discoveries of the motif among the remains of the Hittites and of ancient Iran seemed to confirm this theory.[when?] This idea was taken up by many other writers, and the swastika quickly became popular in the West, appearing in many designs from the 1880s to the 1920s. Postcard sent in June 1910 The swastika (gammadion, fylfot) symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century. ... Image File history File links MatildeMoisant. ... Image File history File links MatildeMoisant. ... Matilde E. Moisant (born September 13, 1878 – died February 5, 1964), was an American pioneer aviatrix. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Emile Burnouf (dates??) was a leading nineteenth-century Orientalist and racialist whose ideas influenced the development of theosophy and Aryanism. ... Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ...


These discoveries, and the new popularity of the swastika symbol, led to a widespread desire to ascribe symbolic significance to every example of the motif. In many European countries, examples of identical shapes in ancient European artifacts and in folk art were interpreted as emblems of good-luck linked to the Indo-Iranian meaning. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Western use of the motif, along with the religious and cultural meanings attached to it, was subverted in the early 20th century after it was adopted as the emblem of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei). This association occurred because Nazism stated that the historical Aryans were the forefathers of modern Germans and then proposed that, because of this, the subjugation of the world by Germany was desirable, and even predestined. The swastika was used as a conveniently-geometrical and eye-catching symbol to emphasize the so-called Aryan-German correspondence and instill racial pride. It was also adopted by some German militants in the March 1920 Kapp Putsch. The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... This article is about the term Aryan. For Arian, a follower of the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ... Memorial for the suppression of the Kapp putsch in Wetter station The Kapp Putsch —or more accurately the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch —was an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic, based in opposition to the imposed Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I. It was branded right...


The swastikas on the Order of the White Rose designed in 1918 by Akseli Gallen-Kallela remained in use until 1963. There are three official orders in Finland: the Order of the Cross of Liberty, the Order of the White Rose of Finland (Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunta) and the Order of the Lion of Finland. ... From the Kalevala, 1896 Akseli Gallen-Kallela (April 26, 1865 _ March 7, 1931) was a Finnish painter who is most of all known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic (illustration, right). ...


Geometry and symbolism

A right-facing swastika may be described as "clockwise"... A right-facing swastika may be described as "clockwise"...
A right-facing swastika may be described as "clockwise"...
...or "counter-clockwise".

Geometrically, the swastika can be regarded as an irregular icosagon or 20-sided polygon. The arms are of varying width and are often rectilinear (but need not be). However, the proportions of the Nazi swastika were fixed: they were based on a 5x5 grid.[7] Image File history File links Cw_right-facing_swastika. ... Image File history File links Ccw_right-facing_swastika. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... In geometry, an icosagon is a twenty-sided polygon. ... Look up polygon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Characteristic is the 90° rotational symmetry (that is, the symmetry of the cyclic group C4h) and chirality, hence the absence of reflectional symmetry, and the existence of two versions that are each other's mirror image. The triskelion appearing on the Isle of Man flag. ... In group theory, a cyclic group or monogenous group is a group that can be generated by a single element, in the sense that the group has an element g (called a generator of the group) such that, when written multiplicatively, every element of the group is a power of... In geometry, a figure is chiral (and said to have chirality) if it is not identical to its mirror image, or more particularly if it cannot be mapped to its mirror image by rotations and translations alone. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... A mirror image is a mirror based duplicate of a single image. ...


The mirror-image forms are often described as:

"Left-facing" and "right-facing" are used mostly consistently. In an upright swastika, the upper arm faces either the viewer's left (卍) or right (卐). The other two descriptions are ambiguous as it is unclear whether they refer to the direction of the bend in each arm or to the implied rotation of the symbol. If the latter, whether the arms lead or trail remains unclear. However, "clockwise" usually refers to the "right-facing" swastika. The terms are used inconsistently (sometimes even by the same writer), which is confusing and may obfuscate an important point, that the rotation of the swastika may have symbolic relevance, although little is known about this symbolic relevance. A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ...


Nazi ensigns had a through and through image, so each version was present on one side, but the Nazi flag on land was right-facing on both sides and generally at a 45° rotation.[8] Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... An image may be through and through in the following cases: ink or paint penetrating to the other side inlaying with another material, stained glass, patchwork, woodwork, linoleum, marble, etc. ... Ratio 3:5 The swastika flag came into use initially as the banner of the NSDAP after its foundation. ...


Seen as a cross, the four lines emanate from the center to the four cardinal directions. The most common association is with the Sun. Other proposed correspondences are to the visible rotation of the night sky in the Northern Hemisphere around the pole star. A compass rose showing the cardinal directions Cardinal directions or cardinal points are the four principal directions or points of the compass in plane. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... For other uses of the words Pole star and Polestar see Polestar (disambiguation). ...


The name "sauwastika" is sometimes given to the left-facing form of the swastika (卍), based on D'Alviella (1894),[9] though the term is merely an alternate spelling of swastika. Indians of all faiths sometimes use the symbol in both orientations, mostly for symmetry. Buddhists outside India generally use the left-facing swastika rather than the right-facing swastika, although both can be used. Claims to the effect that the left-facing swastika has inauspicious or "evil" connotations are without substance, most likely based on the stigma of left handedness. In particular, the left-facing swastika is often carved in a see-through lattice in entrance doors of Buddhist temples in China. When exiting the temple, one sees the reverse side of this lattice on the same door, which looks like a right-facing swastika. The name sauwastika is a variant of swastika. ...


Art and architecture

Swastika-type designs on the peplos of an Archaic kore, Acropolis Museum. The intersections of lines defining a solid repeated motif on the edge of a depicted piece of cloth resemble a swastika.
Swastika-type designs on the peplos of an Archaic kore, Acropolis Museum. The intersections of lines defining a solid repeated motif on the edge of a depicted piece of cloth resemble a swastika.

The swastika is common as a design motif in current Hindu architecture and Indian artwork as well as in ancient Western architecture, frequently appearing in mosaics, friezes, and other works across the ancient world. Ancient Greek architectural, clothing and coin designs are replete with single or interlinking swastika motifs. Related symbols in classical Western architecture include the cross, the three-legged triskele or triskelion and the rounded lauburu. The swastika symbol is also known in these contexts by a number of names, especially gammadion. [10] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,448 × 3,264 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,448 × 3,264 pixels, file size: 2. ... Terracotta of a Greek woman (2nd century BC). ... The Lady of Auxerre, an example of a kore Kore (Greek - maiden), plural korai, is the name given to a type of ancient Greek sculpture of the archaic period, the female equivalent of a kouros. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article is about building architecture. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... Ancient redirects here. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... An example of a lauburu: each arm can be drawn with three sweeps of a compass The lauburu or Basque cross has four comma-shaped heads similar to the Japanese tomoe. ... The swastika is a cross with its arms 90° to either right or left. ...


In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese art, the swastika is often found as part of a repeating pattern. One common pattern, called sayagata in Japanese, comprises left and right facing swastikas joined by lines.[11] As the negative space between the lines has a distinctive shape, the sayagata pattern is sometimes called the "key fret" motif in English.


The swastika symbol was found extensively in the ruins of the ancient city of Troy and can also be found in some of the mosaics in the ruins of Pompeii. For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ...


In Greco-Roman art and architecture, and in Romanesque and Gothic art in the West, isolated swastikas are relatively rare, and the swastika is more commonly found as a repeated element in a border or tessellation. The swastika often represented perpetual motion, reflecting the design of a rotating windmill or watermill. A meander of connected swastikas makes up the large band that surrounds the Augustan Ara Pacis. A design of interlocking swastikas is one of several tessellations on the floor of the cathedral of Amiens, France.[12] A border of linked swastikas was a common Roman architectural motif,[13] and can be seen in more recent buildings as a neoclassical element. A swastika border is one form of meander, and the individual swastikas in such a border are sometimes called Greek keys.[14] The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... Ara Pacis:Detail of the processional frieze showing members of the Julio-Claudian family (north face) The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, Altar of Majestic Peace; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar to Peace, envisioned as a Roman goddess. ... A tessellated plane seen in street pavement. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... Meander pavement in the streets of Rhodes In art and architecture, a meander is a decorative border constructed from a continuous line, shaped into a repeated motif. ... Meander pavement in the streets of Rhodes In art and architecture, a meander is a decorative border constructed from a continuous line, shaped into a repeated motif. ...

Swastika on geometric pottery, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.
Swastika on geometric pottery, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.

Swastikas have also been found on pottery in archaeological digs in the area of ancient Kush. Swastikas were found on pottery at the Gebel Barkal temples as well as in digs corresponding to the later X-Group peoples. [15] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,112 × 2,816 pixels, file size: 864 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,112 × 2,816 pixels, file size: 864 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Dipylon Vase Geometric Art is a phase of Greek art, characterised largely by geometric motives in vase painting, that flourished towards the end of the Greek Dark Ages, circa 900 BCE to 800 BCE. Its centre was in Athens, and it was diffused amongst the trading cities of the Aegean... Façade of the National Archaeological museum of Athens. ... This article is about the Nubian civilization. ...

A mola showing a swastika, based on the Kuna flag.
A mola showing a swastika, based on the Kuna flag.

Ceramic tiles with a swastika design have appeared in many parts of the world including the United States in the early 20th century. The tiles typically are, however, a minor decorative element. Some of the pre-World War II swastikas have become controversial after Jewish groups demanded they be removed. A number of the buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as Unesco World Heritage sites, and are considered worthy of historical preservation. See Western use of the Swastika in the early 20th century for specific examples. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2013x1488, 822 KB) Summary A mola made in the San Blas Islands of Panama by master mola maker Venancio Restrepo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2013x1488, 822 KB) Summary A mola made in the San Blas Islands of Panama by master mola maker Venancio Restrepo. ... The mola is a traditional art form made by the Kuna people, whose traditional lands are located within the borders of Panama. ... The Flag of Kuna Yala was adopted in 1925. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Postcard sent in June 1910 The swastika (gammadion, fylfot) symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century. ...


The Primate's Palace in Bratislava has security grills on the ground floor that incorporate swastikas in their design. (See Image of the Primate's Palace) Primates Palace Primates Palace at night The Primates Palace (Slovak: ) is a neo-Classical palace in Bratislava, Old Town. ... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube Country  Slovakia Region Districts Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft) Area 367. ...


Religion and mythology

Swastika on the doorstep of an apartment in Maharashtra, India.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ...

Hinduism

In Hinduism, the two symbols represent the two forms of the creator god Brahma: facing right it represents the evolution of the universe (Pravritti), facing left it represents the involution of the universe (Nivritti). It is also seen as pointing in all four directions (north, east, south and west) and thus signifies stability and groundedness. Its use as a sun symbol can first be seen in its representation of the god Surya. The swastika is considered extremely holy and auspicious by all Hindus, and is regularly used to decorate items related to Hindu culture. It is used in all Hindu yantras and religious designs. Throughout the subcontinent of India, it can be seen on the sides of temples, religious scriptures, gift items, and letterheads. The Hindu god Ganesh is often shown sitting on a lotus flower on a bed of swastikas. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is about the Hindu god of creation. ... In philosophy and metaphysics, the development of the universe, and of consciousness through time, is referred to as evolution. ... The term involution refers to different things depending on the writer. ... For the intercontinental ballistic missile, see Surya (missile). ... The Sri Yantra. ... Popular image of Ganesh In Hinduism, Ganesha (Gaṇeśa, lord of the hosts, also spelled Ganesa and sometimes referred to as Ganesh in Hindi, Bengali and other Indian vernaculars) is the god of wisdom, intelligence, education and prudence. ...


The swastika is found all over Hindu temples, signs, altars, pictures and iconography where it is sacred. It is used in Hindu weddings, festivals, ceremonies, houses and doorways, clothing and jewelry, motor transport and even decorations on food items such as cakes and pastries. Among the Hindus of Bengal, it is common to see the name "swastika" (Bengali: স্বস্তিক sbastik) applied to a slightly different symbol, which has the same significance as the common swastika, and both symbols are used as auspicious signs. This symbol looks something like a stick figure of a human being.[16] "Swastika" (স্বস্তিক Sbastik) is a common given name amongst Bengalis[17] and a prominent literary magazine in Kolkata (Calcutta) is called the Swastika. For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Bangla redirects here. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ...


The Aum symbol is also sacred in Hinduism. While Aum is representative of a single primordial tone of creation, the Swastika is a pure geometrical mark and has no syllabic tone associated with it. The Swastika is one of the 108 symbols of Lord Vishnu and represents the sun's rays, without which there would be no life. “Om” redirects here. ... Vishnu (Hindi: (विष्‍णु) is a form of God, whom Hindus pray to. ...


Buddhism

The symbol as it is used in Buddhist art and scripture is known in Japanese as a manji (literally, "the character for eternality" 萬字), and represents Dharma, universal harmony, and the balance of opposites. When facing left, it is the omote (front) manji, representing love and mercy. Facing right, it represents strength and intelligence, and is called the ura (rear) manji. Balanced manji are often found at the beginning and end of Buddhist scriptures (outside India). For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...


Buddhism originated in the Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BC and inherited the manji. These two symbols are included, at least since the Liao Dynasty, as part of the Chinese language, the symbolic sign for the character 萬 or 万 (wàn in Mandarin, man in Korean, Cantonese and Japanese, vạn in Vietnamese) meaning "all" or "eternality" (lit. myriad) and as 卐, which is seldom used. A manji marks the beginning of many Buddhist scriptures. The manji (in either orientation) appears on the chest of some statues of Gautama Buddha and is often incised on the soles of the feet of the Buddha in statuary. Because of the association of the right-facing swastika with Nazism, Buddhist manji (outside India only) after the mid-20th century are almost universally left-facing: 卍. This form of the manji is often found on Chinese food packaging to signify that the product is vegetarian and can be consumed by strict Buddhists. It is often sewn into the collars of Chinese children's clothing to protect them from evil spirits. Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... For other uses, see Myriad (disambiguation). ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products[1] [2]. The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health. ...

The swastika is a holy symbol in Jainism.
The swastika is a holy symbol in Jainism.

In 1922, the Chinese Syncretist movement Daoyuan founded the philanthropic association Red Swastika Society in imitation of the Red Cross. The association was very active in China during the 1920s and the 1930s. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Daoyuan (meaning in English: Sanctuary of the Tao) is one of the Way of Former Heaven sects, (Xiantian Dadao) which are syncretist groupings of Chinese origin, that strive for unity of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Daoism and Confucianism. ... The Red Swastika Society (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a voluntary association founded in China in 1922 by Qian Neng-kun (錢能訓), Du Bing-yin (杜秉寅) and Li Jia-bo (李佳白) as the philanthropic branch of the Daodeshe (道德社) Society of Dao and Virtue, a syncretist Daoist school, which changed at the same... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Jainism

Jainism gives even more prominence to the swastika than does Hinduism. It is a symbol of the seventh Jina (Saint), the Tirthankara Suparsva. In the Svetambar Jain tradition, it is also one of the symbols of the ashta-mangalas. It is considered to be one of the 24 auspicious marks and the emblem of the seventh arhat of the present age. All Jain temples and holy books must contain the swastika and ceremonies typically begin and end with creating a swastika mark several times with rice around the altar. Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... Svetambar (also spelt Svetambara or Shvetabmbar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Digambar. ... Ashta-mangalas are a set of eight auspiciopus symbols. ... A Chinese Luohan statue from the Liao Dynasty in Hebei Province, China In the sramanic traditions of ancient India (most notably those of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha) arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) signified a spiritual practitioner who had—to use an expression common in the tipitaka—laid down the burden...


Jains use rice to make a swastika (also known as "Sathiyo" in the state of Gujarat, India) in front of idols in a temple. Jains then put an offering on this swastika, usually a ripe or dried fruit, a sweet (mithai), or a coin or currency note. In 2001, India issued a 100-rupee coin to commemorate the 2600th anniversary of the birth of Mahavir, the 24th and last Jainist Tirthankara; the design includes a swastika.[18] “INR” redirects here. ... This article or section should be merged with Mahavir Swami Mahavir or Mahavira (the Great Hero -- Also, Vardhamana (increasing) or Niggantha Nathaputta -- 599 BC - 527 BC) was the 24th, and last, Jainist Tirthankara. ... In Jainism, a Tirthankara (Fordmaker) is a human who achieved enlightenment, became a Jiva, and whose religious teachings have formed the canon of Jainism; although not Gods, statues of Tirthankaras are found in temples. ...


Abrahamic religions

The swastika was not widely utilized by followers of the Abrahamic religions. Where it does exist, it is not always portrayed as an explicitly religious symbol, and is often purely decorative or, at most, a symbol of good luck. One example of scattered use is the floor of the synagogue at Ein Gedi, built during the Roman occupation of Judea, which was decorated with a swastika.[19] Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Shulamit Fall at Nahal David Nahal Arugot An ibex at the Ein Gedi nature reserve Ein Gedi (עין גדי) is an oasis located on the east of the Dead Sea, close to Masada and the caves of Qumran. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ...

A mandala-like meditative image from the Kabbalistic work "Parashat Eliezer"
A mandala-like meditative image from the Kabbalistic work "Parashat Eliezer"

An unusual swastika, composed of the Hebrew letters Aleph and Resh, appears in the 18th century Kabbalistic work "Parashat Eliezer" by Rabbi Eliezer Fischl of Strizhov, a commentary on the obscure ancient eschatological book "Karnayim", ascribed to Rabbi Aharon of Kardina. The symbol is enclosed by a circle and surrounded by a cyclic hymn in Aramaic. The hymn, which refers explicitly to the power of the Sun, as well as the shape of the symbol, shows strong solar symbolism. According to the book, this mandala-like symbol is meant to help a mystical adept to contemplate on the cyclic nature and structure of the Universe. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew Aleph , and Arabic . Aleph originally represented the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ...


In Christianity, the swastika is sometimes used as a hooked version of the Christian Cross, the symbol of Christ's victory over death. Some Christian churches built in the Romanesque and Gothic eras are decorated with swastikas, carrying over earlier Roman designs. Swastikas are prominently displayed in a mosaic in the St. Sophia church of Kiev, Ukraine dating from the 12th century. They also appear as a repeating ornamental motif on a tomb in the Basilica of St. Ambrose in Milan. A proposed direct link between it and a swastika floor mosaic in the Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens, which was built on top of a pagan site at Amiens, France in the 1200s, is considered unlikely. The stole worn by a priest in the 1445 painting of the Seven Sacraments by Roger van der Weyden presents the swastika form simply as one way of depicting the cross. Swastikas also appear on the vestments on the effigy of Bishop William Edington (d.1366) in Winchester Cathedral. A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame dAmiens), or just Amiens Cathedral, is the tallest complete cathedral in France. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... The stole (a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations) is an embroidered band of cloth, formerly usually of silk, about two and one-half to three metres long and seven to ten centimetres wide, whose ends are usually broadened out. ... Deposition by Rogier van der Weyden (c. ... William Edington, Winchester Cathedral effigy. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with...


The Benedictine choir school at Lambach Abbey, Upper Austria, which Hitler attended for several months as a boy, had a swastika chiseled into the monastery portal and also the wall above the spring grotto in the courtyard by 1868. Their origin was the personal coat of arms of Abbot Theoderich Hagn of the monastery in Lambach, which bore a golden swastika with slanted points on a blue field.[20] The Lambach swastika is probably of Medieval origin. The Lambach depiction, in the Hindu style, did not inspire Hitler to use the symbol, as the Nazi Party's use of it stems from the Thule Society and previous occult societies. Lambach Abbey (Stift Lambach) is a Benedictine monastery in Lambach in Austria. ... Hitler redirects here. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Thule Society emblem The Thule Society (German: Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum Study Group for Germanic Antiquity, was a German occultist and Völkisch group in Munich, named after a mythical northern country from Greek legend. ...


The Muslim "Friday" mosque of Isfahan, Iran and the Taynal Mosque in Tripoli, Lebanon both have swastika motifs. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ...


Other Asian traditions

A swastika crossed by two arrows, within a shield and surmounted by a royal crown on an orange background was used as the coat of arms of the samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga in the early 17th century.
A swastika crossed by two arrows, within a shield and surmounted by a royal crown on an orange background was used as the coat of arms of the samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga in the early 17th century.

Some sources indicate that the Chinese Empress Wu (武則天) (684–704) of the Tang Dynasty decreed that the swastika would be used as an alternative symbol of the sun. As part of the Chinese script, the swastika has Unicode encodings U+534D 卍 (pronunciation following the Chinese character "萬": pinyin:wàn); (left-facing) and U+5350 卐 (right-facing).[21] Image File history File linksMetadata HasekuraBlason. ... Image File history File linksMetadata HasekuraBlason. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Hasekura Itinerary and dates of the travels of Hasekura Tsunenaga Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga (1571 – 1622) (Japanese: , also spelled Faxecura Rocuyemon in period European sources, reflecting the contemporary pronunciation of Japanese[1]) was a Japanese samurai and retainer of Date Masamune, the... Wu Zetian (武則天) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only female emperor in the history of China, founding her own dynasty, the Zhou (周), and ruling under the name Emperor Shengshen (聖神皇帝) from 690 to 705. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, rarely Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


The Mandarin "Wan" is a homophone for "10,000" and is commonly used to represent the whole of creation, e.g. 'the myriad things' in the Dao De Jing. The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: Dào Dé Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese...


In Japan, the swastika is called manji. Since the Middle Ages, it has been used as a family coat of arms. On Japanese maps, a swastika (left-facing and horizontal) is used to mark the location of a Buddhist temple. The right-facing manji is often referred as the gyaku manji (逆卍, lit. "reverse manji"), and can also be called kagi jūji, literally "hook cross". Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Heraldry of Japan The chrysanthemum (kiku), seen in gold between the four bursts of this Breast Star of the Order of Chrysanthemum (a medal), is the mon of the Japanese Emperor. ... This is a list of symbols appearing on Japanese maps. ...


Native American traditions

Native American basketball team in 1909.
Native American basketball team in 1909.

The swastika shape was used by some Native Americans. It has been found in excavations of Mississippian-era sites in the Ohio valley. It was widely used by many southwestern tribes, most notably the Navajo. Among various tribes, the swastika carried different meanings. To the Hopi it represented the wandering Hopi clan; to the Navajo it was one symbol for a whirling winds (tsil no'oli'), a sacred image representing a legend that was used in healing rituals (after learning of the Nazi mimic "whirling winds" the Navajo rejected the symbol).[22] A brightly colored First Nations saddle featuring swastika designs is on display at the Royal Saskatchewan Museum in Canada.[23] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... Map of the Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation (Diné in Navajo language) encompasses all things important to the Navajo. ... Moki redirects here. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... The Royal Saskatchewan Museum was established in Regina as the Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History in 1906 to secure and preserve natural history specimens and objects of historical and ethnological interest. ...


A swastika shape is an ancient symbol in the culture of the Kuna people of Kuna Yala, Panama. In Kuna tradition, it symbolizes the octopus that created the world; its tentacles, pointing to the four cardinal points.[24] A Kuna woman stands next to a clothesline brandishing her Mola-adorned blouse - or dulemola - on the San Blas islands of Panama. ... The Flag of Kuna Yala was adopted in 1925. ...


In February, 1925, the Kuna revolted against Panamanian suppression of their culture, and were granted autonomy in 1930; the flag they adopted at that time is based on the swastika shape, and remains the official flag of Kuna Yala. A number of variations on the flag have been used over the years: red top and bottom bands instead of orange were previously used, and in 1942 a ring (representing the traditional Kuna nose-ring) was added to the center of the flag to distance it from the symbol of the Nazi party.[25]


Pre-Christian Europe

In Bronze Age Europe, the "Sun cross" (a cross in a circle) appears frequently, often interpreted as a solar symbol. Swastika shapes have been found on numerous artifacts from Iron Age Europe (Greco-Roman, Illyrian, Etruscan, Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, and Slavic). A simplified map archaeological cultures of the late Bronze Age (c. ... A Caddo solar cross, to Southeastern Native Americans a symbol of both the sun and fire. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Greco-Roman period of history refers to the culture of the peoples who were incorporated into the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples have lived around the eastern coast of Mare Suebicum, or Baltic Sea (Tacitus, AD 98) since ancient times. ... This article is about the European people. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ...


Baltic

The swastika is one of the most common symbols used throughout Baltic art. The symbol was known as the Pērkonkrusts, or the "Thunder cross" and was mainly associated with Pērkons, the god of Thunder. It was also occasionally related to the Sun, as well as Dievs (the god of creation), Laima (the goddess of destiny and fate).[citation needed] The swastika is featured on many distaffs, dowry chests, cloths and other items.[citation needed]


Celtic

Variation of tursaansydän
Variation of tursaansydän

The bronze frontspiece of a ritual pre-Christian (ca 350-50 BC) shield found in the River Thames near Battersea Bridge (hence "Battersea Shield") is embossed with 27 swastikas in bronze and red enamel.[26] An Ogham stone found in Anglish, Co Kerry (CIIC 141) was modified into an early Christian gravestone, and was decorated with a cross pattée and two swastikas.[27] At the Northern edge of Ilkley Moor in West Yorkshire, there is a swastika-shaped pattern engraved in a stone known as the Swastika Stone.[28] Image File history File links Mursunsydämet. ... Image File history File links Mursunsydämet. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... The Battersea Shield is a sheet bronze shield dating to circa 300 BC. It was dredged from the River Thames in the UK, and probably was deposited as a ritual gift to the spirits of the River, as were many other pieces of bronze, iron work and human skulls that... Note: This article contains special characters. ... County Kerry (Irish: Ciarraí) is a county in the southwest of Ireland, in the Munster province of the Republic of Ireland, informally referred to as The Kingdom. ... There are roughly 400 known Ogham inscriptions scattered around the Irish Sea, the bulk of them dating to the 5th and 6th centuries. ... Heraldic cross pattee A cross having arms with curving edges, narrow at the inner center, and very broad at the outer end. ... Ilkley Moor is a part of Rombalds Moor, the moorland between Ilkley and Keighley in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom. ... Coat of Arms of South Yorkshire West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, that has a population of 2. ... The Swastika Stone is a stone adorned with a Swastika located on the Woodhouse Crag, on the Northern edge of Ilkley Moor in West Yorkshire. ...


Finnic

In Finland the swastika was often used in traditional folk art products, as a decoration or magical symbol on textiles and wood. Certain types of symbols which incorporated swastika were used to decorate wood; such symbols are called tursaansydän and mursunsydän in Finnish. Tursaansydän was often used until 18th century, when it was mostly replaced by simple swastika. [29] Variation of tursaansydän Tursaansydän (Finnish, literally heart of Tursas) or mursunsydän (Finnish, literally heart of walrus) is an ancient symbol used in Northern Europe. ...


Germanic

Alemannic or Bavarian brooches (Zierscheiben) incorporating a swastika symbol at the center with a varying number of rays.[30]

The swastika shape (also called a fylfot) appears on various Germanic Migration Period and Viking Age artifacts, such as the 3rd century Værløse Fibula from Zealand, Denmark, the Gothic spearhead from Brest-Litovsk, Russia, the 9th century Snoldelev Stone from Ramsø, Denmark, and numerous Migration Period bracteates drawn left-facing or right-facing.[31] Image File history File links Zierscheiben. ... Image File history File links Zierscheiben. ... Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Alemannic or Bavarian brooches (Zierscheiben) incorporating a swastika symbol at the center with a varying number of rays. ... Notional arms – Argent a fylfot azure (a blue fylfot on a white shield) – exemplifying the design of the fylfot commonly shown in modern heraldry texts. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... Erilaz is a Migration period Proto-Norse word attested on various Elder Futhark inscriptions, which has often been interpreted to mean magician or rune master, viz. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... For a city in France, see Brest, France. ... The Viking Age (Younger Futhark) runestone at Snoldelev, Ramsø, Denmark, dated to ca. ... Ramsø is a municipality in east Denmark, in the county of Roskilde on the peninsula of Zealand. ... A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold coin produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age, but the name is also used for later produced coins of silver produced in Central Europe during...


The pagan Anglo-Saxon ship burial at Sutton Hoo, England, contained numerous items bearing the swastika, now housed in the collection of the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.[32] The Swastika is clearly marked on a hilt and sword belt found at Bifrons in Kent, in a grave of about the sixth century. Anglo-Saxon polytheism refers to the Migration Period Germanic pagans practiced by the Anglo-Saxons in 5th to 7th century England. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... Ship burial of Igor the Old in 945, depicted by Heinrich Semiradski (1845-1902). ... Sutton Hoo ceremonial helmet (British Museum, restored). ... The Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Cambridge houses the Universitys collections of local antiquities, together with archaeological and ethnographic artefacts from around the world. ... lolbifrons ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ...


Hilda Ellis Davidson theorized that the swastika symbol was associated with Thor, possibly representing his hammer Mjolnir - symbolic of thunder - and possibly being connected to the Bronze Age sun wheel.[32] Davidson cites "many examples" of the swastika symbol from Anglo-Saxon graves of the pagan period, with particular prominence on cremation urns from the cemeteries of East Anglia.[32] Some of the swastikas on the items, on display at the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, are depicted with such care and art that, according to Davidson, it must have possessed special significance as a funerary symbol.[32] Dr. Hilda Roderick Ellis Davidson (born Hilda Roderick Ellis, 1 October 1914 - January 2006)[1] was a British antiquarian and academic, writing in particular on Germanic paganism and Celtic paganism. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mjolnir (disambiguation). ... The Sun Wheel at night as seen from across Paradise Bay. ... Tomb of Philippe Pot, governor of Burgundy under Louis XI Detail from a French Renaissance monument of 1547 Funerary art is any work of art forming or placed in a repository for the remains of the dead. ...


Sami

An object very much like a hammer or a double axe is depicted among the magical symbols on the drums of Sami shamans, used in their religious ceremonies before Christianity was established. The name of the Lappish thunder god was Horagalles, thought to be derived from old man thor (Þórr karl'). Sometimes on the drums, a male figure with a hammer-like object in either hand is shown, and sometimes it is more like a cross with crooked ends, or a swastika.[32] The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... The Sami god of the sky and of thunder, normally depicted wielding a pair of war-hammers. ...


Slavic

The swastika shape was also present in pre-Christian Slavic mythology. It was dedicated to the sun god Svarog (Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian Сварог) and called kolovrat, (Polish kołowrót, Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian коловрат or коловорот) or swarzyca.[citation needed] In the Polish first Republic the symbol of the swastika was also popular with the nobility.[citation needed] According to chronicles, the Rus' prince Oleg, who in the 9th century attacked Constantinople, nailed his shield (which had a large red swastika painted on it) to the city's gates. Several Polish noble houses, e.g. Boreyko, Borzym, and Radziechowski from Ruthenia, also had Swastikas as their coat of arms. The family reached its greatness in the 14th and 15th centuries and its crest can be seen in many heraldry books produced at that time. Boreyko Clan This work is copyrighted. ... Boreyko Clan This work is copyrighted. ... Boreyko - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... In Slavic mythology, Svarog (Polish: Swaróg, Cyrillic: Сварог, Sorbian: Schwayxtix) is the Slavic Sun God and spirit of fire; his name means bright and clear. ... In Slavic mythology, Svarog (Polish: Swaróg, Cyrillic: Сварог, Sorbian: Schwayxtix) is the Slavic Sun God and spirit of fire; his name means bright and clear. ... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... Fyodor Bruni. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Kievan Rus Commanders Leo the Wise Oleg of Kiev The Rus-Byzantine War of 907 is associated in the Primary Chronicle with the name of Oleg of Novgorod. ...


For the Slavs the swastika is a magic sign manifesting the power and majesty of the sun and fire. It was often used as an ornament decorating ritualistic utensils of a cult cinerary urns with ashes of the dead.[citation needed] It was the symbol of power (the swastika seen on the coins of Mieszko I).[citation needed] The power both lay and divine, because it was often placed on altars in pagan temples.[citation needed] After Christianization and the destruction of pagan holy places, pieces of sculptures of pagan gods with swastikas were built into walls of churches.[citation needed] Examples can find found on the Kruszwica cathedral and in churches in Inowroclaw, Strzelno and Lowicz.


At the start of the Renaissance, swastika ornaments disappeared from utensils but swastika continued being used by Slavs. It became a popular ornament on Easter eggs and in wayside shrines in folk culture.[citation needed] This ornament still existed in 1940-50. The Swastika was also a heraldic symbol, for example on the Boreyko coat of arms, used by noblemen in Poland and Ukraine. In the 19th century the swastika was one of the Russian empire's symbols; it was even placed in coins as a background to the Russian eagle. The swastika was used by the nationalistic and neopagan "Zadruga".[citation needed]


In the Czech Republic the swastika was a cognizance of the Czech National-Socialist Workers' and Peasants' Party of M.Mlococh (so called Green swastikas).[citation needed] The was also a symbol of the Tatra Highlands' Riflemen (to the year 1940), and of 1st Mot. Art. Regiment of the Polish Armed Force (to the year 1947).[citation needed]


As the symbol of Nazism

Further information: Nazism
Since World War II, the swastika is often associated with the flag of Nazi Germany and the Nazi Party in the Western world. Prior to this association, swastikas were used throughout the western world.
Since World War II, the swastika is often associated with the flag of Nazi Germany and the Nazi Party in the Western world. Prior to this association, swastikas were used throughout the western world.

In the wake of widespread popular usage, the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) formally adopted the swastika (in German: Hakenkreuz (hook-cross)) in 1920. This was used on the party's flag (right), badge, and armband. It had also been used unofficially by its predecessor, the German Workers Party, Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP). Not to be confused with Nasi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Occident redirects here. ... Postcard sent in June 1910 The swastika (gammadion, fylfot) symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century. ... The Nazi Party, officially: National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , abbreviated NSDAP), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ...


In his 1925 work Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler wrote that: Mein Kampf (English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by the Austrian-born leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler. ... Hitler redirects here. ...

I myself, meanwhile, after innumerable attempts, had laid down a final form; a flag with a red background, a white disk, and a black swastika in the middle. After long trials I also found a definite proportion between the size of the flag and the size of the white disk, as well as the shape and thickness of the swastika.

When Hitler created a flag for the Nazi Party, he sought to incorporate both the swastika and "those revered colors expressive of our homage to the glorious past and which once brought so much honor to the German nation." (Red, white, and black were the colors of the flag of the old German Empire.) He also stated: "As National Socialists, we see our program in our flag. In red, we see the social idea of the movement; in white, the nationalistic idea; in the swastika, the mission of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man, and, by the same token, the victory of the idea of creative work, which as such always has been and always will be anti-Semitic." (Mein Kampf).[33] The flag of Germany is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red and gold. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ...


The swastika was also understood as "the symbol of the creating, acting life" (das Symbol des schaffenden, wirkenden Lebens) and as "race emblem of Germanism" (Rasseabzeichen des Germanentums) [34].


The use of the swastika was associated by Nazi theorists with their conjecture of Aryan cultural descent of the German people. Following the Nordicist version of the Aryan invasion theory, the Nazis claimed that the early Aryans of India, from whose Vedic tradition the swastika sprang, were the prototypical white invaders. It was also widely believed that the Indian caste system had originated as a means to avoid racial mixing.[citation needed] The concept of Racial purity was an ideology central to Nazism, even though it is now considered unscientific. For Rosenberg, the Aryans of India were both a model to be imitated and a warning of the dangers of the spiritual and racial "confusion" that, he believed, arose from the close proximity of races. Thus, they saw fit to co-opt the sign as a symbol of the Aryan master race. The use of the swastika as a symbol of the Aryan race dates back to writings of Emile Burnouf. Following many other writers, the German nationalist poet Guido von List believed it to be a uniquely Aryan symbol. A Nazi illustration of the perceived Nordic master race. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous, hereditary groups often termed as jātis or castes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with miscegenation. ... -1... Herrenvolk redirects here. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Emile Burnouf (dates??) was a leading nineteenth-century Orientalist and racialist whose ideas influenced the development of theosophy and Aryanism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

A Thule Society emblem featuring a Swastika.

Before the Nazis, the swastika was already in use as a symbol of German völkisch nationalists movements (Völkische Bewegung). In Deutschland Erwache (ISBN 0-912138-69-6), Ulric of England (sic) says: Thule-gesellschaft_emblem, I got it from [1], which states that it is public domain. ... Thule-gesellschaft_emblem, I got it from [1], which states that it is public domain. ... Thule Society emblem The Thule Society (German: Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum Study Group for Germanic Antiquity, was a German occultist and Völkisch group in Munich, named after a mythical northern country from Greek legend. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ...

[…] what inspired Hitler to use the swastika as a symbol for the NSDAP was its use by the Thule Society (German: Thule-Gesellschaft) since there were many connections between them and the DAP … from 1919 until the summer of 1921 Hitler used the special Nationalsozialistische library of Dr. Friedrich Krohn, a very active member of the Thule-Gesellschaft … Dr. Krohn was also the dentist from Sternberg who was named by Hitler in Mein Kampf as the designer of a flag very similar to one that Hitler designed in 1920 … during the summer of 1920, the first party flag was shown at Lake Tegernsee … these home-made … early flags were not preserved, the Ortsgruppe München (Munich Local Group) flag was generally regarded as the first flag of the Party. Thule Society emblem The Thule Society (German: Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum Study Group for Germanic Antiquity, was a German occultist and Völkisch group in Munich, named after a mythical northern country from Greek legend. ...

José Manuel Erbez says:

The first time the swastika was used with an "Aryan" meaning was on December 25, 1907, when the self-named Order of the New Templars, a secret society founded by [Adolf Joseph] Lanz von Liebenfels, hoisted at Werfenstein Castle (Austria) a yellow flag with a swastika and four fleurs-de-lys.[35] is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Order of the New Templars was formed on December 25, 1907. ... Fleur de Lys is a Canadian superheroine created in 1984 by Mark Shainblum and Gabriel Morrissette. ...

However, Liebenfels was drawing on an already established use of the symbol. On 14 March 1933, shortly after Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany, the NSDAP flag was hoisted alongside Germany's national colors. It was adopted as the sole national flag on 15 September 1935 (see Nazi Germany). is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The swastika was used for badges and flags throughout Nazi Germany, particularly for government and military organizations, but also for "popular" organizations such as the Reichsbund Deutsche Jägerschaft.[36] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


While the DAP and the NSDAP had used both right-facing and left-facing swastikas, the right-facing swastika was used consistently from 1920 onwards. However, Ralf Stelter notes that the swastika flag used on land had a right-facing swastika on both sides, while the ensign (naval flag) had it printed through so that you would see a left-facing swastika when looking at the ensign with the flagpole to the right.[37]


Several variants are found:

  • a 45° black swastika on a white disc as in the NSDAP and national flags;
  • a 45° black swastika on a white lozenge (e.g., Hitler Youth[38]);
  • a 45° black swastika with a white outline was painted on the tail of aircraft of the Luftwaffe;
  • a 45° black swastika outlined by thin white and black lines on a white disc (e.g., the German War Ensign[39]);
  • an upright black swastika outlined by thin white and black lines on a white disc (e.g., Adolf Hitler's personal standard in which a gold wreath encircles the swastika; the Schutzstaffel; and the Reichsdienstflagge, in which a black circle encircles the swastika);
  • small gold, silver, black, or white 45° swastikas, often lying on or being held by an eagle, on many badges and flags.[40]
  • a swastika with curved outer arms forming a broken circle, as worn by the SS Nordland Division.[41]

There were attempts to amalgamate Nazi and Hindu use of the swastika, notably by the French writer Savitri Devi who declared Hitler an avatar of Vishnu (see Nazi mysticism). Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ...   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... Personal Standard for Adolf Hitler (in use from 1934 to 1945) Adolf Hitlers personal standard was designed after Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg died on 2 Aug 1934. ... Kampfverband Waräger Germanische-Freiwilligen-Division SS-Panzergrenadier-Division 11 (Germanische) 11. ... Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... This article is about the concept in Hindu philosophy. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Nazi mysticism is a quasi-religious undercurrent of Nazism; it denotes the mixture of Nazism with occultism, esotericism, cryptohistory, and/or the paranormal — especially in the traditions of Germanic mysticism. ...


Use in Western countries

The Soviet War Memorial in Treptower Park in Berlin. The statue depicts a Soviet soldier cradling a German child, while standing on a broken Swastika.
The Soviet War Memorial in Treptower Park in Berlin. The statue depicts a Soviet soldier cradling a German child, while standing on a broken Swastika.

Because of its use by Hitler and the Nazis and, in modern times, by neo-Nazis and other hate groups, the swastika is largely associated with Nazism and white supremacy (see Western use of the Swastika in the early 20th century). As a result, its use as a Nazi or hate symbol is legally prohibited in some jurisdictions. Because of the stigma attached to the symbol, many buildings that have contained the symbol as decoration have had the symbol removed. Westerners whose family originates from India, including religions such as Jain, Hindu and other Indian religions, still use the swastika as a religious symbol, with no connection to Nazism. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1232x1632, 647 KB) Summary Self Made Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1232x1632, 647 KB) Summary Self Made Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The statue of the Soviet soldier holding a child Soviet 1-ruble commemorative coin, issued in 1965 The inner area flanked by stone monuments, with four symbolic bronze garlands The Soviet War Memorial (sometimes translated as the Soviet Cenotaph), is a vast war memorial and military cemetery in Berlins... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility, or violence towards members of a race, ethnicity, religion, gender or other designated sector of society, or that supports and publishes assertions and argumentation characteristic of hate groups without necessarily explicitly advocating such hate or violence that... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... Postcard sent in June 1910 The swastika (gammadion, fylfot) symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century. ...


Brazil

The use of the swastika in conjunction with any other Nazi allusion, and also its manufacture, distribution or broadcasting, is a crime as dictated by law 7.716/89 from 1989. The penalty is a fine and two to five years in prison.


Belgium

A controversy arose in Maasmechelen, Belgium, when Google Earth users found that a 27 year old fountain at the city council office looks like a swastika from the air[42]. As a result the mayor said he would replace it. Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Tongeren Coordinates , , Area 76. ... Google Earth is a virtual globe program that was originally called Earth Viewer and was created by Keyhole, Inc. ...


European Union

The European Union's executive Commission proposed a European Union wide anti-racism law in 2001, but European Union states failed to agree on the balance between prohibiting racism and freedom of expression.[43] An attempt to ban the swastika across the EU in early 2005 failed after objections from the British Government and others. In early 2007, while Germany held the European Union presidency, Berlin proposed that the European Union should follow German municipal law and criminalize Holocaust denial and the display of Nazi symbols including the swastika. This led to an opposition campaign by Hindu groups across Europe against a ban on the swastika. They pointed out that the swastika has been around for 5,000 years as a symbol of peace.[44][45] The proposal to ban the swastika was dropped by Berlin from the proposed European Union wide anti-racism laws on January 29 2007.[43] Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Municipal law is an international law term used to denote the national, domestic, or internal law of a state. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Germany

Plane of Ernst Udet used for acrobatic shows held during the 1936 Summer Olympics on display in the Polish Aviation Museum.
Plane of Ernst Udet used for acrobatic shows held during the 1936 Summer Olympics on display in the Polish Aviation Museum.

The German (and Austrian) postwar criminal code makes the public showing of the Hakenkreuz (the swastika) and other Nazi symbols illegal and punishable, except for scholarly reasons. It is even censored from the lithographs on boxes of model kits, and the decals that come in the box. It is also censored from the reprints of 1930s railway timetable published by Bundesbahn. The eagle remains, but appears to be holding a solid black circle between its talons. The swastikas on Hindu and Jain temples are exempt, as religious symbols cannot be banned in Germany. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2080x1544, 649 KB) [edit] Opis [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swastika Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2080x1544, 649 KB) [edit] Opis [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swastika Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Ernst Udet (April 26, 1896 – November 17, 1941) was the second-highest scoring German flying ace of World War I. He was one of the youngest aces and was the highest scoring German ace to survive the war (at the age of 22). ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... Albatros B.II Grigorovich M-15 Curtiss Export Hawk II De Havilland 82A Tiger Moth II Jak-17UTI Lim-6bis in Museum (behind it - the MiG alley) LWD Szpak-4T PWS-26 PZL M-4 Tarpan RWD-13 SAAB J 35J Draken SAAB AJSF 37 Viggen WSK-Mielec M-15... The Strafgesetzbuch is the German, Swiss, Liechtenstein and Austrian criminal law. ...


A German fashion company was investigated for using traditional British-made folded leather buttons after complaints that they resembled swastikas. In response, Esprit destroyed two hundred thousand catalogues.[46][47] Esprit Holdings Limited SEHK: 330 LSE: EPT is a publicly owned manufacturer of apparel, footwear, accessories, jewellery, and housewares, under the ESPRIT label. ...


A controversy was stirred by the decision of several police departments to begin inquiries against anti-fascists.[48] In late 2005 police raided the offices of the punk rock label and mail order store "Nix Gut Records" and confiscated merchandise depicting crossed-out swastikas and fists smashing swastikas. In 2006 the Stade police department started an inquiry against anti-fascist youths using a placard depicting a person dumping a swastika into a trashcan. The placard was displayed in opposition to the campaign of right-wing nationalist parties for local elections.[49] Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... View of the old hanse-harbor of Stade in 1987. ...


On Friday, March 17, 2006, a member of the Bundestag Claudia Roth reported herself to the German police for displaying a crossed-out swastika in multiple demonstrations against Neo-Nazis, and subsequently got the Bundestag to suspend her immunity from prosecution. She intended to show the absurdity of charging anti-fascists with using fascist symbols: "We don't need prosecution of non-violent young people engaging against right-wing extremism." is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ... Claudia Roth Claudia Benedikta Roth (born May 15, 1955 in Ulm) is a German Green Party politician. ...


On March 15, 2007, the Federal Court of Justice of Germany (Bundesgerichtshof) reversed the above-mentioned verdicts, since the crossed-out symbols were "clearly directed against a revival of national-socialist endeavors", hereby settling the dispute for the future.[50] [51] [52] The Bundesgerichtshof or BGH (German for federal court) is the highest appeals court in Germany for cases of civil and criminal law. ...


The relevant excerpt[53] of the German criminal code reads:

§ 86 StGB Dissemination of Means of Propaganda of Unconstitutional Organizations (1) Whoever domestically disseminates or produces, stocks, imports or exports or makes publicly accessible through data storage media for dissemination domestically or abroad, means of propaganda: 1. of a party which has been declared to be unconstitutional by the Federal Constitutional Court or a party or organization, as to which it has been determined, no longer subject to appeal, that it is a substitute organization of such a party; […] 4. means of propaganda, the contents of which are intended to further the aims of a former National Socialist organization, shall be punished with imprisonment for not more than three years or a fine. […] (3) Subsection (1) shall not be applicable if the means of propaganda or the act serves to further civil enlightenment, to avert unconstitutional aims, to promote art or science, research or teaching, reporting about current historical events or similar purposes. […] § 86a StGB Use of Symbols of Unconstitutional Organizations (1) Whoever: 1. domestically distributes or publicly uses, in a meeting or in writings (§ 11 subsection (3)) disseminated by him, symbols of one of the parties or organizations indicated in § 86 subsection (1), nos. 1, 2 and 4; or 2. produces, stocks, imports or exports objects which depict or contain such symbols for distribution or use domestically or abroad, in the manner indicated in number 1, shall be punished with imprisonment for not more than three years or a fine. (2) Symbols, within the meaning of subsection (1), shall be, in particular, flags, insignia, uniforms, slogans and forms of greeting. Symbols which are so similar as to be mistaken for those named in sentence 1 shall be deemed to be equivalent thereto. […] As in most countries, Germany has a standard way of citing its legal codes and case law; an essentially identical system of citation is also used in Austria. ... The Strafgesetzbuch is the German, Swiss, Liechtenstein and Austrian criminal law. ... As in most countries, Germany has a standard way of citing its legal codes and case law; an essentially identical system of citation is also used in Austria. ... The Strafgesetzbuch is the German, Swiss, Liechtenstein and Austrian criminal law. ...

United States

The swastika symbol was popular[54] as a good luck or religious/spiritual symbol in the United States, prior to its association with Nazi Germany. The symbol remains visible on numerous historic buildings, including sites that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It also appeared on tiles, lampposts, metal valves, tools, surfboards, stock certificates, brand names, place names, medals, commercial tokens, postcards, souvenirs, rugs and clothing; see Western use of the Swastika in the early 20th century. A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... Postcard sent in June 1910 The swastika (gammadion, fylfot) symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century. ...


The shoulder patch of the 45th Infantry Division, a National Guard unit from the Southwestern US, was originally a yellow swastika on a red diamond, in the context of a religious/mystical symbol of the Native American tribes of that region. As war with Nazi Germany became imminent in the late 1930s, the swastika was replaced by a yellow thunderbird emblem; this may have been done as a simple tactical move to avoid confusion and friendly fire incidents as much as due to the political stigma of the symbol and its association with Nazism. The 45th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II. // Activated: In 1924 as a National Guard Division in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. ... The United States National Guard is a significant component of the United States armed forces military reserve. ...

Members of the LaRouche movement in Stockholm protest the Treaty of Lisbon with pictures rearranging the stars of the Flag of Europe into a swastika.
Members of the LaRouche movement in Stockholm protest the Treaty of Lisbon with pictures rearranging the stars of the Flag of Europe into a swastika.

On November 8, 2004 Microsoft released a "critical update" to remove "unacceptable symbols" from the Bookshelf Symbol 7 font. An analysis of the unpatched and patched fonts shows the symbol deemed unacceptable to be a swastika, and possibly a six-point star. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,296 × 2,472 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,296 × 2,472 pixels, file size: 1. ... The LaRouche movement is an international political and cultural movement which promotes Lyndon LaRouche and his ideas, including a commitment to what has been often termed a just new world economic order: the urgency of affording what have been sometimes termed Third World nations, their full rights to perfect national... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Bookshelf Symbol 7 is a typeface which comes packaged with Microsoft Office 2003. ...


In September of 2007 the United States Navy announced it would spend $600,000 to "camouflage" a barrack at the Naval Amphibious Base Coronado near San Diego, so that it would no longer resemble a swastika from the air. USN redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin...


Satirical use

The powerful symbolism acquired by the swastika has often been used in graphic design and propaganda as a means of drawing Nazi comparisons; examples include the cover of Stuart Eizenstat's 2003 book Imperfect Justice,[55] publicity materials for Costa-Gavras's 2002 film Amen,[56] and a billboard that was erected opposite the U.S. Interests Section in Havana, Cuba, in 2004, which juxtaposed images of the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse pictures with a swastika. Reductio ad Hitlerum, also argumentum ad Hitlerum, or reductio (or argumentum) ad Nazium – dog Latin for reduction (or argument) to Hitler (or the Nazis) – is a modern fallacy in logic. ... Stuart E. Eizenstat was sworn into office as Deputy Secretary of the Treasury on July 19, 1999. ... Constantinos Gavras (born February 12, 1933, Loutra-Iraias, Greece), better known as Costa-Gavras, is a Greek-French filmmaker best known for films with overt political themes. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse Beginning in 2004, accounts of abuse, torture, rape[1] and homicide[2][3] of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also known as Baghdad Correctional Facility) came to public attention. ...


Controversy over Asian products

In recent years, controversy has erupted when consumer goods bearing the symbol have been exported (often unintentionally) to North America. In 2002, Christmas crackers containing plastic toy pandas sporting swastikas were pulled from shelves after complaints from consumers in Canada. The manufacturer, based in China, explained the symbol was presented in a traditional sense and not as a reference to the Nazis, and apologized to the customers for the cross-cultural mixup.[57] Two Christmas crackers Christmas crackers, also known as bon-bons in Australia, are an integral part of Christmas celebrations in the United Kingdom and in those other Commonwealth countries which had significant British immigration. ... Panda Bear redirects here. ...


Contemporary usage

The Unit Colour of the Finnish Air Force Academy features the swastika as a central element.
The Unit Colour of the Finnish Air Force Academy features the swastika as a central element.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Finland

The swastika was adopted by the Finnish Air Force after 6 March 1918, when Eric von Rosen donated an aeroplane adorned with swastikas which was his personal good luck symbol from Sweden to the Finnish white army. The swastika was officially adopted as the nationality marking on the Finnish Air Force planes on 18 March 1918. The Finnish Air Force (FAF) (Finnish: Ilmavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Count Carl Gustaf Bloomfield Eric von Rosen (born June 2, 1879 in Stockholm, dead April 25, 1948 Skeppsholmen, Stockholm) was a Swedish Honorary doctor, patron, explorer and ethnograph. ... The White Guards is one translation of the Finnish term Suojeluskunta (plural: Suojeluskunnat, Finland-Swedish: Skyddskår) that unfortunately has received many different translations to English, for instance: Security Guard, Civil Guard, National Guard, White Militia, Defence Corps, Protection Guard, Protection Corps and Protection Militia. ... The Finnish Air Force (FAF) (Finnish: Ilmavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The roundel was used until late 1944 when a substitution for a blue on white roundel was made. Existing decorations and unit flags of the Finnish Air Force were not altered, and they still feature the traditional blue swastika within a white circle.


The president of Finland is the grand master of the Order of the White Rose. According to the protocol, the president shall wear the Cross of Liberty with Chains on formal occasions. The original design of the chains, decorated with swastikas, dates from 1918 by the artist Akseli Gallen-Kallela. The Grand Cross with Chains has been awarded 11 times to foreign heads of state. To avoid misunderstandings, the swastika decorations were replaced by fir-crosses at the request of President Kekkonen in 1963. There are three official orders in Finland: the Order of the Cross of Liberty, the Order of the White Rose of Finland (Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunta) and the Order of the Lion of Finland. ... Urho Kekkonen Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (September 3, 1900 - August 31, 1986) was a Finnish politician who served as Prime Minister of Finland from 1950 to 1956, and as the most long-standing president of Finland from 1956 to 1981. ...

Colour of Finnish Utti Jaeger Regiment has a swastika on it, symbolizing its airborne transport by helicopters
Colour of Finnish Utti Jaeger Regiment has a swastika on it, symbolizing its airborne transport by helicopters

Also a design by Gallen-Kallela of 1918, the Cross of Liberty has a swastika pattern in the arms of the cross. The Cross of Liberty is depicted in the upper left corner of the flag of the President of Finland.[58] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1466, 201 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swastika Utti Jaeger Regiment ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1466, 201 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swastika Utti Jaeger Regiment ... The Cross of Liberty is often used in the memorials of the fallen. ... The President of Finland is the Head of State of Finland. ...


In December 2007, a silver replica of the WWII Finnish air defences relief ring became available through Rautasormus.fi.[59] The original war-time idea was that the public swap their precious metal rings for the State air defences relief ring, made of iron.


Traditional symbol that incorporates a swastika, tursaansydän, is used by scouts in some instances [60] and a certain student organization[61]. Village of Tursa uses tursaansydän as a kind of a certificate of genuineness of products made there. [62] Traditional textiles are still being made with swastikas as a part of traditional ornaments. This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ...


India, Nepal and Sri Lanka

The logo of the Indian State of Bihar incorporates a swastika.
The logo of the Indian State of Bihar incorporates a swastika.

In South Asia, the swastika remains ubiquitous as a symbol of wealth and good fortune. In India and Nepal, electoral ballot papers are stamped with a round swastika-like pattern (to ensure that the accidental ink imprint on the other side of a folded ballot paper can be correctly identified as such), so that this variant of the symbol is connected with political elections. Many businesses and other organisations, such as the Ahmedabad Stock Exchange and the Nepal Chamber of Commerce[63], use the swastika in their logos. The red swastika was suggested as an emblem of International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in India and Sri Lanka, but the idea was not implemented [13]. Swastikas can be found practically everywhere in Indian cities, on buses, buildings, auto-rickshaws, and clothing. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Logo of the Ahmedabad Stock Exchange Ahmedabad Stock Exchange or ASE is the second oldest exchange of India located in the city of Ahmedabad in the western part of the country. ... Red Cross redirects here. ...


Tajikistan

In 2005, authorities in Tajikistan called for the widespread adoption of the swastika as a national symbol. President Emomali Rahmonov declared the swastika an "Aryan" symbol and 2006 to be "the year of Aryan culture," which would be a time to “study and popularize Aryan contributions to the history of the world civilization, raise a new generation (of Tajiks) with the spirit of national self-determination, and develop deeper ties with other ethnicities and cultures.”[64] Emomali Sharifovich Rahmonov (Tajik: Эмомалӣ Шарифович Раҳмонов or امامعلی شريفويچ رحمانف, Russian: Рахмонов Эмомали Шарипович; name also appears as Imamali Rakhmonov in literature. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Canada

The town of Swastika, Ontario, founded in 1908, got its name from a former mine of the same name, and inhabitants refused to have it changed during and after the Second World War. Lucky Cross Mill in Swastika, Ontario (1918) Swastika is a small community founded in 1908 around a mining site in northern Ontario, Canada, and today within the municipal boundaries of Kirkland Lake, Ontario. ...

The seal of the Theosophical Society.
The seal of the Theosophical Society.

Image File history File links Theosophicalseal. ... Image File history File links Theosophicalseal. ... The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ...

New religious movements

Theosophical Society

The Theosophical Society uses a swastika as part of its seal, along with an Aum, a hexagram, a Star of David, an Ankh and an Ouroboros. Unlike the much more recent Raëlian movement (see below), the Theosophical Society symbol has been free from controversy, and the seal is still used. The current seal also has English [65]. The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... “Om” redirects here. ... This article is about a Jewish symbol. ... For other uses, see Ankh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ouroboros (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Raëlian Movement

Versions of the Raëlian symbol.
Versions of the Raëlian symbol.

The Raëlian Movement, who believe that Extra-Terrestrials originally created all life on earth, use a symbol that is often the source of considerable controversy: an interlaced Star of David and a Swastika. The Raelians state that the Star of David represents infinity in space whereas the swastika represents infinity in time i.e. there being no beginning and no end in time, and everything being cyclic [66]. In 1991, the symbol was changed to remove the Swastika, out of respect to the victims of the holocaust, but as of 2007 has been restored to its original form [67]. Image File history File links Raelian_symbols. ... Image File history File links Raelian_symbols. ... Raels first published book, the basis of the Raelian movement Raëlism is the belief system promoted by the Raëlian Movement, a religious organization which believes that scientifically advanced extraterrestrials known as the Elohim (one of the words used to refer to God in the Torah) created life... Raels first published book, the basis of the Raelian movement Raëlism is the belief system promoted by the Raëlian Movement, a religious organization which believes that scientifically advanced extraterrestrials known as the Elohim (one of the words used to refer to God in the Torah) created life... This article is about a Jewish symbol. ...


Ananda Marga

The emblem of Ananda Marga.
The emblem of Ananda Marga.

The Tantra-based religious movement Ananda Marga uses a motif similar to the Raëlians, but in their case the apparent star of David is defined as intersecting triangles with no specific reference to Jewish culture. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ... Ananda Marga, officially known as Ananda Marga Pracharaka Samgha (AMPS) meaning the organization for the propagation of the path of bliss is a new religious movement movement (Sarkar described his movement as a spiritual philosophy, and did not use the term religion), founded in Jamalpur, Bihar, India in 1955 by...


According to Ananda Marge:

External or physical service acted out through the motor organs is symbolised by the triangle pointing upwards. Internal or spiritual service done through channelizing of mental energy to the mantra is symbolized by the triangle pointing downwards...Attaining that state of oneness with the Generator, Operator and Destroyer of this universe is symbolised by the swastika which means victory.[68]

Falungong

The Falungong qigong movement uses a symbol that features a large swastika surrounded by four smaller (and rounded) ones, interspersed with yin-and-yang symbols. The usage is taken from traditional Chinese symbolism, and here alludes to chakra-like portion of the esoteric human anatomy, located in the stomach (see Dantien). Falun emblem Falun Gong (Traditional Chinese: 法輪功; Simplified Chinese: 法轮功; pinyin: Fǎlún Gōng; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) or Falun Dafa (Traditional Chinese: 法輪大法; Simplified Chinese: 法轮大法; pinyin: Fǎlún dàfǎ; lit. ... For the artist, see Qigong (artist). ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena... For the Naruto jutsu, see Chakra (Naruto). ...


Neopaganism

The Odinic Rite claims the "fylfot" as a "holy symbol of Odinism", citing the pre-Christian Germanic use of the symbol. The Odinic Rite (OR) is a Germanic pagan reconstructivist society whose aims are to promote all aspects of Germanic paganism, termed Odinism after the chief god of Norse mythology, Odin. ... Notional arms – Argent a fylfot azure (a blue fylfot on a white shield) – exemplifying the design of the fylfot commonly shown in modern heraldry texts. ... Reconstructions of the traditions of Germanic paganism began with 19th century Romanticism. ...


Image Gallery

See also

The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ... Brigids cross, Brighids cross, or Brigits cross, or Crosóg Brigde(in gaelic) is an old Irish symbol, probably derivative of the pagan sunwheel. ... For the band, see Celtic Cross (band). ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... Aerial photograph of the swastika from November 14, 2000. ... General Karl Haushofer General Karl Ernst Haushofer (August 27, 1869, Munich - March 13, 1946, Pähl) was a German geopolitician. ... An example of a lauburu: each arm can be drawn with three sweeps of a compass The lauburu or Basque cross has four comma-shaped heads similar to the Japanese tomoe. ... The Red Swastika Society (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a voluntary association founded in China in 1922 by Qian Neng-kun (錢能訓), Du Bing-yin (杜秉寅) and Li Jia-bo (李佳白) as the philanthropic branch of the Daodeshe (道德社) Society of Dao and Virtue, a syncretist Daoist school, which changed at the same... A Polish flag with the Rodło symbol A 1982 Polish postage stamp issued to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the Union of Poles in Germany showing its first two presidents, Stanisław Sierakowski and Bolesław Domański, flanking a Rodło. ... The name sauwastika is a variant of swastika. ... A solar symbol is a symbol which symbolises the sun. ... A Caddo solar cross, to Southeastern Native Americans a symbol of both the sun and fire. ... The Swastika Curve is the name given by Cundy and Rollett to the quartic plane curve with Cartesian equation and polar equation The curve looks similar to the right handed Swastika, but can be inverted with respect to a unit circle to resemble a left-handed swastika. ... The Swastika Laundry was a laundry founded in 1912, located on Shelbourne Road in the Ballsbridge section of Dublin, Ireland. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Variation of tursaansydän Tursaansydän (Finnish, literally heart of Tursas) or mursunsydän (Finnish, literally heart of walrus) is an ancient symbol used in Northern Europe. ... Postcard sent in June 1910 The swastika (gammadion, fylfot) symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "The Swastika." Northvegr Foundation. Notes on the etymology and meaning of Swastika
  2. ^ Wilson,[page # needed]
  3. ^ Schliemann, H, Troy and its remains, London: Murray, 1875, pp. 102, 119–20
  4. ^ Sarah Boxer. "One of the world's great symbols strives for a comeback". The New York Times, July 29, 2000.
  5. ^ Sagan, Carl; Ann Druyan (1985). Comet. Ballantine Books, 496. ISBN 0-345-41222-2. 
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ "Swastika Flag Specifications and Construction Sheet (Germany)". Flags of the World.
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ D'Alviella, The Migration of Symbols (1894)
  10. ^ [3]
  11. ^ "Sayagata 紗綾形". Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.
  12. ^ Robert Ferré. "Amiens Cathedral". Labyrinth Enterprises. Constructed from 1220 to 1402, Amiens Cathedral is the largest Gothic cathedral in France, a popular tourist attraction and since 1981 a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During World War I, Amiens was targeted by German forces but remained in Allied territory following the Battle of Amiens.
  13. ^ Gary Malkin. "Tockington Park Roman Villa". The Area of Bristol in Roman Times. December 9, 2002.
  14. ^ Lara Nagy, Jane Vadnal, "Glossary Medieval Art and Architecture," "Greek key or meander", University of Pittsburgh 1997–98.
  15. ^ Dunham, Dows "A Collection of 'Pot-Marks' from Kush and Nubia," Kush, 13, 131-147, 1965
  16. ^ Subhayu Banerjee. "Shubho Nabobarsho". Bengal on the Net. April 16, 2001
  17. ^ Times of India article
  18. ^ "Commemorative Coins, Mumbai Mint". India Government Mint, Mumbai.
  19. ^ "Ein Gedi: An Ancient Oasis Settlement". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. November 23, 1999.
  20. ^ Dutch article in wikipedia "Swastika";Holocaust Chronology
  21. ^ "CJK Unified Ideographs"PDF (4.83 MB), The Unicode Standard, Version 4.1. Unicode, Inc. 2005.
  22. ^ Dottie Indyke. "The History of an Ancient Human Symbol." April 4, 2005. originally from The Wingspread Collector’s Guide to Santa Fe, Taos and Albuquerque, Volume 15.
  23. ^ Photo and text,"Why is there a Swastika on the saddle in the First Nations Gallery?", Royal Saskatchewan Museum
  24. ^ Chants and Myths about Creation, from Rain forest Art. Retrieved February 25, 2006.
  25. ^ Panama - Native Peoples, from Flags of the World. Retrieved February 20, 2006.
  26. ^ The Battersea Shield British Museum
  27. ^ CISP entry
  28. ^ IMAGE In the figure in the foreground of the picture is a 20th century replica; the original carving can be seen a little farther away, at left center. [4]
  29. ^ Ilmar Talve: Suomen kansankulttuuri (1989, 1990) Online:Pieni tietosanakirja: Hakaristi
  30. ^ Left image: Bavarian, Haag museum; right image: Bronze zierscheiben, 6th to 8th century, from Fützen (Blumberg), Jadu article.
  31. ^ Margrethe, Queen, Poul Kjrum, Rikke Agnete Olsen (1990). Oldtidens Ansigt: Faces of the Past, page 148. ISBN 9788774682745
  32. ^ a b c d e H.R. Ellis Davidson (1965). Gods and Myths of Northern Europe, page 83. ISBN 978-0140136272, p. 83
  33. ^ "Chapter of Mein Kampf discussing the symbolism of the flag." April 3, 2006
  34. ^ Walther Blachetta: Das Buch der deutschen Sinnzeichen (The book of German sense characters); reprint of 1941; page 47
  35. ^ José Manuel Erbez. "Order of the New Templars 1907". Flags of the World. January 21, 2001.
  36. ^ Santiago Dotor and Norman Martin. "German Hunting Society 1934–1945 (Third Reich, Germany)" Flags of the World. March 15, 2003. The flag of the Reichsbund Deutsche Jägerschaft
  37. ^ Mark Sensen, António Martins, Norman Martin, and Ralf Stelter. "Centred vs. Offset Disc and Swastika 1933–1945 (Germany)". Flags of the World. December 29, 2004.
  38. ^ Marcus Wendel et al. "Hitler Youth (NSDAP, Germany)". Flags of the World. January 17, 2004.
  39. ^ Norman Martin et al. "War Ensign 1938–1945 (Germany)". Flags of the World. The "Reichskriegsflagge"
  40. ^ Flags at Flags of the World:
  41. ^ [5]
  42. ^ Google Earth reveals swastika water feature
  43. ^ a b Ethan McNern. Swastika ban left out of EU's racism law, The Scotsman, 30 January 2007
  44. ^ Staff. Hindus opposing EU swastika ban, BBC online, 17 January 2007
  45. ^ Staff (source dgs]/Reuters)Hindus Against Proposed EU Swastika Ban Der Spiege online, January 17, 2007
  46. ^ "Fashion firm under investigation for swastika design", European Jewish Press, October 19, 2006
  47. ^ "Prosecutors drop probe into swastika buttons", dpa Deutsche Presse-Agentur GmbH German News Service, October 19, 2006.
  48. ^ Le Journal Chrétien, "Stuttgart Seeks to Ban Anti-Fascist Symbols"
  49. ^ (German) Tageblatt September 23, 2006
  50. ^ Bundesgerichtshof, decision (Urteil) of the 15/03/2007, file reference: 3 StR 486/06
  51. ^ Bundesgerichtshof press statement No. 36/2007
  52. ^ Der Spiegel, 03/15/2007
  53. ^ IUSCOMP The Comparative Law Society
  54. ^ "USA - Coca Cola Swastika lucky watch fob"
  55. ^ Harry Kreisler. "Conversation with Stuart E. Eizenstat." Conversations with History. Institute of International Studies, UC Berkeley. April 30, 2003.
  56. ^ "Swastika film poster escapes ban." BBC News. February 21, 2002.
  57. ^ CBC News December 30, 2002: Toy pandas bearing swastikas a cultural mix-up
  58. ^ The President of Finland: Flag
  59. ^ Swastika ring at R-Kioski
  60. ^ [6]
  61. ^ [7]
  62. ^ [8]
  63. ^ ::nepalnews.com daily picture (News from Nepal as it happens)::
  64. ^ [9]
  65. ^ [10]
  66. ^ [11]
  67. ^ [12]
  68. ^ The Process of Tantra, by Acarya Pranakrsnananda Avadhuta

The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrochemist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... Screenshot of the Flags of the World website Flags of the World (or FOTW) is the Internets largest website devoted to vexillology, containing comprehensive information about all kinds of flags. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... 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References

  • Aigner, Dennis J. (2000). The Swastika Symbol in Navajo Textiles. Laguna Beach, California: DAI Press. ISBN 0-9701898-0-X.
  • Clube, V. and Napier, B. The Cosmic Serpent. Universe Books, 1982
  • Enthoven, R.E. The Folklore of Bombay. London: Oxford University Press, 1924 (pp. 40–45).
  • Gardner, N. (2006) Multiple Meanings: The Swastika Symbol. In Hidden Europe, 11, pp. 35–37. Berlin. ISSN 1860-6318.
  • Lonsdale, Steven. Animals and the Origin of Dance, Thames and Hudson Inc., NY, 1982 (pp. 169–181).
  • ManWoman. Gentle Swastika: Reclaiming the Innocence, Cranbrook, B.C., Canada: Flyfoot Press, 2001. ISBN 0-9688716-0-7
  • MacCulloch, C.J.A. Canon, John A. (Ed.) Mythology of all Races. vol. 8 ("Chinese Mythology" Ferguson, John C.) Marshall Jones Co. Boston, MA 1928 (p. 31).
  • Morphy, Howard (Ed.). Animals into Art (ONE WORLD ARCHAEOLOGY; vol. 7) Unwin Gyman Ltd., London, 1989 (chapt. 11 Schaafsma, Polly).
  • Roy, Pratap Chandra. The Mahabharata, Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi, 1973 (vol. 1 section 13–58, vol. 5 section 2–3)
  • Schliemann, Henry. Ilios Harper & Brothers, Franklin Square, NY, 1881 (pp. 334–353).
  • Tan Huay Peng. (1980–1983). Fun with Chinese Characters. Singapore: Federal Publications. ISBN 981-01-3005-8.
  • Whipple, Fred L. The Mystery of Comets Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, DC 1985, (pp. 163–167).
  • Wilson, Thomas (Curator, Department of Prehistoric Anthropology, U.S. National Museum) (1896). The Swastika: The Earliest Known Symbol, and Its Migrations; with Observations on the Migration of Certain Industries in Prehistoric Times. In Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution
  • Norman Martin et al. "Standard of the Leader and National Chancellor 1935–1945". April 9, 2004. Hitler's personal flag;
  • Marcus Wendel, Jaume Ollé, et al. "Schutzstaffel/SS" December 14, 2001;
  • Jaume Ollé, Željko Heimer, and Norman Martin. "State Flag and Ensign 1935–1945" December 29, 2004. The "Reichsdienstflagge"
  • "A critical update to remove unacceptable symbols from the Bookshelf Symbol 7 font". Microsoft Knowledge Base Article 833407. November 8, 2004
  • "Clarence House issues apology for Prince Harry's Nazi costume". BBC News. January 13, 2005.

For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Swastikas
general
  • History of the Swastika (US Holocaust Memorial Museum)
  • The History of the Swastika (About.com)
  • The Origins of the Swastika BBC News
  • Good overview of the Swastika ProSwastika
  • Sites presenting versions of Wilson's The Swastika
    • The Swastika
    • The Swastika (a scan of the original publication)
    • The Swastika, the Earliest Known Symbol (DjVu) and layered PDFPDF (16.2 MB) (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries)
Dharmic religions
  • "The Swastika", Lawrence Waldron, Chan Magazine, Summer 2000.
  • Swastikam - Symbol of Auspiciousness (chapter 7 of Vishayasuchi by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami)
  • Hindus opposing EU swastika ban (BBC)
  • swastika-info.com.
early Western use
  • Windsor's "Swastikas" Hockey Teams 1905–1916
  • Finnish uses of the swastika
  • [14] US Army Air Corp (USAAC) Boeing P-12C with 55th Pursuit Squadrons swastika-insignia in 1930s. The USAAC became the United States Air Force in 1941.
Nazi use
  • Documentary about the use of the swastike in the Third Reich
  • The Swastika and the Nazis by Servando González
  • From Flags of the World:
    • Origins of the Swastika Flag (Third Reich, Germany) (collection of links and comments)
    • Neonazi flags (links to other FOTW pages)
miscellaneous
  • Comets and the Bronze Age Collapse by Bob Kobres
  • Swastika Gallery
  • The Swastika Stone on Ilkley Moor in England
  • Reclaim the Swastika
  • Navy to mask Coronado's swastika-shaped barracks

Swastika2. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... DjVu (pronounced déjà vu) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned images, especially those containing text and line drawings. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... 1. ... Boeing F4B of VF-5 squadron (Navy version of P-12). ... USAF redirects here. ... Screenshot of the Flags of the World website Flags of the World (or FOTW) is the Internets largest website devoted to vexillology, containing comprehensive information about all kinds of flags. ... Ilkley Moor is a part of Rombalds Moor, the moorland between Ilkley and Keighley in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom. ...


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