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Encyclopedia > Swarm intelligence
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Swarm intelligence (SI) is an artificial intelligence technique based around the study of collective behavior in decentralized, self-organized systems. The expression "swarm intelligence" was introduced by Beni & Wang in 1989, in the context of cellular robotic systems. Image File history File links Portal. ... Garry Kasparov playing against Deep Blue, the first machine to win a chess game against a reigning world champion. ... The term collective behavior was first used by Robert E. Park, and employed definitively by Herbert Blumer, to refer to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws, conventions, and institutions), but which emerge in a spontaneous way. ... // Le de décentralisation de de est le processus de la dispersion prise de décision plus près du point de service ou action. ... Self-organization is a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, improves automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ... A cellular automaton (plural: cellular automata) is a discrete model studied in computability theory, mathematics, and theoretical biology. ...


SI systems are typically made up of a population of simple agents interacting locally with one another and with their environment. Although there is normally no centralized control structure dictating how individual agents should behave, local interactions between such agents often lead to the emergence of global behavior. Examples of systems like this can be found in nature, including ant colonies, bird flocking, animal herding, bacterial growth, and fish schooling. Simple reflex agent Learning agent The terms agent and intelligent agent are ambiguous and have been used in two different, but related senses, which are often confused. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... Ant colony in Pirin mountain An ant colony is an underground lair where ants live. ... Flocking is a common demonstration of emergence and emergent behaviour, invented in 1987 by Craig Reynolds with his simulation program, Boids. ... A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... School of juvenile herring - many fish have the opercula wide open for ram feeding and you can see the red gills The term swarm (schooling or swarming) is applied to fish, birds and insects and describes a behavior of an aggregation (school) of animals of similar size and body orientation...


The application of swarm principles to large numbers of robots is called swarm robotics. ASIMO, a humanoid robot manufactured by Honda. ... Swarm robotics is a new approach to the coordination of multirobot systems which consist of large numbers of relatively simple physical robots. ...

Contents

Example Algorithms

Ant colony optimization

Ant colony optimization or ACO is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm that can be used to find approximate solutions to difficult combinatorial optimization problems. In ACO artificial ants build solutions by moving on the problem graph and they, mimicking real ants, deposit artificial pheromone on the graph in such a way that future artificial ants can build better solutions. ACO has been successfully applied to an impressive number of optimization problems. The ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO), introduced by Marco Dorigo [Dor92,DoSt04], is a probabilistic technique for solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding good paths through graphs. ... A metaheuristic is a heuristic method for solving a very general class of computational problems by combining user given black-box procedures — usually heuristics themselves — in a hopefully efficient way. ... In computing, optimization is the process of modifying a system to make some aspect of it work more efficiently or use fewer resources. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ...


Particle swarm optimization

Particle swarm optimization or PSO is a global optimization algorithm for dealing with problems in which a best solution can be represented as a point or surface in an n-dimensional space. Hypotheses are plotted in this space and seeded with an initial velocity, as well as a communication channel between the particles. Particles then move through the solution space, and are evaluated according to some fitness criterion after each timestep. Over time, particles are accelerated towards those particles within their communication grouping which have better fitness values. The main advantage of such an approach over other global minimization strategies such as simulated annealing is that the large number of members that make up the particle swarm make the technique impressively resilient to the problem of local minima. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a stochastic, population-based computer problem-solving algorithm; it is a kind of swarm intelligence that is based on social-psychological principles and provides insights into social behavior, as well as contributing to engineering applications. ... In physics, velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement or the rate of displacement. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... Simulated annealing (SA) is a generic probabilistic meta-algorithm for the global optimization problem, namely locating a good approximation to the global optimum of a given function in a large search space. ... A graph illustrating local min/max and global min/max points In mathematics, a point x* is a local maximum of a function f if there exists some &#949; > 0 such that f(x*) &#8805; f(x) for all x with |x-x*| < &#949;. Stated less formally, a local maximum...


Stochastic diffusion search

Stochastic Diffusion Search or SDS is an agent based probabilistic global search and optimization technique best suited to problems where the objective function can be decomposed into multiple independent partial-functions. Each agent maintains a hypothesis which is iteratively tested by evaluating a randomly selected partial objective function parameterised by the agent's current hypothesis. In the standard version of SDS such partial function evaluations are binary resulting in each agent becoming active or inactive. Information on hypotheses is diffused across the population via inter-agent communication. Unlike the stigmergic communication used in ACO, in SDS agents communicate hypotheses via a one-to-one communication strategy analogous to the tandem running procedure observed in some species of ant. A positive feedback mechanism ensures that, over time, a population of agents stabilise around the global-best solution. SDS is both an efficient and robust search and optimisation algorithm, which has been extensively mathematically described. Stochastic Diffusion Search (SDS), was first described in 1989 as a population-based, pattern-matching algorithm [Bishop, 1989]. It belongs to a family of Swarm Intelligence and naturally inspired search and optimisation algorithms which includes Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithms. ... Stigmergy is a method of communication in decentralised systems in which the individual parts of the system communicate with one another by modifying their local environment. ...


Applications

Swarm Intelligence-based techniques can be used in a number of applications. The U.S. military is investigating swarm techniques for controlling unmanned vehicles. ESA is thinking about orbital swarm for self assembly and interferometry. NASA is investigating the use of swarm technology for planetary mapping. A 1992 paper by M. Anthony Lewis and George A. Bekey discusses the possibility of using swarm intelligence to control nanobots within the body for the purpose of killing cancer tumors. Artists are using swarm technology as a means of creating complex interactive systems or simulating crowds. Tim Burton's Batman Returns was the first movie to make use of swarm technology for rendering, realistically depicting the movements of a group of penguins using the Boids system. The Lord of the Rings film trilogy made use of similar technology, known as Massive, during battle scenes. Swarm technology is particularly attractive because it is cheap, robust, and simple. M. Anthony Lewis, Ph. ... Batman Returns is a 1992 motion picture based on the Batman character created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger. ... Boids, developed by Craig Reynolds in 1986, is an artificial life program, simulating the flocking behaviour of birds. ... The Lord of the Rings film trilogy comprises three live action fantasy epic films; The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002) and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). ... The Massive user interface A battle simulated using Massive Massive (Multiple Agent Simulation System in Virtual Environment) is a high-end computer animation and artificial intelligence software package used for generating crowd-related visual effects for film and television. ...


The inherent intelligence of swarms has inspired many social and political philosophers, in that the collective movements of an aggregate often derive from independent decision making on part of a single individual. A common example is how the unaided decision of a person in a crowd to start clapping will often encourage others to follow suit, culminating in widespread applause. Such knowledge, an individualist advocate might argue, should encourage individual decision making (however mundane) as an effective tool in bringing about widespread social change.


References in popular culture

Swarm Intelligence-related concepts and references can be found throughout popular culture:

  • The Invincible, by Stanislaw Lem A rescue mission to a distant planet encounters a mysterious and dangerous colony of evolved, insectlike machines.
  • Prey, by Michael Crichton deals with the danger of intelligent nano-robots escaping from human control and becoming dangerous.
  • Wyrm, a novel by Mark Fabi deals with a virus developing emergent intelligence on the Internet
  • Jason X, a movie in the Friday the 13th series, had a swarm of nanobots repair Jason's damaged body.
  • Hacker and the ants, a book by Rudy Rucker on AI ants within a virtual environment
  • The Swarm, a novel by Frank Schaetzing about an ocean organism that has developed swarm intelligence and begins to eradicate humanity the same way humans are eradicating the oceans.
  • Ygramul, the Many -- she is an intelligent being consisting of a swarm of many wasp-like insects, a character in the novel The Neverending Story written by Michael Ende. Ygramul is also mentioned in a scientific paper Flocks, Herds, and Schools written by Knut Hartmann (Computer Graphics and Interactive Systems * Otto-von-Guericke-University of Magdeburg).
  • Allucination, a novel by Isaac Asimov about an alien insect-like swarm, capable of organization and provided with a sort of swarm intelligence.
  • In Olaf Stapledons 1931 science fiction novel Last and First Men there is an episode in which Earth is invaded by a swarm intelligence from Mars of tiny individual cells that communicate with each other by radio waves and that look like green fog.

The Invincible is a science fiction novel written by Stanis&#322;aw Lem and published in Polish in 1964. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Prey is a techno-thriller novel by Michael Crichton first published in hardback edition in November 2002 and as a paperback edition in November 2003 by Harper Collins. ... Michael Crichton, pronounced [1], (born October 23, 1942) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... Jason X is a 2002 science fiction and slasher film, the tenth in the Friday the 13th film series, starring Kane Hodder as the mass murderer Jason Voorhees. ... Friday the 13th is a 1980 independent slasher film directed by Sean S. Cunningham and written by Victor Miller. ... Rudy Rucker, Fall 2004, photo by Georgia Rucker. ... The Swarm (2004) is a fictional novel by Frank Schätzing. ... Ygramul, the Many is a fictional villainous character from Michael Endes The Neverending Story. ... The Neverending Story (German: ) is a fantasy novel by Michael Ende, first published in Germany in 1979. ... Michael Andreas Helmuth Ende (November 12, 1929 - August 29, 1995) Ende was one of the most popular and famous German authors of the 20th century, mostly due to the enormous success of his childrens books. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... William Olaf Stapledon (May 10, 1886 – September 6, 1950) was a British philosopher and author of several influential works of science fiction. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Last and First Men: A Story of the Near and Far Future is a science fiction novel written in 1930 by the British author Olaf Stapledon. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Radio waves are electromagnetic waves occurring on the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Leafy green fountain in Wattens, Austria. ...

Researchers

  • Marco Mamei
  • Robert J. Marks II
  • Alcherio Martinoli
  • Rui Mendes
  • Ronaldo Menezes
  • Rajani Muraleedharan
  • Slawek Nasuto
  • Julien Nembrini
  • Michael O'Neill
  • Konstantinos E. Parsopoulos
  • Van Parunak
  • Abbas Pirnia
  • Vitorino Ramos
  • Craig Reynolds
  • Ken Rinaldo
  • Yuhui Shi
  • Shamoon Siddiqui
  • Dario Izzo
  • Jagatpreet Singh
  • Juan Solis
  • Thomas Stützle
  • Guy Theraulaz
  • Robert Tolksdorf
  • Michael N. Vrahatis
  • Alan F.T. Winfield
  • Franco Zambonelli
  • Kalyan Veeramachaneni

Carl Anderson (February 27, 1945 - February 23, 2004) was a singer and actor best known for portrayal of Judas Iscariot in the rock opera by Andrew Lloyd-Webber, Jesus Christ Superstar. ... Marco Dorigo is a research director for the Belgian Funds for Scientific Research (FNRS), and a co-director of IRIDIA, the artificial intelligence lab of the Université Libre de Bruxelles. ... Luca Maria Gambardella (born 4 January 1962) has been co-director of the Swiss AI lab IDSIA since 1995. ... Paul Kantor is one of the leading violin pedagogues in the United States today. ... James Kennedy is a social psychologist, b. ... ONeill received a doctorate in education from Harvard University in 1967. ... Craig Reynolds, an A-life and computer graphics expert, created the Boids artificial life simulation in 1986. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

See also

It has been suggested that symbiotic intelligence be merged into this article or section. ... A cellular automaton (plural: cellular automata) is a discrete model studied in computability theory, mathematics, and theoretical biology. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... In computer science evolutionary computation is a subfield of artificial intelligence (more particularly computational intelligence) involving combinatorial optimization problems. ... Differential Evolution (DE) grew out of Kenneth Prices attempts to solve the Chebyshev polynomial fitting problem that had been posed to him by Rainer Storn. ... The ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO), introduced by Marco Dorigo [Dor92,DoSt04], is a probabilistic technique for solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding good paths through graphs. ... Flocking is a common demonstration of emergence and emergent behaviour, invented in 1987 by Craig Reynolds with his simulation program, Boids. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of philosophies and attitudes which reject any form of compulsory government[1] and support its elimination,[2] often because of a wider rejection of involuntary authority. ...

References

  • Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems by Eric Bonabeau, Marco Dorigo and Guy Theraulaz. (1999) ISBN 0-19-513159-2
  • Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams: Explorations in Massively Parallel Microworlds by Mitchel Resnick. ISBN 0-262-18162-2
  • Swarm Intelligence by James Kennedy and Russell C. Eberhart. ISBN 1-55860-595-9
  • The Behavioral Self-Organization of Nanorobots Using Local Rules. by Lewis, M. Anthony, and Bekey, George A. (1992) Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems.
  • Fundamentals of Computational Swarm Intelligence by Andries Engelbrecht. Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-470-09191-6
  • Recent Approaches to Global Optimization Problems Through Particle Swarm Optimization", by Parsopoulos, K.E., Vrahatis, M.N., Natural Computing, 1 (2-3), pp. 235-306, 2002.
  • Ant Colony Optimization by Marco Dorigo and Thomas Stützle, MIT Press, 2004. ISBN 0-262-04219-3
  • Particle Swarm Optimization by Maurice Clerc, ISTE, ISBN 1-905209-04-5, 2006.
  • Nanocomputers and Swarm Intelligence by Jean-Baptiste waldner, ISTE, ISBN 9781847040022, 2007.
  • Miller, Peter (July 2007), "Swarm Theory", National Geographic Magazine

The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. ...

External links

MATLAB is a numerical computing environment and programming language. ... The Springer-Verlag (pronounced SHPRING er FAIR lahk) was a worldwide publishing company base in Germany. ...

Swarm simulation links

  • Boids - a flocking simulation produced by Craig Reynolds
  • Kafka 2 Red Ant - Emergent and highly adaptive patterns using Artificial Ant Colonies over Digital Image Habitats, produced by Vitorino Ramos
  • Flocking Simulator - A flocking behavior simulator in Java. Run online or free download. Includes multiple flocks, predators, and food.
  • Swarm - a generic swarm simulation package
  • ArtsBot - the Artistic Swarm Robots project, and two related works: On the Implicit and on the Artificial as well his Swarm Paintings.
  • Swarmtech - a commercial mass audience interaction technology for real-time interaction (such as playing computer games, polling) with large groups

Boids, developed by Craig Reynolds in 1986, is an artificial life program, simulating the flocking behaviour of birds. ... Craig Reynolds, an A-life and computer graphics expert, created the Boids artificial life simulation in 1986. ...

Tools for Studying Swarm Intelligence

  • Swistrack - A Tracking Tool for Multi-Unit Biological and Artificial Systems
  • AgentSheets - A visual programming authoring and visualization tool to build swams based on Antiobjects

  Results from FactBites:
 
Science Fair Projects - Swarm intelligence (609 words)
Swarm intelligence (SI) is an artificial intelligence technique based around the study of collective behaviour in decentralised, self-organised, systems.
The expression "swarm intelligence" was introduced by Beni and Wang in 1989, in the context of cellular robotic systems (see also cellular automata).
Swarm robotics is the application of swarm intelligence principles to large numbers of cheap robots.
Swarm intelligence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (899 words)
Swarm intelligence (SI) is an artificial intelligence technique based around the study of collective behavior in decentralized, self-organized systems.
The expression "swarm intelligence" was introduced by Beni and Wang in 1989, in the context of cellular robotic systems.
Anthony Lewis and George A. Bekey discusses the possibility of using swarm intelligence to control nanobots within the body for the purpose of killing cancer tumors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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